Title for my essay about myself in french
Let's talking about title for my essay about myself in french.
At that time I was in my twenties and I was poorer than a rat. I lived with what I had saved during the summer and although I barely spent my savings they were dwindling in the fall. The prize was divided into three categories: poetry, short stories and essays. First I thought about presenting myself in poetry, but sending to fight with the lions what I did best seemed indecorous to me. I decided, then, to present myself in fairy tale and I sent the best I had in triplicate and sat down to wait. When the prize was failed I worked as a street vendor at a craft fair where absolutely nobody sold handicrafts. I obtained the third accésit and ten thousand pesetas that the City Council of Alcoy paid me religiously. Shortly after I received the book, in which there was no shortage of errata, with the winner and the six finalists. I had read a novel of his and some of his stories in Latin American magazines. The novel was one of those that make readers. Against what I expected, I received a letter from him just a week later. Immediately afterwards I went on to ask myself about the literary contests that "loomed on the horizon", praising me that I barely knew of one I made it known in the act. Both competitions were still within my reach and Sensini finished her letter rather enthusiastically, as if we were both on the starting line of an endless race, as well as hard and meaningless. In one of the stalls I found a book of stories by Sensini and I bought it. That is to say stories of armed people, unfortunate, lonely or with a peculiar sense of sociability. In the contest of Plasencia I did not reach to participate, but in that of Écija yes. As soon as I had put the copies of my story in the mail, I understood that if I stayed waiting for the result, things could only get worse. So I decided to look for other contests and, in passing, fulfill the Sensini request. Soon I had three budding contests in which Sensini and I could participate and I wrote a letter to him. As always, the answer came back to me by mail. Sensini's response was timely and extensive, at least in terms of production and competitions. In a folio written to a single space and on both sides he exhibited a kind of general strategy with respect to the literary prizes of the provinces. I speak from experience, he said. The letter began by sanctifying them, a source of income that helped the daily sustenance. When referring to the sponsoring entities, town halls and savings banks, he said "those good people who believe in literature", or "those pure and a little forced readers". No illusion was made about the information of the "good people", the readers who would foreseeably consume those invisible books. He insisted that he participate in as many prizes as possible, although he suggested that as a precautionary measure they should change the title to the stories if, with only one, for example, he went to three competitions whose decisions coincided by the same dates. He gave as an example of this his story At dawn, story that I did not know, and that he had sent to several literary contests almost experimentally, as the guinea pig intended to test the effects of an unknown vaccine. He won in the second and last, and with the money obtained in both awards he was able to pay a month and a half for rent, in Madrid the prices were skyrocketing. The world of literature is terrible, as well as ridiculous, he said. And to a greater extent, he said, who knows if the gauchos and Without remorse are not two different stories whose singularity resides precisely in the title. Similar, even very similar, but different. It's like walking through Spanish geography, he said. I'm going to turn sixty, but I feel like I'm twenty-five, he said at the end of the letter or maybe in the postscript. At first I thought it was a very sad statement, but when I read it for the second or third time I understood that it was as if he were telling me: how old are you, kid? My answer, I remember, was immediate. I told him I was twenty-eight, three more than him. I did not dedicate myself, as Sensini suggested, to story contests, although I did participate in the last ones that he and I had discovered. And he won an honorable mention in the railways prize, which gave him not only money but also a free ticket to travel for a year through the Renfe network. With time I was knowing more things about him. He lived in a flat in Madrid with his wife and his only daughter, seventeen years old, called Miranda. Another son, from his first marriage, was lost in Latin America or that he wanted to believe. His name was Gregorio, he was thirty-five years old, he was a journalist. On those occasions the letters used to be heavy, monotonous, as if by the description of the bureaucratic labyrinth Sensini exorcised his own ghosts. I stopped living with Gregorio, he told me once, when the kid was five years old. I did not add anything else, but I saw Gregorio for five years and I saw Sensini writing in a newspaper office and everything was irremediable. I also asked myself about the name and I do not know why I came to the conclusion that it had been a sort of unconscious homage to Gregorio Samsa. The latter, of course, I never told you. He looks like Gregorio, he said, only that Miranda is a woman and did not have to go through what happened to my oldest son. Little by little Sensini's letters got longer. I lived in a soulless neighborhood of Madrid, in a two-room apartment plus dining room, kitchen and bathroom. Knowing that I had more space than he seemed surprising and then unfair. Sensini wrote in the dining room, at night, "when the lady and the baby are already asleep", and abused the tobacco. Their income came from vague editorial work and stories that came out to fight provinces. Every once in a while he would get a check for one of his many published books, but most of the publishers were forgetful or broke. The only one that continued producing money was ligarte, whose rights had an editorial of Barcelona. His wife occasionally worked in editorial work and gave private classes in English, French and Hebrew, although on more than one occasion she had been engaged in cleaning tasks. The daughter was only dedicated to the studies and her entrance in the university was imminent. In one of my letters I asked Sensini if Miranda was also going to dedicate herself to literature. In his answer he said: no, by God, the girl will study medicine. One night I wrote to him asking for a picture of his family. Only after leaving the letter in the mail did I realize that what I wanted was to meet Miranda. A week later I received a photograph taken at El Retiro, where an old man and a middle-aged woman were seen next to a teenager with straight hair, thin and tall, with very large breasts. The old man smiled happily, the middle-aged woman looked at her daughter's face, as if to say something, and Miranda looked at the photographer with a seriousness that was moving and disturbing. Next to the photo, he sent me a photocopy of another photo. For a long time the photo and the photocopy were on my desk. Sometimes I spent a lot of time contemplating them, other times I took them to the bedroom and watched them until I fell asleep. In his letter Sensini had asked me to send them a picture of me too. I did not have any recent and decided to make one in the photo booth of the station, in those years the only photo booth in Girona. But the photos I did did not like me. I was ugly, skinny, with badly cut hair. So every day I was postponing the sending of my photo and every day I was spending more money on the photo booth. Finally I took one at random, put it in an envelope with a postcard and sent it to her. The response was long and cordial. In the letter, it was understood that no They would only come to see me but they would stay in my house. By the way, they offered me theirs for when I wanted to go to Madrid. He did not say anything about his literary tasks. Nor did he talk about contests. At first I thought about sending my poem to Miranda, but after many doubts and hesitations I decided not to do so. I am going crazy, I thought, if I send this to Miranda the letters of Sensini are finished and also with all the reason of the world. For a while I devoted myself to tracking the bases of contests. In a letter Sensini told me he was afraid that the string was running out. I interpreted his words erroneously, in the sense that he no longer had enough literary contests to send his stories. I insisted that they travel to Girona. I told them that Carmela and he had my house at their disposal, even for a few days I forced myself to clean, sweep, scrub and dust the rooms in the assurance that they and Miranda were falling. In a long response letter, where he thanked me for my invitation, Sensini informed me that for now they could not move from Madrid. The letter, for the first time, was confusing, although about half of them started talking about the prizes and encouraged me not to falter and continue participating. The rest, as I say, was confusing. When I finished reading I had the impression that someone in his family was not in good health. Two or three months later I received the news that Gregorio's corpse had probably been found in a clandestine cemetery. For the first time I did not feel like writing to him. I would have liked to call him on the phone, but I think he never had a phone and if he did, I did not know his number. I told him I was sorry, I ventured the possibility that Gregorio's corpse might not be Gregorio's corpse. Then summer came and I started working at a hotel on the coast. In Madrid that summer was lavish in conferences, courses, cultural activities of all kinds, but none of them participated Sensini and if he participated in any newspaper that I read did not outlined it. At the end of August I sent him a card. I told him that possibly when the season was over I would pay him a visit. When I returned to Girona, in mid-September, among the little correspondence accumulated under the door I found a letter from Sensini dated August 7. He said that he was going back to Argentina, that with democracy nobody was going to do anything to him and that therefore it was idle to spend more time outside. Besides, if he wanted to know for sure the final destination of Gregorio, there was no other way but to return. I wrote to him immediately, to the only address he had, but I did not receive an answer. Little by little I began to think that Sensini had returned to Argentina forever and that if he did not write to me from there, I could finish our epistolary relationship. For a long time I was waiting for your letter or I think so now, remembering it. Sensini's letter, of course, never arrived. I wrote back to his address in Madrid, hoping that the letter would be sent to Miranda, but after a month the mail returned it to me because of the recipient's absence. One or two years later I knew he was dead. I do not know in which newspaper I read the news. I think that also, in the end, they mentioned Ugarte. I do not know why, the news did not impress me. It must have been twelve o'clock at night, but I was awake. The call, however, startled me. None of the few people I knew in Girona would have gone to my house unless something unusual happened. Upon opening I found a long-haired woman under a large black coat. It was Miranda Sensini, although the years since her father sent me the photo had not passed in vain. Next to her was a tall, blond guy with long hair and a hooked nose. I am Miranda Sensini, she told me with a smile. I know, I said and I invited them in. As they did not have much money they traveled hitchhiking. That night they slept in my house. He helped me prepare dinner while Miranda inspected the house. Until a moment ago I had only seen it in a photo, I replied. After dinner I prepared a room for them and told them that they could go to bed whenever they wanted. Soon after I felt footsteps on the stairs. She could not fall asleep either. He sat next to me and asked for a cigarette. At the beginning we talked about his trip, of Girona, of the cities that he planned to visit in Italy. Then we talk about his father and his brother. He came back to look for him, although we all knew he was dead. I asked him how he had fared in Argentina. But in Argentina they wanted it, I said. I took a bottle of cognac from the kitchen and offered him a drink. When I looked at her she looked away. I mean when Sebastian and I arrived, said