Write my essay for me no plagiarism transparent

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I have been told that I should go straight to the destination, to the final point; follow the thread of a thought without deviating or stopping to see the landscape. I have seen many people who follow these rules and always go from start to finish in a thread of implacable logic. In that the essay and the story are not so different. Because when you want to say something you have to say it, and better if you say it with the least number of words, or without words, that I've also seen people do that. As I said you have to paint the tracks. It's time to present the itinerary; in this case Arreola raises a stranger who wants to board a train because he needs to get to the city of T. the next day. The stranger arrives at the platforms "at the exact time when the train should leave". So far we have a character who wants something but faces an obstacle to achieve it, the requirements of the genre: character and conflict. It is clear why, in his time, Arreola was so criticized: how does it occur to him to move away if he wants a step of manners and cuentiles formulas! It would almost seem that Arreola plays with his readers. Perhaps Arreola's Bestiary should already warn us about the kind of writer we are dealing with here. In short, Arreola, when writing, rambles. It is lost, the subject is left as the child who gets bored in the middle of the game and changes the rules. This, most of the time, Arreola respects him, although with his disinterest in the ways -proved and reproved- we should not be surprised if he changes from one topic to another. The story becomes almost a rehearsed essay. The fencer tells the stranger all these events, inserts a story within the story, or rather multiple stories that relate to the trains and railway wonders of the country. Thus, the train tracks, in their immobility, act as fertile ground in which the story unfolds. Each small section in The Fair serves as an excerpt from the novel of customs, a unit in itself and, at the same time, part of a more complex structure. In the same way, each of the stories told by the guardsman is sustained as an individual story and an irreplaceable part of the story. We do not speak here of impossible events, but of issues that operate under an internal logic, implausible, impractical. Unlike the protagonists of Kafka or Cortázar, the stranger-the reader's reflection-initially questions the reality of the switchman's stories. Even so, little by little he would also seem to understand that the rules in this place are not the same as in his country of origin and his surprise transforms into acceptance. The idea that the story, and the general literature of Arreola, introduces magical realism in Mexico seems wrong to me, an attempt to reduce what is unknown by uniting it with well-grounded genres in literature. The absurd, together with the sensation of estrangement that it awakens, serves here as a method to critically criticize the reality of both the country and the Mexican. But let's go back to «The switchman». We have reached the last stop; prepare for the descent. The question remains unanswered, devoured by a distant whistle that announces the fortune of the stranger: a train is approaching that will take it to its destiny. When the switchman asks him once more about the name of the station, the stranger answers with excitement: «X!». But, yes, he had said many times that T.! The interpretations open to each other; in the anecdotes a number of readings, sometimes only suggested, intersect. Thus, while the old man disappears, while the stranger waits for the train, Arreola puts an end to the story when it is just beginning. The open ending, which most of the time does not allow to guess the conclusions, is a hallmark of this author who made his own life a literary work. Every end point opens a new story. The real words and the articulated ones have, in general, the same value. The prologueists say: "The only way this work can be classified is only as a book of narrations, and its unity lies in the artistic work of writing." Despite what has been said about the heterogeneity of this book, I think we can find another element of unity, in addition to that provided by the prologue. This unit is included in the title of the book: Far fear and other phobias. The author, as other writers have done, could well call The Far Fear and Other Stories. But he does not, he does not write "Far fear and other stories", but Far fear and other phobias. To the holder of this way his book, Rosado implicitly confers us a reading guide. He is telling us that "Far fear" is a phobia and that the other stories included in the book can be read as representations of phobias. The historical setting of the story is, of course, the tragic earthquake of that day and that reminds us also of the earthquake that occurred in our country on September 19, 2017. However, the adventure through which the character will cross is distant of the solidarity that was felt by the population in both earthquakes. What Enrique finds is human misery. A girl under the age of twelve will be your guide in this journey. But the girl is far from innocence. Neither your nerves nor your new fear subside. Only fear, already distant, to loneliness. Far fear, the phobia of loneliness, led Enrique to know human misery. The book begins with a story that the author calls "opaque lights." In this oxymoron there is a new phobia: the human phobia of darkness and the unknown. The characters of this story return, we do not know where, by a narrow and infinite road. In the middle of the road they stop because Elisa urgently needs to stop to go to the bathroom. As he does not return, the other women who go in the car go out to look for her. In this way, they will be led by Elisa, when they find her, through a dark forest towards the unknown. The wind blew insistently. Elisa turned her head: there was no brightness in her eyes. With a cadaverous smile and an increasingly pallid face, he began to penetrate the thickness of what looked like an immense forest. The already little clarity of the sky was lost to the extent that we went into the uncertainty of the vegetation. We were just sure that following Elisa was the only way. From story to story, from phobia to phobia, the narrative world of this book evolves from opaque light to total blindness. In "The dog snot," the people close their eyes, accept the foolishness of the royal couple and form with the tailors to pay for an invisible dress like the one worn by kings. Unfortunately, the foolishness has reached us all, Rosado seems to tell us with his ending: "And this little story is told and recounted and never ending". And it is this end that somehow also takes us back to the beginning of this work: "And this story is told and retells of never ending" transcends time and the story itself. Each of the stories could be counted again as a reflection of the reality, ancient and modern, of the human being, although the stories are immersed in the realm of fiction and in a particular internal time. Simply, each one of us would take many pages to comment on everything in the book. I stay with the reading of phobias, especially because Rosado himself I have heard him say so many times that one does not draw their demons in literature, but in it creates more demons. Says Tuscany: I am surprised that readers of masterpieces know how to understand literary characters only in the pages of books and become ordinary minds and judgments when looking at what they call "real life". If a reader does not learn anything about human passions when he reads Chekhov and he hardly seems like a funny storyteller, tons, why do you read? If a reader does not know how to undertake any Quixotic adventure or at least respect who does it, tons why? That is to say: is there the possibility that all of us here assembled orbiting around a center or nucleus from which we find ourselves or move away indefinitely? Let's grant the above and now imagine that our orbits are shooting into an uncertain future. End of the first display of the imagination. This struggle culminates in a zacapela between the professor of ethics and the fat vice-rector of the university. In this case, the imaginary existential orbits that would revolve around the author explode with the contact of an other totally alien and contrary to the self. That's where I come from, and that's why in this presentation of Far Fear they hear me talking like that, overflowing and stimulated by the stories. Allow me, please, to present to you that first text that I wrote for this occasion. And it is that, although he does not know it - at least not explicitly - his literary desires are for me "mandates". I inform and clarify: of the generosity with which he has always considered my work, my ideas, my prose. Perhaps that is why he became interested in a study on narcocorrido and reviewed, also, a novel that dares to include the word buttocks in its title. I'll put you in a dumpster until someone arrives and picks you up to incinerate you with the rest of the shit. " Regarding the story that gives title to the book, "Far fear", gives us the story of a 21-year-old man destroyed by a love break. After a sleepless night, he decides to take a walk at six in the morning from "an ordinary September 19", only to end up involved in a story of prostitutes and policemen, robbery and extortion. In fact it is, although only for those anodyne readers who seek repetition ad nauseam of the canon. I do not judge the creators of these farces, who could elaborate other works that were art. The serious thing is that the producers of the mentioned works wanted to convince the spectators - through the persuasive argument - that what they did was art. So, for them, those works are "art" only because they are sustained in a justificatory discourse. But that is the heart of the matter: if these works are only understood and justified thanks to a written discourse, aesthetically they are not enough for themselves. Similarly, art could be the key to the hot water of a sink if we pass it as such through a justificatory speech. This is a very suitable place for the pseudoart. There is an aesthetic impact independent of any extra-artistic justificatory discourse, whether we like his works or not. Putting an embryo in a bottle of formaldehyde on a wooden table, next to a plastic doll painted and pierced by nails is a simple presentation, as it could be the red note of a yellowish newspaper. But to add to that piece a pseudo-philosophical discourse that justifies it as "art" is to justify mediocrity, the emptiness of the "artist", the absence of language. It would be better if these "artists" got into philosophers instead of wasting paper or canvas. In a Central American country-I do not remember which one-one of those pseudo-artists was awarded. His "work of art" consisted of a photographic sequence that showed us the process of agony, the gradual and growing suffering, and finally the death of a dog by starvation. For me, art does not have to be moral or moralistic, even if it is one of its many possibilities. I clarify then that my position is not moralistic. What happens is that this photographic sequence or film is not art and did not have to be awarded as such. It may be useful for a biology book or to teach a veterinary student what canine starvation is, but art is not, even art of denunciation. Art, including great literature, is primarily representation with a Initial function of aesthetic character. But to pretend that a pseudo-philosophical discourse is what gives the category of art to a work is pure ingenuity or pretensions to persuade to deceive. In any case, they had their assumptions well assimilated and if they came to write notes about their own works, they are not indispensable to approach, feel and enjoy the work. Moreover, we can disagree with these notes or interpretations. The authentic work is located beyond. In this definition, I highlight the prefixes ex and re. Art is unique and irreplaceable; it can be reproduced through industry, but the original work is unrepeatable. Perhaps art had an original intention, but at the time of being perceived by the viewer or reader, it caught another. Instead, making crafts is to take a model or a predetermined design and reproduce or imitate it many times, each with few variants. There is talk of the telenovela industry, although there may be artistic soap operas, like some of those produced by Spanish TV. It also becomes industrial what is sold a lot, be it art or crafts. Returning to the theme of art, as well as craftsmanship can take from it some reasons, art also has the possibility of appropriating a motif or theme craft or folk. Through the work of the form, that motive becomes art. In this case, we talk about influence, but there may be the possibility that the artist has not known directly the model with which his creation is associated. Maybe he met him through another artist or an interpreter, or maybe he came to him by himself. In this case, we talk about coincidences, similar ways of perceiving the world, of related feelings. I think it is preferable to talk about contextuality to group similar works, even if the artists have never met or had no contact with the works of the other nor received direct influence. The previous reflections do not intend to exemplify with concrete cases, because it would occupy a lot of space. The evocation of telenovelas, singers or some composers of musical nationalism was necessary to clarify certain passages, but the objective here is only to abstract, synthesize. The examples can arise from each of the proposed cases. If any example does not fit the cases described, I venture to say that it does not belong to any of the three categories or phenomena described. In many occasions, an exhibitionist desire underlies. I will refer to one in particular, because of its relative and suspicious "prestige". Although he has interesting works in his first stage, Andy Warhol soon realized his inconstancy and inability to evolve in a line of creative truth, that is, to adapt in truth to art and not to the sole theoretical intentions. Even so, some of these "avant-garde artists" - among them, Dalí - lived on, overcame their childish desire to scandalize the bourgeois. But there is a contradiction: this group has the stamp of individuality of style, although its resources have been poorer than those of Zappa. However, American pop art appropriates popular figures or elements to remove all traces of individuality or subjectivism in the canvas. Pop art wants a closeness to the mass of the image already established by marketing and advertising. This overcrowding leads us to the anonymous. We were already surrounded by these images and there is no treatment in the mentioned versions