Miranda, were you writing? We drank for a long time in silence, contemplating the black and white images of the television set. Tell me one thing, I said, why did your father Gregorio put Gregorio? For Kafka, of course, said Miranda. The reunion with Buenos Aires was painful and happy. From the first week he began to make arrangements to find out the whereabouts of Gregorio. He wanted to go back to the university, but among bureaucratic procedures and envy and grudges of those who do not lack access was forbidden and he had to settle for making translations for a couple of publishers. Carmela, on the other hand, got a job as a teacher and during the last few years they lived exclusively from what she earned. Every week Sensini wrote to Miranda. According to this, his father realized that he had little life and sometimes even seemed anxious to rush once and for all the last reserves and face death. As for Gregorio, no news was conclusive. Also it was dedicated to look for a girl, a probable companion that Goyo possibly had in the secrecy, but the girl did not appear either. Then his health worsened and he had to be hospitalized. He did not even write anymore, said Miranda. For him it was very important to write every day, in any condition. Then I asked him if he was able to participate in a contest in Buenos Aires. Sure, you were the one who participated in the contests with him, he knew you in a contest. I am the one in the contests, I said. Miranda poured herself more cognac and said that for a year her father had talked a lot about me. I noticed that he looked at me differently. I must have bothered him enough, I said. I hope they were fun, I said without much conviction. They were hilarious, said Miranda, my mother even gave you a name. I imagine why, I said, although I believe that the true bounty hunter was your father, I just passed on some other information. Yes, he was a professional, said Miranda suddenly serious. About fifteen, she said absently. For the moment, only one, I said. An accésit in Alcoy, for which I met your father. It's that he was a very good writer, I said. Fuck, Miranda said and got up and went out into the yard, as if I had said something that would have offended her. I let a few seconds pass, picked up the bottle of cognac and followed. Miranda was leaning on the fence looking at the lights of Girona. You have a good view from here, he told me. I filled his glass, I filled mine, and we stayed for a while looking at the city lit by the moon. Suddenly I realized that we were already at peace, that for some mysterious reason we had come together to be at peace and that from then on things would imperceptibly begin to change. As if the world, really, moved. Then I must be over thirty, I said, and even my voice sounded strange. About the author.
The outpost, a pair of Peruvian horsemen, from a hillock with sight of telescope, emits regulatory signs informing cleared terrain of enemy troop. In this intelligence, the head of the detachment ordered the security of ordinance to rest exhausted troops to which it was partly ordered to disassemble and unsaddle. Thus the 90 riders arrive and stop at the shelter of a considerable depression of the land whose edges hide men and horses. The troops dismounted, the lookouts fixed and the mules separated in a suitable place, a rest is arranged. Sepúlveda orders a call and immediately the clarion with its sharp tones fills the silence of that area where the sun fans its heat gradually. The officers hurry to receive instructions. Vergara, in the intuition that the allies would have done the same to advance from the South in demand of the Chileans, knew that at any equidistant point of maximum reference there would necessarily have to be a meeting of arms. He then hurried the step with the military precautions of the case and ordered an advance of exploration which arrived at Germania with slight advance of the allies and that conveniently hidden could observe those movements of which we have given account. The action took effect with the results of surprise. The Peruvian horsemen only had saber, Bolivians only rifles and had to fight on horseback and with rifle butts. The wounded were reviewed and the prisoners shot. Vergara decided to pardon the life of an allied officer whom he ordered to mount and leave the disastrous scenario to tell the allies, the effectiveness of Chilean arms and their victorious action. At age 22 he entered the Military Academy, opting for the cavalry weapon. In 1825, Simón Bolívar ratifies this concession. In 1864, at 16 years old he returned to Cañete to work as field steward of the Arona farm. Obeying his vocation for a military career, at age 22 he entered the Military School. The infamous guano and saltpeter war of 1879 found him with the highest military rank of cavalry; then he was promoted to commander and sent to the field of operations. With this in numerical superiority, with better armament and mounts they defeat the allies. According to part of Vergara, around 60 to 70 allies died, among them Commander Sepúlveda, taking also 5 prisoners. The Chileans lamented the loss of 9 soldiers. The remains of the Canetano hero were buried in the same battlefield. Sulfur reacts with water in the air to form droplets of sulfuric acid, which in large quantities cause a cooling in the atmosphere by reducing the amount of sunlight reaching the surface. But these droplets end up dissipating and their effect only lasts for about a year. Other similar eruptions that could have affected human life in the entire planet include the Tambora in Indonesia in 1815, whose sequel to European agriculture has been well documented. Verosub estimates that a volcanic eruption of this magnitude can occur every 200 years or so, which increases the possibility of reproducing in the first half of this century. It is located at 16º 35 'of South latitude and 70º 52' of West longitude. Its current altitude is 4,800 meters, with a half-cone of 200 to 500 meters of elevation. Since the area - then as now it was relatively isolated, the available historical information comes from the Spanish city closest to the volcano: Arequipa. There is no certain thing about the other towns that belong to the said Bolcán. " It drained for thirty days and thirty nights. The sun shone and looked like it but it missed all of Maxi's ualles. With the senisa and pistelencial of her, beasts and cattle died. " However, by 1618 the Carmelite Vázquez de Espinosa saw a recovery in the regional agricultural economy: "it has come back on itself and is as fat and thick as before". The natural cycle had been fulfilled and, after a decade, human activity had more than recovered after the catastrophe of the year 1600. He was educated with the Jesuit fathers. In September 1603 he was informed of his appointment to the Viceroyalty of Peru. His trip from Veracruz to the port of Paita was done in tranquility. Finally, he made his long-awaited entry into Lima on November 28, 1604 after more than five months of travel with extended breaks. His relationship with the natives, the very variety of the viceroyalty of New Spain, was an example of prudence and charity to the extreme that his retirement caused a heartfelt sorrow. This singular behavior was repeated in Peru where, unfortunately, his stay was brief because he died before completing the third year of his government. They associate their organization to a certain church or chapel and from there many of the fraternities appear, which have survived to this day. Luis de Velasco, who took care of the sederos, among others. It had, then, the destruction of the city of Arequipa in large proportion. Later he found a grave in the church of the Colegio de Monterrey, his native Galicia, an institution founded by him. The Chinese shop, near the corner of my house, added to the old smell some of the penetrating brandy of cane or grape, which was sold in the discreet backroom where there was no lack of stealthy and constant parishioners. The oriental sold everything, usually retail and were common currency pesetas, boys and fat, copper subsidiary of the Sun of Gold. The traditional lunch or lunch, that snack before the dinner of yesteryear, needed good French bread still hot and golden crust, creamy butter to accompany a cup of coffee with milk. Nor were there missing the golden and crunchy picarones with that cane honey that makes them so particular and from Lima. In the end the statue of the wise Antonio Raymondi rises with his magnifying glass examining some exotic species. At that time the bells rang in the city with peculiar and regular sounds. Lima, Saturday, September 17, 2011. Anyway, my overwhelmed imagination associates a thousand and one situations before that hypnotic scene. One of the crew of the brick boat Europa, Dutch-flagged merchant ship-school that makes its long journey of instruction around the world. The degree of inspiration of Mr. Vasilevskiy with the ice of Antarctica is natural. Considered a child prodigy, he began playing the piano at age six and composing at seven. A new one was produced in 2014 and is expected to be repeated in the year 2021. Its author, Mr. Valery Vasilevskiy. That day, a raft sailed from those beaches to the Pacific Ocean, along with its six crew members. So far, Luis clearly remembers the image of that Sun god drawn on the big candle. On the island, the scientist realized that the language and culture of the inhabitants of the area had much in common with that of the indigenous people of South America. For this reason, Heyerdahl deduced that the ancient South Americans sailed the ocean, taking advantage of the current, to distant Polynesia. This theory, which for many was too extravagant, was hardly taken seriously. Even so, Heyerdahl's theory is denied by most subsequent investigations. In addition, there are few people who lived that event. The face of Luis, who enthusiastically told that story about 70 years ago, suddenly showed some sadness. It has been so long and the interests of the people have changed. The Sun God, drawn in the big candle, keeps a serene look in the showroom, with low intensity lighting that creates a mysterious atmosphere. The same age as Luis, the witness of the departure. According to Thor, what his father most hated was being considered an "explorer". Remember that each time a navigation ended, his father always sat down to write a large volume of texts. Today, there are few scientists like him who have the courage to test their theories at the expense of everything. Let's look at the nature of our surroundings and the outside world. My call to the glass door with net curtains this great building, old but very well preserved, was attended by the librarian on duty, dressed in a simple sky blue overall. He was an elderly employee who combed gray hair. Upon knowing my address and that he was Peruvian, he passed me through the entrance and led me down the long corridor of the Medina hall, to the main office where I noticed a desk with a folder and tools that accused profuse and constant use. A beautiful study environment. He invited me to take a seat and kindly expressed that he did it in the chair and at the same desk of Mr. Toribio Medina, a symbolic act of special significance. I was diligently reached by the Great Index, which was badly damaged and we soon found the desired document. He immediately gave me a copy on microfilm. Shortly afterwards I also obtained the paper enlargements of the wanted report that I now keep in my possession. The memoirs were one of the volumes of the large library moved to Chile as a result of the occupation of Lima, interregnum from January 17, 1881 to October 20, 1883. He believed then that it was still possible to demonstrate practically to the enemy the impossibility in which was to defend the Peruvian territory not against a large army but against small divisions. This was the subject of an expedition that the complaints, insults and lamentations of the official documents of Peru, and the writings of his press, have made famous. This same circumstance forces us to give some details. At the end of August 1880, the forces that had to form this division were ready in the ports of Iquique and Arica. The whole division formed a total of 2,600 men. The command of them was entrusted to Captain Patricio Lynch. Apart from the indications that were given to him on the points in which it was convenient to operate, Captain Lynch had to regulate his conduct to the general instructions that constituted the code of war of the army of Chile. The draft of these instructions was