worthy of being considered artistic. But... That's right: despite transporting the viewers to the anonymity of the images, all those pop "artists" signed their works. The exhibitionism is superimposed. Compare those charlatans with great creators like Dalí himself or with the aforementioned Bacon. In short, we return to the dilemma between representing and presenting; between the personal seal - even if the work is by an unknown author - and plagiarism, the paraphrase or the pastiche decontextualized. There is a dark area in the middle of these phenomena: an area that should be further investigated. In the cinema of Krzysztof Kieslowski, fate plays a very important role, as do the effects of decisions made, coincidences and chance. After all, what is a filmmaker but a kind of god that governs the destinies of his characters? When fate plays the joke of presenting the woman who could have been for him if forty years had not prevented him, why not flip the play to get a second chance? According to the director of Rojo, the theme of the film is "what would happen if...?" To continue with the journey through the symbols that make Rojo the best-achieved film of the Three Colors trilogy, it is essential to talk about communication. If we consider the concept of "fraternity" as closeness to the other, we will understand better the concern of Kieslowski for reflecting on human communication in the contemporary world. Another symbol that I do not want to mention is the one that links the three films: the figure of the old woman who tries to put a bottle in a recycling container, but does not reach it. The 26 volumes of his complete works are testimony of a writer who gave unprecedented dimensions, hitherto unsuspected, to the letters of Mexico. While Reyes was never interested in Altamirano, in both the idea is married to the form, and his passion for books extended to all Western culture and was combined with the sustained passion to write. The night awaits me, and is restless. " In 1907, at 18 years old, his path was laid out. The "Alocución", which is his first prose text, was pronounced before the preparatoria and the owners of an eminently positivist institution, which emphasized the exact sciences. It is a reflexive discourse in which the author makes an apology for laughter by laughing at the "scientists" of positivism: "And I, with the forgiveness of serious people who would like to reduce behavior to algebraic formulas, I believe that youth need to laugh. As a child, Don Alfonso knew how to deal with the idea of ​​losing his father, but the tragedy was not his death itself - the memory remains while there is absence - but the way he died. It was not a biological outcome - that is accepted and now - but an accident that gave his death an "air of cosmogonic rudeness". Perhaps in self-defense, Reyes wanted to ignore everything, to flee even from those who were told eyewitnesses to the death of the general, as he clarifies in his emotional and posthumous prayer of February 9. Undoubtedly, the loss of the father was decisive in his temperament and in his work. I think that this phrase is enough to make us appear or to give us a vague idea of ​​the intense pain of the young writer with the loss. In both authors-in Poe and in Reyes-there is a before and after the death of the protective figure. In Reyes, the later will also mark his vision of Mexico and of politics in general. It's something I do not understand very well. The work of Reyes, despite his great erudition, is full of deliberate silences about Mexican politics. But what is the origin of the concern for Reyes in Adolfo? Castañón focused on Reyes and such is the origin of a concern that would lead to a large number of articles, essays and books about this boundless continent. But the most ambitious project was to gather, if not all, at least the most significant texts where the writer from Monterrey took care of Mexico. Let us add that as early as 1932, the reproach was unwarranted, undeserved. Despite feeling exiled in his own land, Reyes never stopped penetrating her. It is unnecessary to deem that such comments are not only from the editor and successive editors of Reyes, but also from the same author of cruel Ifigenia, which makes the work an intense and fruitful dialogue. It is about 235 texts and more than three thousand notes. I met Adolfo when in 1997 he bet on my essay project so that I would be granted a Fonca scholarship. I insisted many times that for the second edition an onomastic index had to be elaborated. I answered immediately: Alfonso Reyes. In effect, thousands and thousands of pages were written by this author and many still remain to be disseminated. The learning never ends and much more could be said about Vision of Mexico, work-spring directed to form and not to inform. Much more could also be said about the final study of Castañón, about the appendices and the thousands of notes, but this is a simple and modest comment that demands to come to an end. It would be impossible to refer to all the companies and educational institutions or to disseminate the culture that created the Spanish exile. For that reason I will only remember those who have a marked literary accent, although this has not been their only accent. Cosío believed that the military would eventually triumph and proposed a humanitarian and disinterested plan: invite five or ten of the most eminent Spaniards whose life in Spain would be impossible for many years if they lost the Republic. These incipient initiatives, these first steps of the Mexican journalist and lawyer will obtain juicy fruits, fruits without precedents, that will enrich more the already rich tree of the Mexican culture. Cosío, then, insisted that the Mexican government should welcome some of the most prestigious men in Spain to attend the University to give courses and lectures. The institution, in turn, awarded scholarships to Mexican students. The exchange, the communication, the "miscegenation" of intellects from both nations thus led to the emergence of new values. The joint work of Mexicans and Spaniards already before the start of the war is a fact that should be underlined. The first conference, offered on June 22, was by Reyes. The idea was that the new institution would not be dedicated to preparing the masses, but the intellectual elite of Mexico. That was the reason why it was decided to restrict it to the field of the humanities. He also had to change his name to one that indicated that now it was a purely Mexican institution, at the service of national interests. The purpose of these Spaniards when creating the magazine and the Ateneo was to foster a spirit of global openness. It was intended to imitate and emulate the Ateneo de Madrid. Francisco Giner de los Ríos served as librarian. I quote a fragment of the original purposes: "Defend the tradition of Spanish culture, divulging it and revealing its true significance." To tighten the bonds between the exiled Spaniards, as well as to defend the Republic and to fight the Francoism were always pruritos of the Athenian. During all the years that it has been running, this center has also been in charge of spreading culture and art through courses and other activities. In the magazines of the moment, the exiles collaborated - often on request - with the Mexicans. The magazine was opened to Spanish immigrants who, according to Rafael Solana, "invaded and displaced Mexican writers from their pages." For him, Taller stopped being what he intended at first and became "a Spanish magazine published in Mexico." In number five a note appears warning that the Editorial Board has been enriched with Spanish names and the fact is justified with the argument that this attitude is part of the fidelity to the culture and, especially, to the living cause of the Hispanic heritage. Little by little the exiles were incorporated into Mexican life and to participate in it not only with collaborations in magazines, but also in education and in the diffusion of culture, by creating schools, publishing houses and bookstores. Mexico owes projects that influenced our education for more than four decades. In Spain, his work as a cultural diffuser was already famous. Shortly before arriving in Mexico, the editor and printer had been in a concentration camp in France. On October 15, 1940, he became a Mexican citizen. Upon his arrival, he meets with intellectuals, businessmen and politicians with the idea of ​​creating a book distributor and thus continue with his work of literary dissemination. Of these publications, the most important was Romance, so it deserves a separate place. Here is the distinctive note of this publication: «to collect in its pages the most significant expressions -for the quality of its thought and sensitivity- of the Hispanic-American cultural movement». Hence the name of the organ: Spanish as one of the most spoken and literaryly most prestigious Romance languages ​​in the world. It is the language and tradition that unites us with Spain and the rest of Latin America, and the exiles never lost sight of the above. Romance was one of the first mid-century magazines in Mexico that had correspondents in Europe. Its pages recorded cultural and artistic events in Paris, Madrid and other cities. It was common to find in its pages conferences organized by some cultural institutions of the Spanish exile, as well as reviews of their activities. This happened in 1941, the year of the death of Romance. In 1939 he had already created his first bookstore: Librería Juárez, located in the center of the city. This bookstore had speakers that brought the music to the gardens of the Alameda and its surroundings. On the upper floor of the southern section, a painting exhibition room was installed, where lectures were offered. More than a simple bookstore, it was a small cultural center. It opened seven days a week, from eight in the morning until the early hours of the morning. The seller, the clerk, the intermediary were suppressed, and people chose the book for the first time and went to the cashier to pay for it. In this decade and the next, new bookstores were founded, taking into account the most important cinemas of the Mexican middle class. In 1964, Emmanuel Carballo was appointed advisor to this editor. Among the most important contributions of this company is the fact that it has made known in Spanish part of the work of Marx and Engels. Local event that should be memorable, bringing the memory to whoever designs these pages of the fire of the Library of Alexandria ». In 1975, when the bookstore had 18 branches in the capital and eleven in the province, the Spanish publisher retired. Guzmán died a year later and Giménez sold the bookstores, which today have nothing to do with the previous ones. Again, a miscegenation of intellects. Finally, and at the risk of being unfair to other cultural companies in Spanish exile, I consider it appropriate to emphasize what a new space meant for the exiles. It meant a different environment, but also a new time and a new way of understanding time. Soon a new generation of refugees or children of refugees appears in the culture of the New World. Through its literature and its cultural enterprises, the Spanish exile has made us understand Mexicans more about the origin and the tradition that, despite who it may be, truly unites us. This deep understanding of the historical and cultural processes between both sides of the ocean allowed us to open ourselves to new currents of universal thought. The city is concrete as an old iron city, according to the melancholic stanza of Rockdrigo. The city is steel, blood and fury, according to Efraín Huerta. The city has given to talk about in the pages of many and has even spoken in the pages of others. In short: the list can be extended according to the spirit and the reading furor of the person who refers. An unshakable rock that tolerates everything. All the silts can grow on that rock. In that order, Mexico City changes and not: it is a cosmopolitan metropolis that receives the small European aristocracy and adventurers from different parts of the world, but is as provincial as the Indians and peasants who come to inhabit their suburbs. By the same token, the city does not lose its mythical essence of being the "navel of the moon": the cosmic center that contains in its interior all of Mexico and its history. With that confessional and reverent tone Vargas Llosa concludes, endorsing the perception that I held during his reading. I share: The journey to fiction is the product not only of a scholarly knowledge but, above all, of passion. However, that is not what I am interested in exposing; rather, I need to write the intuition that woke up Vargas Llosa's book. It is this: every essay should aim to infect the passion experienced by those who write it. But, here I am writing an essay to say that the essay is the expression of a self that is not indifferent but active and explicit. That self is positioned by means of writing, not only before itself and what it writes, but in front of those who write. Such experience re-signifies it, either by delimiting its significance or by adding new symbols to its self. Precisely, the vehicle to express this experience is the essay as ensa-yo. They are simply the cultural portrait of a man who makes himself known to others, tries to know himself from all possible angles. And this is not necessarily true. Because yes: Montaigne disbelieves the truth in terms of totality. What I write is purely an essay of my natural faculties, and in no way of those that with study are acquired; and whoever will find in me ignorance will not make a greater discovery, because neither I answer of my assertions nor am I satisfied with my speeches either. Whoever seeks to look for science here, does not find for it the best way, because in no way do I make a scientific profession. In these essays, I follow my fantasies and with them I do not try to explain things, but only to make myself known.... The inclusion of the denial, the doubt and even the acceptance of the contrary arguments are valid in the essay. Let me explain: in that slim volume of essays, Fadanelli proposes a "vagabond thinking" by means of which "everyone has the possibility of obtaining his own conclusions instead of blindly following the ideas of others". In this way, to get an idea of ​​things, it is enough to "get on the road" to discover our conclusions "in the hiding place of our thinking". Hence, Fadanelli reflects on the following terms: knowing is a wandering but not of the mind but of a conscious that from a body is set in motion to meet a journey that is largely unpredictable. Thus, in the essay, the self that speaks to us does so from a knowledge that is not only encyclopedic, but multidirectional and multifaceted. One final flirtation, please: Towards a form of essay speech