prepared by Professor Lieber, one of the most respected jurisconsults and philosophers in America. This project was reviewed by a commission of officers and ratified by President Lincoln. The martial law extends to property and people, without distinction of nationality. Any infraction committed against the established military government, can be punished as if its author were a simple citizen, and such infraction can not serve as a basis for any international claim. The martial law gives the occupant the right to receive public revenues and taxes, whether these have been decreed by the government expelled or by the invader. The latter, a cavalry officer, was part of one of the expeditions to the towns of the center, specifically the Mantaro valley and also that of Canta. His luck to find only old people, women and children, because the males were recruited in Cáceres' resistance corps, made his presence of rapine and death easy. He did not neglect to carry with him the large amount of booty that was the fruit of theft in persons and properties of the Church. The council ruled his guilt and the corresponding penalty. Later the government of his country would exonerate him, for considerations of his distinguished services during the war. His name is closely linked to the cultural heritage of Chile. This significant contribution earned him the deserved recognition of his compatriots, but also of every Latin American researcher. Nobody could have done better. It is due to the careful selection and subsequent packing of books, books and all sorts of old documents, many of them unique in this part of the world. Later, the results of his indefatigable work of compilation were gathered in the American Library and are now indispensable reference material for scholars of the Spanish-American colonial past. On the same letter you can read the decree and the handwriting of the president of Chile arranging your purchase. I have witnessed this reality. Copy of my property acquired in the Medina Archive. The enormous trunks that formed rafts accumulated on the river bank and were climbed by ramps, pulled by chains that threw winches or cranes, to the cutting platform of those wood devourers... to form them into boards. A strong chip smell predominates in the environment. It is the second most important city in the Peruvian Amazon, after Iquitos. I had begun my primary studies at the San Agustín school and had the echo of those lessons learned coercively by memory, in the style of that order of Spanish priests, a method of old scholasticism that I could never assimilate. To get to know the region my father decided, instead of the airway, the mixed trip of navigation by river and road. We should wait a few days for the arrival of two Air Force vehicles to transport us to those who by then were already forming a large number of passengers. When averaging a day waiting for the transports, we went out to take the food to the restaurant or cabin that served as such. We settled as always overlooking the river. Some diners occupied, scattered, some tables. This was a cabin built on stilts, that is to say on dry poles, in anticipation of the flood that always happens, with a broad roof of palm leaves. Allow me to tell you the facts and then I will be at your disposal. Neither mother and I were absorbed and surprised. Warned the doctor made me some hincones in the back, shoulders and chest that were completely insensitive to me. I was in one of the advanced stages of the feared leprosy. I also remember that my resignation from the police force was ordered and, in life, I was granted the corresponding discharge, as if I had died. With this also, the inescapable need to be admitted to the leprosarium of San Pablo where it should remain because of the disease; in that large colony of patients who spend the rest of their lives there. I was young and I did not resign myself to such a situation. At the end of the day I was single and my parents, natives of the region, were the only beings I had to watch over. I decided, at the first opportunity that I would appear to evade this nightmare and I got it downstream from Iquitos. I walked hurriedly as nature allowed and so, avoiding dangers, I followed the path of the jungle as it opened up in my path. I walked many hours and it was at night for which I looked for an apparent place to sleep. I awoke with the rays of the sun that filtered through the thick trees and I could see a man, a native, who watched me carefully supported by a short spear that he had as a weapon. Over there those native families are frequent. At the time he beckoned me to follow him and having as a companion a stranger who was obsequious or not at all warlike I trusted his step and followed him. Little time of walk and we arrived at a village in a clearing of the forest; by then a crowd of children kept us company in the middle of a sharp shout. My captor led me to a solitary cabin and ordered me to enter it. Shortly after, the sorcerer visited me, who after observing me gave me a bitter substance to drink from a mate. That was my only food for several days. One morning, my captor and friend woke me up and told me to accompany him. We walked somewhere very thick and from time to time my driver using his spear rummaged among the leaves. Suddenly he took a step back, what he was looking for had found him: a great serpent of brown and yellow tones in diamond figures had stood ready to attack. A section of his coiled body was rising. Something terrifying, if you take into account everything that is said about the Shushupe, which was a large one. Without losing time my guide ordered me to approach the animal and induced it under the threat of his spear. The terror paralyzed me, but a violent push threw me on that beast that bit my arm again and again; It was too much for me... I lost consciousness. When I woke up after a few hours, or days, I can not pin it down, I was healed and I had regained my sensibility. My benefactors celebrated the event, and welcomed into that good people, I found a home and now I live with them. I came to Pucallpa where I work as a guide for wood seekers and live. It was historically incurable, mutilating and shameful. Sixty-nine years have passed since this singular event and still, when I reproduce it, I feel some shudder. Accurate moment that the civil guard NN receives the spill of the corresponding board. My father, the first one on the left. Both the weight in pure gold and the precise data of its shipment to Venezuela are subject of investigation. It will be, in all safety for Peruvians and Venezuelans, an unknown issue. I did not belong to it but I integrated it by invitation of the chief professor of the delegation. The accommodation took place in a hotel on Av. Urdaneta, precisely in front of the Miraflores Palace, the seat of government. In the morning following the arrival and attending the agenda, we went to the palace and were greeted by the president's aide-de-camp who was the bearer of the president's apology to receive the delegation in audience that day. This point had not been adjusted with time in the agenda and the interview was not possible. We were invited to take a tour of the large and ancient enclosures of that house, while the colonel who acted as a cicerone explained with clear mastery the details of the mansion and each of its large enclosures. The epochs, from its erection by General Joaquín Crespo, who ordered its rise as a house and later as a government seat, have marked the historical milestones of its inhabitants. Furniture and vases of the most precious Italian invoice, glassware from Sevres, oils of marked beauty decorate it. It was then known as La Casona. Dominate the end or head of that enclosure. In front there is accommodation for a considerable audience. Indeed, the decorative richness of that enclosure for the great occasions, of them the delivery of the insignia of the command to the new president of the nation, astonishes at the same time that pleases. Sun of Peru In the center a decoration framed within a star shows a great rising sun between mountains and clouds. Sculpted in pure gold, this jewel gives the name to the most important palace room. Work in laminated and chiseled gold. But it was in 1900 when it was inaugurated as the palace of the republic, Don Cipriano Castro. It has been placed as the main motive in this roof of the most important hall of Miraflores Palace. A jewel of high intrinsic value but, also, important heuristic value. I feared an offensive rebuff to our dignity, from which we could not vindicate ourselves by the distance and the material difficulties that intercept us. Unfortunately Chile already occupies Lima, after a great battle, more than big, bloody. The Peruvian people have fought and are still fighting heroically, with honor for the patriotism of South America. I offer my condolences for the violation of the great principle of American fraternity. Here in summary biographical data of this illustrious Venezuelan leader. His parents are of Andalusian, Basque and Canarian origin. In 1859, tensions gave way to conflicts and the irreconcilable rivals were confronted in a guerrilla war. It is when Guzman Blanco assumed the responsibility of leading the Liberal troops through a series of successful battles and maneuvers. Depose the conservative government and as a result is recognized as the supreme leader. Once Liberalism has returned Guzmán Blanco as the new president of the country, his hegemony begins. Gold that looks splendid in the room that we have detailed. International Bookstore From Peru. With them the bloody victories and without quarter were succeeded. Independence should wait until the battle of Carabobo in 1820. This attire is the typical Venezuelan national costume, as they had inherited it from the Gran Colombians. Four symmetrically arranged pockets complete the set that gives the llanero a discreet elegance. A hat with a head or hair, it identifies the criollo who dresses in a fresh liqui-liqui that mitigates the inclemency of the Venezuelan plains. The war had recruited them from both sides. The famous Caracas general did not have them all, his correspondence from that time shows it. Before, the Peruvian government voted to pay a large sum in gold currency to gratify the successful efforts of the high chief, his commanders and troops in general. Peru assumed then a debt agreed with the British colony that would honor it with difficulty and much urgency. That is to say, the territorial splits did not fit, as was natural, to any Peruvian. The initial disorder of the battle and the lack of visibility caused these battalions to confront each other. Outnumbered and exhausted with ammunition, General Plaza ordered the retreat in search of the bulk of the Peruvian army and ordered to protect the retreat of Colonel Quiroz, who was immediately harassed by the Colombian infantry and cavalry. The agreed conditions were not met and the Colombians with a vengeful furor attacked en masse. Necochea then loaded with his Húsares de Junín. The bulk of the Grancolombian army considered it prudent to keep their position while the Peruvian managed to retreat in order and form their divisions in the plain. The Peruvian forces would have to leave the department of Azuay and leave all the occupied squares. For five months the war stabilized as the Peruvian navy still owned the sea and blocking the main port on the banks of the Guayas; the grancolombiano army was not in conditions to try to rescue it. Finally, Bolivar himself had moved south to direct the campaign and recover Guayaquil. The new government of Gamarra ceased hostilities and delivered Guayaquil on July 20. On September 22, 1829, a peace treaty was signed in Guayaquil and a mixed commission was prepared to definitively fix the boundaries between both countries. This was the origin of the long border conflict between Ecuador and Peru. He descended from the counts of Alastaya. Lieutenant colonel of cavalry. The art of bullfighting is a matter of few, but the subject of many. Running the bulls has immersed these potential conditions. That's the way it always was and will remain so. The primitive being that dwells within the fan of all times and latitudes knows it and so expects it. It is very true what is whispered or says quiet: When the land of the bull is mixed with those of the bullfighter, death round. The bugle is signaling the change of the third, the last third. the hidden lad whispered with control. From the nearby scrub, to the full moon, stealthy appear three pillastres of forms, talk and