Multidirectional knowledge? The multidirectionality of knowledge suggests different ways of apprehending reality. Knowledge is constructed not only in terms of encyclopedic scholarship. A human, any man and woman, knows with reason but also with imagination. Not only with the causal logic but also with the polysemantic analogy. And, most of the times, driven by vital-existential motivations. With all of the above, a man or a woman creates what Heriberto Yepez calls a "multifaceted flow of thought activity." Hunting for language in light times. I can not alternate at that table of homage to your father, in which natural professionals of the first level of music participate, when I do not even know how to read the score of a vernacular song. This was, if I do not err, between the years 1954 or 55 and 1957. In the third year I gave up, because I realized that, for my creative aspirations as a composer, it was too late and I had no other way to become a writer But our first real encounter I owe to an unpleasant affair, and that is that a gang of crooks and mediocre students had just occupied the Alumni Society. Among their first initiatives, they had the one to call me to claim that I had organized a cinema-club that worked once a week in a classroom at the school, but it was not about collaborating to strengthen it and get the enjoyment of more classmates. Since I charged a fee that was barely enough to pay the rent for the 16mm tapes and the projector with their technician, I was to give that gang of crooks a percentage of the tickets. This was enough to never bother me anymore, except with a ridiculous revenge of flipping the blackboard back every time I announced a function. It is worth mentioning, as a mexican curious, that I found the president of that Society of Students about three decades later. One of our last meetings happened on March 15, 1957. In this regard, he also makes a reference in the recording of his voice.

On returning home, I have dealt with cooking, cleaning and laundry. I have talked with my partner and have had to answer calls and visits from my family. My life is full of activities. Finally the television is silenced. I have an hour of lucidity, maybe a little more. It was time to open the book and read its text. That you say you have written for me. That which gives you so much pride and to which he dedicated the best hours of his life. That in which he has poured his most lofty phrases, his deepest research, his most accurate reflections. That text full of good intentions and many words. The next fifteen minutes will be decisive. Or... On the contrary, will I fall exhausted on the page, unable to contain the dream? Maybe my will is very strong and I do not fall asleep the first time. Maybe I'll interrupt the reading to prepare a coffee or a chocolate. Maybe move your legs back and forth. Maybe I look at the window or I get distracted by the sound of a distant vehicle. Maybe dream about the warm bed and want to accompany those who already rest, without having to endure the torture of this text. For that matter, it is the medium that will allow me to connect with your work. The word and the text are the instruments so that I can recreate my version of the work created, visualized, imagined by you. I will create it again next to you. In the act of reading, I will re-enact his work and it will be, during that act, our shared reality. But let's say that you, in writing, succumbed to the old trap of the non-oral word. He worried about "writing pretty" and he confused "beautiful" and "elegant" with "mixed and complex". He chose high-sounding words-and did not bother to verify their meaning. He did not take care of the unnecessary repetitions. He filled in the paragraphs of adverbs, phrases and "for so many" empty ones, thus connecting one argument with the next or just one meaningless paragraph with another. He felt himself a writer thanks to that florid abundance of complex structures that he believes to dominate. He praised his ingenuity and imagined that neither Cervantes nor Góngora could equal him in his masterful technique. What you may not know is that this, your text, is something similar to a devour-entangled creeper for me. I read several paragraphs only to realize that my imagination wandered far away, in the morning meetings or at lunch yesterday. Now I think about the weekend and if I can go to the movies, or to the pool or the beach. Or I think I understand, but, in my fatigue, I do not realize how different is the understanding of what has been said. I must be the problem, right? You, after all, know how to write and have a published work. It must be that I am stupid, or ignorant, or I am tired. Very tired... Exhausted I fall and I wake up an hour later, still at the table, with neck pain. We'll see tomorrow if I can read. If I can find in me enough will to resume reading and end heroic stoicism. If I am forced to read, I will finish as I can. If not, maybe I will refuse for a few days to get rid of the book, but I'll end up arranging it in the library or leaving it there, where it can be lost without remedy. The text - the written word - is in itself a means. The main objective of those who edit it is to prevent this medium from being a hindrance between the reader and the contents to which it tries to reach through the text. The readability of a text is a priority in some types of publications; among them, in works written to teach or disseminate knowledge. These are some of the key actions that you can apply to improve the readability of your text, always with a view to its better understanding on the part of the reader. Prefer short paragraphs, with unity of meaning; so that the ideas can be separated well between them and analyzed independently during the reading. Write appropriate titles and subtitles to break long blocks of text. This will provide mnemonic anchors to retrieve information more easily. Separate the ideas into manageable groups: group them by proximity, but separate them enough to be able to process, enumerate and relate them without confusing them. Sort them in a logical way and in a comprehensible and natural sequence. Build your paragraphs with a clear and rhythmic score. Flee from the excess of subordinate sentences and those paragraphs that extend by lines and lines without finding a single point in their path. Consider the working memory of the reader: to reconstruct the meaning of a sentence, the mind must retain the various fragments of the statement for a certain time, until the image or idea can be completed. The so-called "working memory" is responsible for this process. You can hold about seven blocks at a time. Reconstructing the full meaning of the sentence-paragraph-text may be impossible or done with a monumental effort. If it is a didactic or dissemination work, break down the information in a visual way to improve its memorization. Use contemporary words, known and close to the life experience of who will read. And if you choose technical words or complex, unknown and very elegant words, be sure to provide their meaning or that this can be inferred from the context, use them well and use them several times to favor their acquisition. Refrain from empty reflections that do not make real contributions to the argument or produce new thinking. And, above all, leave your ego behind and unlearn your text, your style and your supposed genius. It is easy to fall into the temptation of not wanting