similar aspect of our friend. They join him and undress carefully. A whole rite, then with the bundle of their poor clothes in high enters the tropilla to the cold waters and rehearses the long ford that although of little flow presents considerable bottom... - What a beautiful moon and how beautiful those bulls, especially that one that is Attentive to us...! Who so rambles between whispers and thoughts is a little boy over ten years, thin and lively, with those eyes and black hair as there are many in Andalusia. Start this with the noise of its great weight and the child receives it with a painting navarra. all those simplezas for a few moments of bullfighting? that eagerness to fight so marked, was irresistible. The occasion was painted alone and now conjugated moon, good cattle and the taste of adventure... lose life seems secondary business. A considerable part of the pawns, as always, made the guard and these youngsters as in all times and occasions in the vast basin of the Guadalquivir were given skill to fight in clandestine. Sign the boy with gallantry tends the cloth, tiempla and load the luck... the bull is torn;... fatal, a bang resounds! I express this to unmark them, as far as possible, from that other chrematistic function to which they were professionally due for reasons of office. I deliberately omit the sculptors and another type of artist who have also followed this philosophical path, for whose work I have allowed myself to write Marble, bronze and chisel, this occasion I have reserved for some Peruvian painters of marked evocative tendency. They complied with killing Pizarro, who in spite of his years fought bizarrely that Sunday June 26, 1541 and was killed by low resources for a ferocious thrust to the neck. That victory, product of this kind of assassination, would not last long. Peru was, by far, the most precious piece of the Crown's joyel. Consequently, both chiefs would prepare for the fight. Persuadido Cáceres that was at stake the prestige gained by his exploits with the brave breñeros, during the resistance against the Chilean invader, agreed to put an end to the fight and leave the country. Lepiani, witness of those tragic events, was then 30 years old. The third redoubt One of the best of our artist; dramatic the panorama of Miraflores on the morning of January 15, 1881. The almost photographic detail of the highest invoice does not require further explanation. Masterpiece of Don Juan Lepiani. He used to sign his works as Leppiani. Also the War of the Salitre would have him as a witness so his paintings of this stage are popular for their great realism. In 1903 he traveled to Europe, to make contact with museums and exhibitions. In 1928, already old and almost blind because of the severe and demanding work to which he had submitted, he returned to Peru, but almost immediately decided to return to Europe. There, he was surprised by the world crisis of 1929, which added to his precarious economy and broken health caused him death. Of them those inspired by episodes of the Pacific War: He also found his inspiration in other periods of Peruvian history, as we have seen the conquest. It is worth a sustained look; for it nothing better than stopping and contemplating it. It also represents the pride, the manly character and the capable resolution; the sagacity, the foresight and the opportunity. The founder of the Civil Party that was to die at the dawn of his government, elegant gentleman dressed as a Levite; possibly follow us with the surprised look of our strange attire. The expensive desire of the generalissimo would be opposed in this way, who advocated, without nonsense, the constitutional monarchy as the appropriate means to govern Peru. Not in vain had been in the command of the empire and the viceroyalty, fourteen Incas and forty viceroys. The democratic republic smelled of novelty and anarchy. The smell has extended until our days, but something more loaded of anarchy that of novelty. In Lima, the Argentinian military officer, of dark complexion and speaking Cadiz, caused a sensation in social circles. The public greatness of the martial rider was only eclipsed by the lust for life power that seized him. A reproduction of this equestrian figure looks proud in the city of Caracas. The Liberator had to be remarkable with the sword and the pen, in both dexterous, his important trait lies however in his dapper prose and rich vocabulary. He was killed in the mountains of Berruecos, in Ecuador. Military, more than civilians, have assured the citizen's memory in marble and bronze, at least in Lima. But no one will spare that in their time the events they produced were a paradigm that has been recognized by the posterity of a monument. Possibly meditate this bewilderment in his fresh and cozy house in far Cordoba, worried why Peru has not yet acquired it. Water pouring from a pitcher a naked child can have hypnotic effects if contemplation is sustained. Marble and bronze richly worked. Such in the shadows of hidden pain shines, sometimes, a ray of hope... His steed is white. It tears the mist like a fast arrow; and on the high summit, standing on two feet, splashing foam with neighs of horror... and then jump! The statues of Lima, palely described, are a transcript of our history, some of them the product of the chisel of unparalleled masters. His first boss, Colonel Alfonso Ugarte, a few moments ago had launched from the nose flag in hand rider of his spirited chestnut, to the amazement of own and strangers. Oblivious to any request to save life, he maintains his military bearing before his captor, with the dignity of a soldier who has just been defeated but infected with the courage of subordinates and comrades who have died steadfastly in the performance of their duty. At first sight, the cultured, worldly man is discovered. Before sheltering the arms race, he had received a lawyer. Thus, considerations of that nature of dignity, courage and that of his Argentine nationality distance him from the firing squad and pass as a prisoner, among the very few who remained alive in that brave journey on the heights of the historic mole south of Tacna. Later it will be delivered to the military superiority that deposits it in Customs and then embarks on the Itata steamer. Released after three months, at the request of his family and the Argentine government, he returned to Buenos Aires in September 1880. There is doubt as to whether the group of distinguished chiefs of staff who appear with the illustrious Colonel Bolognesi were those posed for this shot because its authenticity would not be certified. After the defeat of Rosas in the battle of Caseros, the federal tradition of the grandparents and the father, who did not change their convictions, kept them away from public office. In 1875 he graduated as a doctor of law. During the Revolution of 1874 defends the authorities of the nation as captain of the regiment No. 2. He came to hold the presidency of the body at age 26, thus being one of the youngest presidents of the House. We will fight until we burn the last cartridge, superb phrase of a man, with a worthy oath of a soldier... and the oath was fulfilled by the Chief and by the last of his soldiers. His candidacy was supported by supporters of including minorities in the political system. President of the Nation.- The electoral commission of March 13, 1910, elevated him to the first magistracy. He assumed the presidency on October 12, 1910. Under his mandate, the electoral law is based on three key elements: the secret, mandatory and universal vote, using the military register. The law was a great advance in its time since it allowed large masses to participate in the electoral act, although it was still far from being completely universal: women and foreigners still did not have the right to vote. In addition, although foreigners did not vote, they were instead taken into account when determining the population of the districts and the number of deputies that could be elected for each one. Finally he delegated the presidential command to his vice president Victorino de la Plaza. He died on August 9, 1914, two years before finishing his term. It lies in the Recoleta cemetery in the Buenos Aires capital. His figure is remembered in Peru, some cities have dedicated a street with his name or raised monument in his memory. The story was ready to decant a character. This is how the official biography gathers the noble titles and the birth data of this character. He took his place early in the line regiments and attended all the combats that fought the war of independence against the French, a happy corollary with the victory of Bailén. Thus, the young officer was integrated into one of the divisions that went to Peru from Panama. His strong and tempered character in combat made him effective, cunning and cruel to the vanquished. Then came the promotion to captain on September 19, 1816 and, before completing a year in that service, that of second commander. It is in Arequipa, a beautiful city in the south where the Spanish soldier would cultivate a reciprocal affection with members of society. There he would find in a beautiful young woman of the local aristocracy space for feelings. They themselves were of that new caste, which like Espartero had witnessed the benefits of constitutional liberalism voted in Cadiz and therefore the viceroy was, in addition to what was said, a conservative at all costs. Soon they conspired to overthrow him, a fact that followed the so-called mutiny of Aznapuquio, which took place in a hacienda near Lima, on January 29, 1821. The deposed Pezuela left palace and marched with his family and escorted his beautiful residence of the Magdalena, hamlet west of the capital, mild climate, peaceful and comfortable stay. Shortly after the Marquis embarked for Spain. In expressing his report to the king, he was immediately invested with honors as well as a high military position. Naturally, the pronouncement of La Serna to depose the legitimate governor, had been in question. To avoid major evils it was urgent to make the king aware of the circumstances that gave rise to this dismissal. It was then decided to send an emissary to Spain. No better person was found for it than that of Mr. Baldomero Espartero. He arrived in Cádiz on September 28 and appeared in Madrid on October 12. A long trip, of course, enough for the remarkable collapse to take place in the old colony. Thus, during his absence had been the victory of Ayacucho and the allied armies engaged in that fair dominated the already independent Peru. Read the dispatches regarding the capture of Espartero, Bolivar ordered his execution. But this is where luck, this time in the form of a beautiful woman, will plead for her life. The young lover appeared before the Caraqueño to beg him to redeem such a punishment; the generalissimo was not at all indifferent with the daughters of Eva. Very early in the morning of the following day the jailer received a note with the order of the Liberator so that, in the term of the distance, the prisoner for Spain embarked, exiled in perpetuity. The lucky one, in prison, had spent the night playing hard and succeeding in gaining a considerable fortune, which the losers supposed would never make it effective. Fates of destiny, they were wrong. Good luck in love and in the game. Resumed later with greater vigor, he continued his remarkable activity distinguishing himself in this fratricidal struggle. In 1834 he promoted to Field Marshal. Espartero rejected the tempting offer to be king of Spain, partly due to his advanced age and also to political considerations. At the age of eleven, in 1837, he also received them from cartoonist Robert Tiller, a Frenchman who purged a crime for counterfeiting money in the local jail. Shown, the tiny piece caused a sensation by the artistic precocity of its author and fidelity. The amount of four hundred soles per month and his departure to Italy to study the fine arts was established. Montero is then without resources and returns to Lima in 1856. His fame increased in the Peruvian capital with the bill of portraits of characters of society and issues of classical extraction. The production of Montero was not vast, on the contrary, it was scarce. He had returned for the third time to Europe. The soldiers contain the disorderly troop of women who interrupt the religious ceremony. His funeral was celebrated with great solemnity. Pizarro and the main knights attended in mourning, and the troops listened with devout attention to the service of the deceased, celebrated by Father Valverde. Also the columns, of forced manufacture contrasted with the walls of classic trapezoidal niches, they are a product of imagination and composition come in relief. It is justified the need to improvise that Montero had, given that the knowledge of the Inca culture had not reached at that time the levels that are now of general dominion. The collection greatly helped the transportation to the Pacific and the port of Callao, where up in September 1868. Montero rewarded the scholarship granted by the Congress of the Republic giving the picture to that parliamentary corporation. He was awarded a medal, the prize of twenty-five thousand soles and the lifetime pension of two thousand a year. But that canvas, born in Florentine workshops by skilful Peruvian hands, was destined for another trip, this time one forced in an ill-fated hour for the country. In the long journey that brought her from Florence to Lima, she left behind a wide trail of influence that would have an important repercussion in both the development of art criticism and that of the history painting of the region. Towards 1862 he embarks on his third trip to Italy. Shortly after he died in Callao, a victim of yellow fever. Shortly after, he started the trip to South America. The Italian colony offers a banquet to the painter. until the end of February of the following year. His painting is exhibited at the Normal School until the end of October. An estimated 15,000 people visited the sample. The picture of the picture illustrates the 500-peso bill issued by the National Bank. Director of the Hospital of the Exhibition. for your intelligence and compliance. From October 22, 20 10 to May 1, 2011. With problems in one eye for an accident at Harvard University, where he graduated in 1814. He made an extended trip to Europe and on his return he married, abandoned the idea of the legal career to devote to literature. An attack of apology in 1859 was the cause of his death. His severe research work characterized him for an admirable narrative energy, based on his own research on unpublished documents in Spanish archives. Prescott was a man of kind and benevolent character; He enjoyed the friendship of many of the most distinguished men in Europe as well as in America. His specialized library came to add thousands of books. The circumstances of this reprehensible trip that has had the permission of the congress can not fail to be considered in the current circumstances that the country confronts a war, an act of desertion of the first national authority. 1837-1845 Studies of philosophy and mathematics in Huánuco. He interrupts his studies due to the death of his older brother and devotes himself to the agricultural affairs of the patrimonial lands. Promoted the liberal revolution is sent to Huancavelica, Acobamba, to harass government troops. For this action of arms is promoted to sergeant major. 1856 He is in active service under the command of the Union Lancer regiment. Castilla sends him to break the defenses built by Vivanco in Arequipa. Taken the city of the Misti Prado ascends to colonel. Command the Union Lancers regiment. 1862 Finishes its cantonment in Piura and passes to Chiclayo. On November 6 occupies Lima and supported by the army assumes the dictatorship on November 28. 1866 On May 2, the town of Callao, solidly reinforced by Peruvians and foreigners, expels the Spanish squadron of Pacific waters after a heavy and severe artillery duel. Prado was already 40 years old. 1867 On August 28 he convokes the Constituent Congress to end the dictatorship. On September 22 the revolution breaks out in Arequipa and on December 6 in Chiclayo. Defeated his forces resigns the command by pressure of Congress. President Pardo sends him to Europe to negotiate with the bondholders of the foreign debt. 1875 On July 7, the country's credit is restored. 1876 On August 2, by elections, assumes the presidency of the republic. Prado paid 50 cents for each ton of coal. 1879 On April 5, Chile declares war on Peru. It would be the bearer of an important flow of expenditures for the purpose of acquiring accoutrements, especially a replacement ship of the glorious monitor of Grau. The data of this disbursement had been published, day by day, with detail of the amount and the species. 1880 Aware of the unpopularity of his departure he launches a proclamation from New York where he points out the reasons for his departure. Peru does not receive any acquisition or equipment from General Prado. 1901 At the age of 75 years passes away in Paris, France. Dear father, I am wounded and a prisoner; Today at 8:30 I must be shot for the crime of having defended my country. He is greeted by his son who does not forget him. how lucky would have been the amount of the flow that would have been entrusted to him. However, the public condemnation always willing to judge prima facies and with that primitive objectivism not exempt of certainty, would weigh on these intelligent attempts of writers and journalists. It is the classic trial of history for facts never aired in public cause. History of electricity in Lima. This is more than 110 years ago. The current came from a steam plant of 500 h.p. The first transmission was made on August 6 at eleven o'clock in the morning. In April 1900, Santa Rosa committed to the installation of 4,500 lamps. By 1901, the lighting included 1800 poles and the private service, 8500 lights. Dear Sir, By different channels I have known that you. And that I did it out of consideration for the President of Chile, who is my compadre. Only Piérola, in his effort to deceive the people by apologizing to me, is capable of such ridiculous impostures. This assumption is as ridiculous as the others. I empower anyone who confronts me otherwise. if after the accusation that he makes me, after so many offers and bravatas to overcome and to finish with the enemy, if after promising to cut his hand before signing the peace, it was signed by himself? We'll see... Meanwhile I subscribe to you. Historian and journalist born in Sullana 1899. For these days of mourning and anguish news like yours are liniment and cure for evils. That if someone does it better, nobody like him. I do not think it is unknown to you. I also know that your Majesty often worries about matters, about the movements of the people in their absence. Freedoms and equality, what's up! The captivity of their majesties in Basque lands, beyond the Pyrenees, many calamities can happen to Spain if it is prolonged too much. But allow me, dear Marquis, to give you good news, which is also in the middle of this mess. My old father is still smart to leave small protest for issue that does not square in matters of raising cattle that concerns the defense of their currency. Severe censor mine who does not abandon the tasks of the field, and as any boy rides from early herding cattle, with his pawns, from the pastures to the troughs. Notable comarcanos attended the well-known temptation. The sun, the good wine and the countryside know how to disguise war and all calamities. The young Ramiro, who barely exceeds eighteen April, had requested the first Utrera for the opening day. The sets he knew how to apply and his particular skill allowed us to observe the valuable conditions that we long for in our cattle. The Countess, nibbling a handkerchief, disguised her mother's anguish; the count, dapper and serene, did not lose the sound of his son. In this there is rigor and a lot of care. Of the lot that few heifers were discarded, the rest passed the esteem. With this brief announcement you have. The family stayed with us until the end of the month. With some care for the situation we gave ourselves time and, as is tradition, we went hunting in search of partridges and deer of the that we realized. For these times the postillion does not come with the regularity of before, it is possible that this letter comes to you with a considerable delay, added to the one that has taken me to answer you. Greet him warmly, your friend and sure servant. In Badajoz, on the 16th day of August of the year of 1809. Jaén Something of the bullfighting vocabulary, close and also historical Astifino, the horn with sharp points. Bull whose antlers are fine from the ear, continue fine in their journey and ends in sharp pythons. Bragado, that res that shows some white spot in the belly, in relation to panties or pants. In Andalusia Abragado is common, since ancient times. Brega, the fight or desire to deal with the brave bull and in general all that this attitude represents of courage and also beauty. Lance in which facing the bull and with the capote on the back is cited by one of the two sides and is interpreted as if it were a natural or a right hand. Utrera, heifer from two years to meet the three. By natural, said a crutch pass that is made with the left hand and without the rapier. Tentadero, corral or closed site in which it is tempted, activity is the last to test the bravura or conditions of heifers and calves, for breeding purposes. The order of this name was instituted since ancient times. The only Viceroy of Peru who owned it. He had undertaken Ulysses the search for that Fleece for the world of Greek antiquity with remarkable success and whose passionate narration has reached our days. No small thing could happen to any possessor a lamb whose wool of gold grew as it was spoiled... perhaps it was a faithful symbol of the Spanish ideal. Decorated for his weapons deeds with the Cross of Santiago. He was the marquis of remarkable character and character. He received his appointment for the Viceroyalty of Peru, he embarked for his destination on December 31, 1723 and entered Lima on May 14, 1724. He ruled with a firm hand until January 4, 1736 date that succeeded the Marquis of Villagarcía. On his way through Panama he took severe actions to dispossess the English of any pretension. Disarmed a ship of that nationality that was potentially considered corsair. The old woman's saying spread quickly, and without our explaining why, it caused a lot of alarm. The most notable figures of Lima and the religious communities had sterilely interceded for Antequera. Our viceroy was hard to bake. He was near the scaffold when a friar exclaimed: "Sorry!", Shout that was repeated by the people. For there will be that of God is Christ. My side is a side and not the paper of Catalonia that is sold in the tobacconist, thought Castelfuerte. The infantry fired in all directions. The same viceroy, with a cavalry picket, gave a vigorous charge down the street of the Archbishop, without stopping to lie in the guardian and community of Franciscans who came for it. The town defended itself throwing on the troop tears of San Pedro, vulgo stones. Follow the procession, and we go with other sides. On the first day of the chapter, serious disturbances occurred in the convent, with no little alarm from the neighborhood. The next one was published a side advising the neighbors to discard all misgivings, because alive and healthy was his excellence to make enter the path to the reverends. The Augustinians did not take notice, and the scandal was repeated. It would seem that the thing happened in these asendereados times, and that it was the election of president of the republic in the tabladillos of the parishes. See, then, that also in the colonial era were cakes election. I ask for the fact to be recorded and forwards with the cross. His Excellency, with good escort, entered the convent. The friars locked themselves in the chapter house. Mother Nieves and mother Cuevas disputed the abbatial scepter. If the friars had thrown the clutter to their heads, the aristocratic canons did not go petty in spiders. This barrullópolis demanded side. The bochinche was repeated, troop entered the convent, and mother Nieves and her principal henchmen were transferred to other monasteries. This is called cutting for the sake and drowning in civil germ war. In such conditions the breeding ground in front of the first hint of subjection produced armed movements in two important moments, which history calls revolutions. One of them, the first, was the one that ravaged the region and for many years with Antequera at the head. In this matter the Franciscan friars of the region had lent their support to the insurgent, of course being part of the many who saw the Jesuit priests with bad eyes. To this add the territorial claims of the Portuguese of Brazil and the conquest of taimada England. Castelfuerte, properly chosen, fulfilled his role, put zeal and enough order in the vast kingdom. Elite troops in correct