to "touch" the text to "respect" it and leave it as it is. Your ego is expensive to me, as a reader. It forces me to lose my valuable time in many prayers, words and phrases that could have been eliminated without pain or glory. Your first version of the text may have been the result of a great effort, but unless you are Cervantes, your text needs a lot of work before it can reach my hands with enough transparency to recreate your work without inconvenience. In short, do not let your text stand between your work and me. Its syntactic behavior is different from other Spanish verbs and that gives it great versatility, but also opens the possibility of using it inaccurately according to communication intentions. Some correct constructions of the verb are: This piece of string is enough to tie the package. In these examples, the meaning of coarse is 'enough': This piece of rope is enough to tie the package; Nothing is enough for your ambition. The use of prepositions also enriches and diversifies their uses and meanings: enough, enough, enough for. We also have the constructions enough and to spare and even say enough. Therefore, according to the grammatical construction where it is used, this verb will need additional syntactic components to be read and understood. So, enough, without accompaniments is a useful imperative to stop a situation or to change from one situation to another: Enough! But, if we include in the sentence what we want to stop, it is necessary to include the preposition of to achieve the coarse construction of. Enough of theory and let's move on to practice. You can also resort to the use of adverbs, to specify and clarify the meaning. So, we can say: It is not enough to talk. Or, its opposite: Just talk. In these two examples, the use of the adverb of negation makes the difference in meaning. An example of correction To see how the use of the syntactic construction of the verb can make a great semantic difference, I steal the example of a sentence I found on a poster. Here, the verb suffice is used in such a way that it contradicts the general message of the poster. It is enough that they take us out of the square without giving us a solution. We want to have a space to practice our sport! In this example, coarse, to be used without prepositions or adverbs, would be equivalent to "is enough". The prayer, therefore, would be read: It is enough that they take us out of the square without giving us a solution. But then questions arise: is it enough for what? There is no information here to know. It can be deduced from the sentence that some people were expelled from a place without receiving alternatives. But then, what does "coarse" mean? In fact, if the following sentence were not taken into account, it would almost be said that this is the opposite expression to what is intended to be communicated. I can hear a community leader saying: "just take them out of the square to finish the problem." But I can not imagine one of the aggrieved people saying "just take me out of the square to finish the problem". Since the sentence is not clear or seems incomplete, it requires an exercise of speculation that, in the case of a poster, should not occur. One of the basic rules of the poster is to constitute a "blow to the eye", an instrument of transparent communication, with an intense message, transmitted in a minimum space and time. The meaning should be direct, clear, to the point and unambiguous. Therefore, lacking an additional explanation or an adequate context, the sentence seems perfectly grammatical, but it is not. What is worse: it does not communicate the desired message and it can be believed that it conveys the opposite idea. It is enough that they take us out of the square without giving us solutions. In the first case, it would be clearly understood that prohibiting the use of the square is insufficient: a solution is needed. In the second case, it is requested and exhorted directly to end this action, clearly considered an aggression. In short Some people who are not specialists in grammar and communication could argue that there is no real ambiguity in the message, they could say that the supposed, inferred or even known information behind the poster is enough to understand. They could say that, in some way, they "understand". They understand what they want to read, they understand what they know they should say there; but they have not read the meaning there. They have put it of their harvest, adding to the prayer what it lacks. When reading this sentence something is obvious, something "does not sound" well, something "is not well understood". The responsibility is greater when we know that the product will circulate among a large number of people and will even contribute to the success or failure of a cause. And given that the product is public, in passing, it also helps to distribute a good reputation for those who promote the activity. Poster from which the example of the article is extracted. It is clarified that this article does not intend to support or combat the activity. Personally, due to my idealism, I am glad that a group of young people have the drive and enthusiasm to get organized and request something, in this society full of indifference and passivity. But I have no links with the organizing groups or their activities. In fact, if I tried to use a skateboard, I would definitely experience a serious accident and I should be away from the blog for a long time. Ana: the story of this article This article came from a comment of mine on the Facebook wall where I discovered the poster. Concerned about the lack of meaning I found in the sentence analyzed here, I wanted to warn the organizers about what I thought was a serious communication problem. Note that I refrained from talking about the tildes, the orthotography of the signs of admiration and even the enunciative problems of the heading. Entering design issues was already too much. My innocent reasoning was this: "If you are going to print posters, you may be in time to correct them." This group of young people continually complains about their bad reputation in the community of Alajuela. As a young person I once was, it seemed worthwhile to help them maintain a good image, at least in that small detail. I did not even think about "giving them a Spanish class". We already know that books are mine, not classes. So, with all the brevity that a Facebook comment should have, I restricted myself to indicate the error, a brief explanation of its cause and possible solutions. This was the response I received: Moral: never correct who does not want to receive corrections. List of references Moliner, María. Dictionary of spanish use. Dictionary of use of Spanish prepositions. Francisco was a prolific writer and he used the word as an instrument of diffusion and defense of his faith. It is said that he is a saint to ask for the gift of speech and beauty, the spread of truth and the edification of humanity. May this patron saint of our western heritage inspire its feathers and ensure responsible, ethical and directed writing for the good of its society. One of them, here for the first time confessed, is skipping textual quotes when I'm reading an academic work. It's not something planned, it just happens. I begin to read the thread that an author has created for me, the clues that he gives me, the crumbs... and I follow them gladly, going into the forest with a guide. But when I get to a textual quote, that voice that I was hearing is interrupted by another voice, with echoes of a different journey, plunged into the worries of another itinerary in nothing similar to ours. But if the appointment is too long... I can not wait to continue listening to the voice of the person who brought me here and, usually, I pass to the next paragraph almost without thinking. And if my guide - the voice of the text - does not comment on the quotation, takes it for granted or simply jumps to the next topic, I completely lose myself of what was said. But there are other reasons that are less subjective. A short appointment has less than 40 words. The maximum number of foreign words that can be cited without copyright problems should not exceed 800-1000 words. But 1000 words already make up little more than two pages, letter size, letter 12 points, to single space. That is, a textual quote, however long, should never reach 1000 words. Of course the necessary, but two paragraphs can be around 100 words. More than that amount, they begin to feel heavy. If they are very justified -and only the investigating author- knows it, there is no rule to censure them, at least occasionally. They are part of the investigation and nobody could say anything about it. Only when they are fully justified... But when are they not? Both the author of an academic text and any of its readers should be alert to these possible reasons why an excess of quotations may be invading the thread of the text: Lack of mastery of the particular topic. When an author completely ignores a topic, everything that another author says about the subject seems substantial. Incapacity appropriation of the speech of others. The lack of experience or mastery of a topic can lead to a simple lack of ability to appropriate the discourse of others. In the academies it is usually recommended to go to a figure of authority to support the own affirmations and expositions of the investigations. This healthy habit is often distorted into a citation to be quoted: words that do not really come into play are evocated or even statements from another author are accommodated or trimmed to supposedly support our argument. The truth is that, if we see them under a microscope, quoting reputable authors in nothing will help our text when their words have nothing to do with our research. And the suspicious reader realizes immediately; therefore, in the end we only make a fool of ourselves. Unawareness of the technique of paraphrasing. It is about these ideas-summary of the thoughts of others, but that in parentheses indicate the work from which it is taken. This is particularly useful when the same concept or topic has been touched by multiple authors. Some universities have standards for this: citations can not exceed more than 25 or 30% of the theses. And back to the world of writing to be read, the overload of quotations is not didactic, heavy reading and only produces fatigue and distraction. One moves away from the page, leaves and leaves it lying. If we want to do a favor to the reader, let us facilitate the reading of our arguments and expose them so that you want to continue reading them. As for the words of others, only when their contribution is truly essential for the text, only then can we leave them and give them their rightful place in our journey through the forest so that they shine with their own merit. In Costa Rica, people talk mostly about you, especially when referring to strangers or people over one. It is understood as a sign of respect and marks a distance when there is not enough trust between people. On the other hand, the colloquial form par excellence to refer to a pair, friend or person less than one is the vos, in the singular. Thus, the voseo and the ustedeo alternate and share the space of daily communication. Although here we have reduced the phenomenon in extreme for its explanation, the social relations that are expressed through the alternation between you and you are not simple and produce a constant digression. A Costa Rican speaker can start talking about you to finish talking about you, but conjugating the verbs in you. Very often the two intentions of communication are mixed and even in the shortest messages the text can begin in a voice - often conjugated like you - and a you, indispensable to maintain distance, authority and respect. I bring here an example taken from a Costa Rican church, where this phenomenon is clearly seen in a few words, just a paragraph. The diffusion of the internet, with the increase in written communication through forums and chats, also creates existential problems: how do you write in a chat or in a forum? It is enough to walk in foreign forums to realize the usual and frequent that is you; and a tico, in foreign territories, adapts easily. At least that is what happened in the last online course I took in Costa Rica, where I deliberately and with treachery, I launched the question and made a small survey. There were even adverse reactions to the idea of ​​using "vos" and not a single person was willing to use "you"; not when he was consciously asked. This is one of the points that can become controversial in the day to day of the edition. Here, of course, the correction will depend on the intentionality, uses and functions of the text. It is convenient to ask if it is necessary to maintain the unit or we want, on the contrary, to use these linguistic marks as a strategy to show the psychology or the culture of the character. In literary work, the proofreader should always talk to the author and reach an agreement. In particular, one of the areas where the reader is most frequently asked to interpellate is in the instructions and exercises that serve as a guide for carrying out activities, recreating experiments and performing interpretive interpretive reading. This is an arbitrary decision that is not based on any scientific study of the speakers, not even in a simple market investigation. It is a decision made behind closed doors, without taking the reader into account. The texts are written for adults scattered throughout the country. While it is true that, especially due to the influence of television, some groups of young speakers can use the tú in urban circles, still in the towns and remote areas of the country, you and vos are the norm. And the vos is something that a tico only allows a friend, a relative, his parents or his partner; Any other person who dares to address him in you is a disrespectful or a foreigner. Therefore, it is understandable why the use of you is still the most appropriate for these texts. The vos should be reserved only for dialogues between characters, occasional expositions of cases and special texts that merit it, but not to address the reader. In synthesis Personally, I advocate an edition that takes into account the linguistic features of the reader, without this requiring a strictly colloquial writing. Therefore, before making an editorial decision of this caliber, it is convenient to ask to which audience the work is directed, in what geographical area they work and how they talk to each other. And once this has been answered, it will be necessary to decide why the you and the functions are needed within the text. Only after this, a decision can be made and, once taken, apply it with uniformity and consistency. So, and if you had any questions, in this blog we use you. False friends frequently