formation march accompanied by the drum rolls. The rhythmic blow of the calamorros of the infantry on the pavement of the road reverberates multiplied like so many painful blows in the chest of mothers, old people and children. Eyes accustomed, once, to the splendor of the viceroys and their triumphant income. From many houses hang flags and shields of the most diverse nationalities. Lima is presented to the eyes of the southern soldiers as a city of ambassadors. The weakness of the moment: the race is attacked by degrees of exultation but shaking also shakes. In an attempt to shield the humiliated and endangered nationality, under the subterfuge of the renunciation of their identity, many seek protection in that resource. The traditional door closer is complete; secured gates and shutters, the lonely streets. Separated the troop to garrison the old headquarters, the rest is directed on the premises that the Chilean intelligence has determined for accommodation of the thickness of the army of occupation, that arrives gradually. Many intact battalions raise their tents in open spaces or in the middle of the gardens. Ask the director of the library to visit the premises, which the director accesses by taking him through rooms, offices and warehouses. At the end of the meticulous journey, the soldier asks for the keys to the librarian who is reluctant to give them to him; finally there is no other recourse but to yield to this which becomes a requirement and urgency. The capital surrendered on January 17 to the Chilean forces, it took more than a month for the invaders to respect the training establishments. On February 26, I was required to hand over the keys to the library, beginning the most scandalous and arbitrary dispossession. The books are taken in carts, and I understand that they were shipped to Santiago destination. The library, to put it all, has been entered into the bag, as if the books represented war material. With feelings of high consideration and respect, I have the honor to offer myself from V. E. very attentive servant. He continues with an important series of republican documents until 1830. I remember reading in his own hand a heartfelt dedication to one of his children. Unfortunately on May 10, 1943 a fire completely destroys it; the water of the firemen takes care of the rest. Of his efforts we have the premises of Av. The Illustrious Director died on August 12, 1889 at the advanced age of 85 years. These ships arrived at the famous port on February 25, 1880, to relieve the armored Cochrane and his escort the corvette Covadonga that was already blocked and that had received punishment from the forts and batteries of the hill. Its flat and elongated silhouette that left to see tower and chimney gave this unit a strange appearance. This ship, by its characteristic conceived for fluvial operations more than maritime had been destined to the defense like pontoon. His dead work or superstructure jutted out of the water a few inches and offered little white to enemy fire. But his walk of something more than 4 knots, did not make it apparent for rapid developments in the sea. The torpedo boat America seconded the monitor in this task. These important changes, left the monitor in excellent conditions to beat the smooth-bore artillery of the forts of Callao and Arica, both with a range of 3,500 meters. It had been equipped with new boilers and its machine was overhauled. Then, the Chilean commander, having recklessly placed himself inside the firing range of the Peruvian artillery, immediately received well-directed concentrated fire. A grenade exploded on the monitor near a cannon mortally wounding an applicant and killing six crewmen and injuring twelve. Thomson thought it was easy to attend to the invitation to combat offered by Manco Capac and set course for him using the rapid walk of the ship under his command. He made maneuvers designed to ram with the spur but failed in his attempt. Dissuaded from it in view of the superior shielding of the Peruvian monitor, he ordered then to turn and in a moment offered the stern to his enemy. The projectile destroyed the mizzen stick, threw out the signal code and killed a number of crew members when it finally exploded. The Huáscar was knocked out and the engineers, in renewed effort, put the ship back into activity but removed it from the line of battle. Arica would stay another five months, free from harassment by sea. Benemérito Mr. Rear Admiral, General in Chief of the First Army of the South. It is honorable to inform the US. the events that took place on the day of this monitor, on the occasion of the battle fought between the batteries of the square and the "Huáscar" and the "Magallanes" that block the port. has knowledge, was in poor condition since previous days, and I fulfill the duty to recommend to US. the activity and the interest displayed by the first engineer Don Tomas Colguhoun to leave the composure of that boiler in the shortest time, a work that, except for this circumstance, would have taken a longer time to complete. There was a miserable moment in which one of the cannons of the tower was hindered, because the first section of the lance remained inside it; It was then when the "Huáscar" put us his prow, approaching quickly. 30 ms. I returned to occupy my old anchorage with the ship of my command. Before you finish, let me US. As for the history of the monitor Manco Cápac, this ship was part of the naval acquisitions made by the Peruvian government in 1868. An armored ship with a strong iron shell, its dead work stood out at full load only 12 inches and, generally, embarked water on the deck. The trip to Callao lasted 15 months. Then came the action on the Chilean blockading ships of February 27, 1880. Five months later, after the Chilean victory on land, Sánchez Lagomarsino sank his ship to prevent it from falling into enemy hands. He was born in Lima in 1844, died in Chosica in 1898. He attended the combats of Abtao and May 2, in which he was wounded by the shell of a bomb. His relations with Rear Admiral Lizardo Montero were strained and of deep disagreement. He operated in the Spanish-American War. Ship of the same category as the Manco Cápac monitor. Observe the strong structure. Credits: Photo of Commander Sánchez. It is clear that the European experience, like the American one, had contributed important factors to military science and to that of armaments. Chileans and Bolivians had them of these types. Tacna was the tactical point to end or continue the war. But the logistical necessities of the invader made necessary the capture of Tacna and the magnificent port of Arica that would be the place of boarding for the north. In addition, the cavalry and the mountain artillery left by land until reaching the valley of Sama and to coincide there with the coming from Ite. The allied troops remained in their headquarters in Tacna. Opposed to the defensive and sedentary plan advocated by Montero proposed to defend Tacna making the expense of the trip for the enemy. In spite of the hardness of the elements, only the strong tamarugo grows there at the expense of the wetlands that distil from the camanchacas or early mists. When these dissipate opens the sun and inexorably embraces the pampa as it passes to its zenith. The absence of water and shade are deadly factors for the improviders or adventurers. It is the pampa where is the hill Intiorco that gives its name. To the west of that road, the terrain, due to the difficulties it presents, is impracticable. Doing it on the east, by Quebrada del Diablo, produced superstition and connoisseurs avoided it. Some companies were dispatched over Moquegua using the railroad from the port. Despite the pregnancies offered by the resistance, the valley was dominated. A true civil imposition in military matters. Sama would then be the meeting point to form the army and the starting point of the attack on Tacna, 38 kilometers away. It was thought to continue the march when the sun wanes and after the high hours fall on the allied armies. Taking the population, forty villagers who had defended their property were put to the sword by the Chileans of Vergara, in open and cowardly reprisal. He is responsible for the massacre of the Peruvian horsemen in the nitrate office of Germania. An excessive and unnecessary action. that for the effect of the war they had been mounted in Valparaiso and Santiago. English capitalists of banking and commerce formed an important nucleus in this lucrative adventure of conquest of the desert territories. It was the euphoria over the saltpeter and the world demand to make gunpowder that kept them engaged in the lucrative task under the pretext of the defense of the homeland. For veteran general Erasmo Escala, head of the Chilean army, civil intrusion into military matters was intolerable and more than one discussion had led to his request for relief and resignation from office. President Pinto, echoing the request of Sotomayor, finally accepted that repeated resignation and to provide his replacement had to choose a boss apparent to the civil leadership. The hard effort of Ite's climb had fatigued the troops and many men fell down exhausted. The ambulances were very active. The news spread like superstitious aurea everywhere, no small thing was the death of a superior command, in this case a minister of state. The battle for Tacna claimed the life of an important enemy. In this way Baquedano, who was considered a fool, remained at the head of the army and his plans were fulfilled. To know the location of the allies, he sent cavalry troops on May 10, heading south in front of Intiorco. They were in sight of the allied sites and returned with their report. But those data needed confirmation. He then arranged for the departure of a cavalry squad of 700 horsemen, with about 300 infantry soldiers, and two Krupp pieces. Then they returned to their base in Buena Vista that same day to confirm the data of the previous expedition. They would wait for the enemy who would surely arrive in sections and beat him in detail. In case of any setbacks, the road to Bolivia was available. That is to say, it was suggested to go from the pernicious defensive wait to the action of the attack. The plan was based on a well-stocked line and the advantage of receiving the tired enemy by marches on difficult terrain. The decision would correspond to Bolivian General Narciso Campero. But Montero had the plan that that withdrawal would be on Arica that presented a better defensive line that could be reached by rail. In some way it would be necessary to settle this discrepancy. Disposed the departure of the troops with all their impedimenta and baggage to Sama. Later, however, an Italian spy who had followed the Intiorco route claimed to have seen the large Chilean army approaching from Sama. That place was called Alto de la Alianza, by virtue of the commitment of Peruvians and Bolivians in territorial defense. The prisoners declared that indeed the Chilean army marched on Quebrada Honda and had a force of 22,000 men. Campero alarmed by the number of enemies was persuaded that the only way to reduce the enemy forces was a surprise attack during the night when they were resting in the depression. This plan informed Camacho and Montero that they accepted immediately and with enthusiasm. Two hours after the march the fog or camanchaca appeared and in the middle of the darkness the Peruvian colonel Cáceres, knowing the area, noticed that they were obliquely pointing to the right in such a way that the enemy army could have been surpassed. Newspaper of this Campero ordered to correct the course on the left and soon collided with the Bolivian troops of the center that continued to the north, then there was confusion, the loss was a fact. Orders were given immediately for the commander-in-chief's assistants to return to Intiorco to feed bonfires, and at that signal the tired troops returned to their base, frustrated in their pretended surprise to the enemy. A great alarm spread among the enemy army that hurriedly shot a Krupp piece in the dark, at trial, injuring its own people. Herrera then, unsuccessful surprise in his final purposes and after warning that he was alone, returned to Intiorco. That was how adventurous and unexpected the plan of surprise was for the enemy who stayed overnight. Shortly after dawn the Allied troops returned to their bases, where an army of Bolivian rabones and the kitchen of the Peruvian Intendancy awaited them. The battalions that had dabbled in Quebrada Honda arrived at six. Herrera just showed up at