appear in translations made by novices or people with little training and experience in the field. They are frequent in very literal translations, where the translator translates himself into the form of the word and does not investigate the meanings of the two words in each language. This produces inaccuracies in the communication. If the readers of the poorly translated word do not know the source language, they usually lack tools to detect the error. As a result, bad translations -both books published by publishers, and in the press media- become hopelessly widespread and large publics adopt a false cognate as the correct form of a concept. If we are in the publishing environment, we are bound by our profession to a responsible use of words. It is sad when a non-specialized reader uses the mistranslation of a recognized publisher to endorse and legitimize the use of a false cognate. On the other hand, if we detect a community of speakers in which a false cognate has been introduced without warning, it is always advisable to rectify, even if slowly. If the language is going to change, change as it should: thanks to speakers who adapt to new communication needs and not as the inevitable and unconscious imposition of errors not corrected in time. In general terms, an improved book is an electronic book with multimedia additions: in addition to text and photographs, it includes any audiovisual resource that can be created with the current technology. This definition is very broad; editors and authors of the publishing industry are asking themselves essential questions: what is really an improved book? For now, we can mention two types: the text with additions and the book whose design is inseparable from its "improvement" proposal. In addition to the full text of the work, includes an original soundtrack, the audiobook synchronized with the text and extracts from the text read by the author. This proposal it is still traditional: the text is understood as a product in itself accompanied by other means that are accessories to the narrated story verbally. My words fall short before the demonstration of the author in the promotional video. Suffice it to say that Gray's proposal opens up possibilities in the design of textbooks of all kinds. I can imagine an e-book like The Elements but of birds, or a guide of plants, or even a linguistic work. The big question that Gray asked was very simple: "How do I communicate this?" Watch the video and draw your own conclusions. I invite you to go through that small area of ​​experimentation with the word, of free creation and vital expression. Those who break the 'rules' successfully are the true artists. But first learn, practice and master the rules. All the contents of this blog are original and intellectual property of its author, except when this is consigned by the due date and bibliographic reference. All the texts published here can be cited, with the respective credits, and reproduced partially for academic or private purposes, for personal use. The partial or total reproduction of these materials for profit or commercial purposes without the express authorization and consent of the author is prohibited. The word is for me a necessity, a search and an irrepressible drive. From free verse to the technical minutiae that force us to think about syntax, spelling and orthotypography of the published letter.

It is a coordinate whose function is never ornamental. It is there to say, with the least amount of signs, who said what and when. A trained reader can know, therefore, how much time between the original broadcast of the ideas of this author and his arrival in the Spanish-speaking world. This detail may seem irrelevant, until years, decades and centuries begin to interpose between the consulted text and the original work. He often sees one that is quoted in the consulted edition, with dates as close as 1996, but the work was originally published in 1890; and the Spanish edition is made from the abbreviated edition of 1922. What these years tell us about the cultural and ideological context is a lot and should be taken into account when evaluating any data indicated by Frazer. Here the only certainty is that in 1890 still in that village they had the habit of erecting a "May" tree; but do they still have it, at present, more than a century later? With this work in particular, you have to be careful: the edition is different from the reprint. My copy was reprinted in 1996, but corresponds to the second edition of 1951. In the case of classic works, whose exact date of publication is uncertain, the date of translation is mentioned and the data is stated that it is a translation. Thanks to these more precise systems, it is possible to navigate in the source regardless of the version of the text used by the author. Therefore, one may be reading a work written in English in which a reference is made to the text of Plutarch and consult Plutarch in a comfortable translation into Spanish. The orthotypography of the reference depends directly on the bibliographic style that is being applied. The list of references is also numbered, in such a way that it corresponds to the one noted in the text. The style of Vancouver is similar, but the number does not appear voladito but in parentheses. An observation of all the styles put here as an example is that they were designed to fit English orthotypographic rules. The parenthetical reference should always be as complete as possible and direct the reader with precision to the work cited or paraphrased. Research and publication online, 5th edition. Stylebook of the Spanish language. Spelling and orthotypography of current Spanish. There you can see the rule in the first pages. Today I met your blog and I find it really interesting and, above all, very helpful. It seems that the "one" question was rhetorical. Regarding your question, I'm honest: I do not know. At most, they make some recommendations that are specific to bibliographic styles. For example, in the use of the ellipsis or the recommendation to use italics for titles of complete works and quotation marks for the parts of works. Any information referring is appreciated. You are commenting using your Twitter account. You are commenting using your Facebook account. You are commenting using your Google+ account. Cancel Connecting to% s Notify me of new comments by email. Receive new posts via email. I invite you to go through that small area of ​​experimentation with the word, of free creation and vital expression. Those who break the 'rules' successfully are the true artists. But first learn, practice and master the rules. All the contents of this blog are original and intellectual property of its author, except when this is consigned by the due date and bibliographic reference. All the texts published here can be cited, with the respective credits, and reproduced partially for academic or private purposes, for personal use. The partial or total reproduction of these materials for profit or commercial purposes without the express authorization and consent of the author is prohibited. The word is for me a necessity, a search and an irrepressible drive. From free verse to the technical minutiae that force us to think about syntax, spelling and orthotypography of the published letter. Error checking email. Please try again Sorry, your blog can not share posts by email.

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