seven o'clock. Armed rifles in pavilions the line soldiers were preparing to take breakfast, when suddenly the advanced lookouts touched the general with what the troop went to arms; The rabones were ordered to return immediately to Tacna. The Chilean army towards its appearance leaving a great dust; the forceful infantry bodies appeared in the distance in their characteristic uniforms. It was 10 in the morning, the sun was pointing and the clarity was splendid. Missiles from the field guns at the start are introduced into the unexploded arena. Camacho advances his troops to shoot in turn on the approaching enemy formed in guerrilla warfare, their striped cannons make an impact on the assailants who, to avoid further damage, rushed forward and flank. In this situation the troops of Cáceres del Zepita go to meet the Chileans with decided impetus firing their rifles to stop the assault. The fight is stubborn at this point to the extent that Baquedano arranges immediate reinforcement with the support of the Cazadores regiment. The allied defensive force is strong and the Chilean battalions are destroyed and they are giving ground. The Chilean right of Colonel Amengual gives way and begins the withdrawal. But Baquedano attentive to this circumstance employs the reserve. The scene of great confusion, rumble and smoke has as its background the inflamed shouting of the contending troops. I had barely advanced a hundred meters at the head of my Zepita and Misti battalions, when I lost the horse. My assistant, Captain Lazútegui, gave me his, which was soon rendered useless. From the assistants, who accompanied me, captains Chacón y Cabello fell. Our counterattack continued, meanwhile, persistent. The Colorados rivaled our brave Zepita, and the fray became more and more bitter. Allies and Chileans rushed furiously, doing extraordinary feats. However, our determined push was ahead, but we lacked reinforcements to cover the casualties and sustain the impulse of the counterattack, a reinforcement that was no longer possible because all reserves were committed to the battle line. The fire that led us from everywhere decimated my division and that of Suárez, and there were moments that we were in a tris of being completely involved, because the rest of the line had not accompanied our advance, because they were fighting hard in their own positions. Several chiefs had already fallen into the stubborn fight, dead or wounded; and the courageous colonel Camacho, commander-in-chief of the Center, was also wounded. I saw then the occasion to fulfill my predictions of the days of instruction: the brilliant infantry cadres, which for some were outlawed with modern tactics. They served us there to show the enemy the dexterity and strength of our soldiers. Before the load of the Chilean cavalry, I ordered to form cuadrilongos. On my left another, by the head of the third battalion, Lieutenant Colonel Zenón Ramírez, who a thousand meters to the rear had lost his horse. Finally, another two cuadrilongos to my right under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Felipe Ravelo. The speed of its formation corresponded to the rapidity of the advance of the enemy. A huge cloud of dust and the rumble of their weapons accompanied the steeds. The enemy arrived 15 meters from us. A discharge that seemed to be made by one man received it, and then another and another. The caballada turned in less time than is enough to say it. I ordered dispersion in guerrilla to continue with the advance. I was obeyed with astonishing serenity. The braves of the battalion launched in pursuit of the aggressor. The Peruvian artillery, endowed with less expensive pieces than the Chilean ones showed at first its effectiveness. Once in the height, supporting a very vivid fire of rifle and machine gun, it was impossible for us to make a fire, because our troops were already confused with those of the enemy. 1, both belonging to the 2. It corresponds to a high price paid by the battalion battles of the Colorados of Bolivia that was exterminated. Numerous and distinguished chiefs and allied officers gave their lives that memorable day. The surviving Bolivian troops set course for the altiplano. Montero with the park that could be saved towards Arequipa. The weak resistance of Tacna, undertaken by its authorities, was silenced by an artillery discharge. It keeps documents, uniforms, weapons and ammunition of that battle that summoned three armies. It was erected in the decade of the eighties. You can see some locations and the demarcations in the terrain of the allied troops, practiced in the places they occupied. I have collected, however, official and journalistic material to make up some history. It is still exciting to contemplate these ships moved by the wind and the marine expertise of their crews. Sailing Latin America Regatta, 2014. Unforgettable experience that this blog is proposed to be. Here details of this singular landfall in Callao: Itinerary: 1. Rio de Janeiro 02 - 07 February 2. Mar del Plata 22 - 26 February 3. Montevideo 28 February - 02 March 4. Island of the States 18 March 6. Cartagena de Indias 19 - 23 May 14. La Guaira 29 Very - 02 June 15. Santo Domingo 06 - 09 June 16. The visit to each ship takes considerable time and consequently it was not possible to address all of them, but with four of the most significant ones it was enough to prepare some photographic material that we now deliver and we have the feeling, color, smell and sound of that environment still present. The maximum height of the mainmast is 49.8 m and it has six electric winches for maneuvering sails. Its mission is to complete the professional training of the midshipmen of the Argentine Navy. The first rivet of his keel was put on December 11 of 1953. After his helmet was broken on May 30, 1956, his construction and enlistment suffered the ups and downs of the Argentine political situation, beginning the sea trials at the end of 1961. In 1963 he sailed from the port of Buenos Aires in his first instruction trip. In 2004, a complete mid-life modernization process was started again in the same shipyard that was born, which ended on March 2, 2007. The remodeling of the school ship included the replacement of the propulsion system, the power plant, the central air conditioning system, the change of the roof and the integral repair of the entire structure. It also included a reform in the solids of the midshipmen to include amenities for the new generations of women who attend the Naval School. It is the sixth Chilean ship under the name Esmeralda. Chile accepted the unfinished ship as part of the payment and, in 1951, work resumed. For the design of the candles the English designer Nicholson was chosen. The respect candles were made by the Echarne house in Gijón. Upon delivery, the school ship had an 800-horsepower auxiliary diesel engine. The cost price of the boat amounted at that time to 7,569,794 pesetas. They were also baptized the 4 sticks with the names that remind the ships previous schools. On his first trip he visited the ports of Cádiz and Málaga. Before arriving in the Canary Islands, he stayed 40 days in the Atlantic without touching the port until June 6. From April 18 to July 15, 1928, 5,769 miles were traversed in 57 runs and gave an average speed of 4.2 knots. 25 years later the same plans were used to build the Chilean school ship Esmeralda in 1952-1954. The boat has two water purifiers and a 265,000-liter diesel tank that feeds both its propulsion engines and its electric generators. With a cargo capacity of just over 600 tons you can be on the high seas for more than twenty days without having to go to port to stock up. In his training trips it takes about 22 days to reach America, making stops in different ports along its route. It goes around the world in approximately nine months; until 2008 he had done it ten times. Since its launch, it has sailed approximately 225,000 nautical miles in a total of seventeen Instructional Cruises. He was a soldier ignited by creative passion, an audacious imaginative. When no one saw the road, he moved accurately to central Peru and out of nowhere he raised an army. Where there was nothing but discouragement, it unleashed energy. When everything seemed to sink, he found a reason for combat. He was the founder and head of a new popular army. It embodied national consciousness and indelible dignity. The invader saw in Cáceres the most dangerous man, because he was precisely the most imaginative, and tried many times to kill him. Important antecedents For the second year of occupation of Lima, the clear and increasingly evident presence of resistance in the center of the country brought concern to the Chilean military authorities. There he would prepare the resistance and his few line troops would be added columns of montoneros armed with any offensive instrument, spurred the impetus by the hatred of the invader that caused so much damage in their villages. But the activity of the guerrillas was a constant obstacle to meet these purposes. That is to say, those were the bodies of irregulars animated by a kind of revenge that strengthened strongly on their spirit and that is why they were able to achieve unsuspected triumphs. Once these had acquired volume and consistency, adopted a defensive scheme and protected from that strategy of war of attrition reached enough strength to move to the counteroffensive. In Huancayo had imposed one of 100,000 soles and 60 horses to the population. His disastrous attitude, including the theft of money owned by the military box of the Chilean army was censored by his own command, who subjected him to court martial for corruption. Later the government of La Moneda would exonerate him for considering his services in the war important. That mission was a failure and on the contrary caused a scandal by the manifest acts of corruption and abuse of authority that were attributed to Letelier. Owner of a large booty collected from the houses of farmers, peasants and precious ornaments extracted from the numerous temples, fled harassed by guerrillas thirsty for revenge. A section of that force then went to the ranch of Sangrar, where it was attacked by a Peruvian battalion, which caused many casualties and the loss of fifty great rifles. Total cash: 3,220 places. By then Cáceres had 4 Krupp guns and 4 pieces of muzzleloader, smooth soul, for all artillery. Total cash: 1,000 men. The first confrontations between the regular Chilean troops and those of Cáceres would not take long. Cáceres prevented the debacle and despite the losses managed to fall back on Tarma. His army had been reduced to 1,000 infantrymen, 98 horsemen and 90 gunners, but it was still an important combat unit. Cáceres appeared in an enveloping march, on February 22, where he was least expected and started the uphill assault with his diminished troops and managed to impose on Panizo. He then assimilated the conquered cash and now, forming a single force, resumed his march on the Chileans who occupied the Mantaro valley. For that reason it was considered an elite regiment. For this reason many young people from the middle and upper classes came to their ranks. Busy Lima, Carrera was promoted to the rank of lieutenant. Little more than a year later, he was promoted to the rank of captain and chief of the fourth company of the Chacabuco regiment, which at that time was part of the division that occupied the central highlands of Peru. Ascent of which did not reach to find out. To obtain greater control the head of the division of the center, colonel Gana, had arranged to garrison the valley with fractions of troops located in the towns and villages separated from each other between 20 and 30 kilometers. It was clear that this fractional way of stationing troops could have serious consequences. That's what Lynch sensed and he was not wrong. The offensive could resume after the penetrating Andean winter. However, del Canto, urged by the circumstances and the considerable number of patients delayed the withdrawal. The enemy troops, in clear disorganization, after suffering many casualties, retreated to Zapallanga where they sought refuge. They had left behind a considerable amount of weapons and ammunition. It was the moment expected by General Cáceres. He decided to surround the fractionated Chilean forces, to prevent their withdrawal to Lima and beat them in detail, in parts. They marched accordingly and adjusted to the plan three columns with a total of 1,300 soldiers and 3,000 guerrillas. From that position the Peruvians could clearly see the Chilean troops of the Santiago Regiment. At dawn on July 9, General Cáceres executed a simultaneous attack with artillery and infantry. In this process the Chileans suffered 34 casualties. The Peruvian attack reached such intensity that the Chilean troops had to undertake another hurried withdrawal. The losses suffered by the invading enemy in the actions of Marcavalle and Pucará were considerable. They had 200 casualties, including dead and wounded. They also left ammunition and other supplies of war on the way. Their dead were buried by the Peruvian troops; among them six officers, for whom General Cáceres ordered special burial as well as the corresponding military honors. The Carrera company consisted of 57 soldiers, 1 sergeant, 4 corporals and 1 official second. They were joined by 2 sub-lieutenants of the fifth and sixth companies of Chacabuco, convalescing typhus. In addition 10 soldiers, all of them excluded from the service due to illness; 9 belonging to various companies of Chacabuco and 1 to the first company of the Lautaro regiment. The peaceful life in that town, despite the natural rejection of the population, made it seem that the newcomer detachment would not suffer major setbacks and the possibility of an immediate confrontation with the Peruvian army could be seen remotely. The headquarters of the garrison was the parish house adjoining the church and on the other end there was another one of two floors that served as a nursing home, located in the main square of the picturesque town of Concepción. In prevention Carrera Pinto had arranged external defenses. The back of the improvised barracks overlooked the slopes of the hill. The enemy backed towards Zapallanga. He had achieved his main objective and the Chileans had been evicted from Marcavalle and from Pucará. It was evident that they expected some attack. At 2 o'clock in the afternoon Peruvian forces appeared on the hills surrounding Concepción, a motley and populated town armed with rejones, machetes and some firearms in the company of regular soldiers in uniform but in smaller numbers. Undertaking a quick but orderly retreat advised instinct, given the growing number of the attacking host or, otherwise, remain in place. But it was very likely that in the attempt to withdraw the Peruvian guerrillas could ambush them and beat them in the open field, that was evident. Such a thing was expected, for so it was arranged. The garrison was fatally reduced to 74 soldiers. But, as expected, the messengers were discovered in their attempt and the comuneros gave a quick account of them and with this faded fact the search for help. In addition, he had just received a communication from Lieutenant Carrera himself, at 1:30 in the afternoon, for which he reported that the garrison under his command was without incident. The Peruvian force began sporadic and isolated shots from the hills. The Chilean garrison, forced to conserve ammunition, did not answer the fire. I was ready to repel a frontal attack. Carrera then divided his detachment in principle to defend the perimeter of the plaza de armas, where he had anticipated barricades, for which he distributed his men in the four accesses to the plaza. They immediately began the simultaneous assault on the plaza. The Chileans parapetados responded with a closed discharge, causing many casualties in the assailants, but the warmed spirit of these did not get discouraged and they continued in the struggle. They were rejected again and again until arriving little by little to the Chilean positions, first phase of the combat, which would last for one hour. The disciplined skill of the defenders under cover, firing their regulation Comblain rifles, produced accurate shot and caused considerable low. The Peruvian assaults with their weapons of all kinds and bill could not break the barricades and were forced to retreat to retry again and again penetrate the defenses of the adversary but not before causing him dead and wounded. There was no intention, despite the casualties suffered by the Peruvians, to suspend or conclude the attack. It was evident, however, that soon the resistance efforts would be silenced. The Chileans soon after were forced to retreat to the center of the square carrying their wounded and leaving the bodies of their fallen comrades in action. The new position taken by the Chileans had left them more exposed. Lieutenant Carrera then ordered the immediate withdrawal to the barracks and the parade ground was deserted, except for the corpses of the first moments. The heavy convent doors and the windows are sealed with staves, the resolute defenders They searched for embrasures to shoot. All who could take the rifle went to arms. That moment had come when the enraged spirits attacked and attacked with that unreasonable force, a desperate paradox to save life. The hope of the arrival of Gana and salvation was pending in the minds of the Chileans. It was a matter of time, while only the fight was to continue... At about 7 o'clock at night, the battle recommenced, this time the attackers continued firing at the barracks but advanced protected by darkness. Finally they reached the walls of the enclosure. The men of the Chacabuco left in groups to repel the bayonet, with which they managed to push back their attackers. This action, repeated several times, in spite of managing to remove the Peruvians from their position for a moment, had caused them to suffer losses in a greater proportion. Owners now of the position of the square, the attackers could penetrate to the houses bordering the barracks that ended surrounded. Climbed on neighboring roofs and from different angles, they continued firing at the target and causing more death among their exhausted adversaries. Already the Chilean barracks was enduring its last moments. The screams intimando to the surrender followed one another. But it was evident that those soldiers would prefer to continue the struggle, the alternative of life was remote in the hands of the guerrillas. They knew of the resentment they kept. By midnight of that fateful day half of the Chacabuco company had perished. The survivors were still fighting. Then, a dramatic variant arose for the time being. Several openings were made in the soft but thick adobe walls of the old temple and some daring raiders who penetrated by them climbed on the thatch roof and set it on fire; immediately the fire spread. They wanted to force the evacuation of the enemy to the open field. Tongues of flames, fanned by the attackers, seized the barracks and their precarious occupants crowded where they could. Carrera Pinto decided another exit in order to clean the perimeter. At the head of his group he made his way, advancing along the front and the sides of the barracks. The rest that remained in the interior tried to move the wounded from the fire and stop the Peruvians who were already entering. It was in these circumstances, according to Chilean versions, that the determined lieutenant and several of his men fell dead in action, the first by a bullet that pierced his chest. No more than two dozen men fought desperate, now under the command of Second Lieutenant Montt who was also killed. The responsibility then fell on the young Pérez Canto. The emissaries sent to request the new surrender were shot in the heat of the battle and this infuriated the attackers who considered such a reaction as an act of treason. The attacks lasted throughout the morning, without mitigating and without the Chileans decided to present the flag of parliament. It dawned finally and Perez Canto was forced to make a new incursion outside the barracks and succumbed in his purpose. Colonel Gastó, in the face of such bloodshed, wanted to save the lives of the survivors and exhorted Cruz to abandon his combative attitude. It was useless, the contagion of heroism was evident. Then Cruz ordered the few men left to leave the premises to force his way into the square. In the act lieutenant and companions succumbed. The few soldiers still alive had no choice but to drop their rifles amid the disconsolate crying of the cantineras. They had sustained their fight to the end. They were handed over to the commander who was in charge of the assault. But the Peruvian officer was not enough to contain the manifest and angry anger of the guerrillas. Colonel Gastó and most soldiers and officers of the regular army had retired shortly before, in compliance with superior orders, he knew that in practice the combat was over and it was a matter of little time to surrender to the enemy survivors. But the background was eloquent regarding treatment and reciprocity. This time, dozens of them lay dead in that battle in Concepcion. Guerrillas, many of them who only spoke Quechua but who had a sense of theirs and the determining force of the fight. Oblivious to every persuasive voice, they threw themselves on the survivors and, before the horror of the neighborhood, they finished them without contemplation. Chilean reprisal In his withdrawal, the Chilean leader entered Concepción and came across the Dantesque painting. Immediately afterwards he ordered in revenge to shoot as much montonero and resident, without exclusion of age or sex was at hand, to burn the houses and to devastate with the town. to occupy the heights of this town, to be attentive to the evolutions carried out by said gentleman general and to operate immediately in concert with them. I did not want to give up a single point of the resolution that I had brought from Comas, to attack the enemy without loss of moment. He knows that he would accompany me in my company even if it is only. Valladares; taken the rear by US. I descended from the front to take the right flank of the adversaries, appearing through the portals. in his purpose of keeping his forces intact, in obedience to superior instructions, he retired to the heights to spend the night and to procure his soldiers' ranch. I was also involved that Lt. Col. Francisco Carvajal had been wounded. The enemies left the barracks reduced to ashes at 12 o'clock at night and took refuge in the adjoining room, located on the left side of the mother church, leaving in that more than 15 corpses. Those who occupied the tower next to the last trench of the enemy, are those who have caused it. The fires stopped on both sides for more or less short intervals of time; in this situation we stayed all night until 7 am today; At this time we long to arrive at the epilogue of the bloody drama, we think to make forados in the walls that surround the barracks and give the last assault. This ignoble action produced in the assailant rank the most vivid indignation, which took oaths in unison so as not to give quarters to the rest of those who still resisted within the thick walls of their trench. In the act 50 men rushed to the enemy's enclosure, like a pack of tigers, and killed them after a truly horrible resistance. today, the weapons function came to an end, when there were no enemies with whom to fight. A newly born creature has been found dead among the heaps of corpses and another was saved alive by Don Dámaso Peña; one of the women had given birth two days before the fight two twin creatures. She did not need to recommend the behavior of those who assaulted Concepción, she recommends herself; It was their currency to beat and they won. A few moments before US entered. If it had been achieved, the fate of that Chilean division, already badly battered, would have become urgent. Cáceres became the owner of the Mantaro Valley. He established his headquarters in Tarma and dedicated himself to reorganizing his army. His goal had been partially achieved. By January 1883 it already had 3,200 men trained, equipped and disciplined. The day of Huamachuco awaited him. Second edition corrected and augmented. The tower of that belfry has not been rebuilt, we do not know that there is a desire to do so. We do not know either the reason for the silence of the bells of Lima, other noises and shrillness have displaced them; probably the advanced age of the towers and earthquakes has oriented such ostracism. The greater the forgetfulness in which the national history has plunged him, his fame, hidden by curtains of ingratitude, inopia and stupidity, grows with the years within the few circles of those who have him present and we respect his memory. The British colonial forces of Rhodesia reinforced by strongly equipped expeditionary troops from the metropolis were a severe threat. On January 18, 1915, this body of army, remarkably effective, although scarce of men and equipment, returned to defeat the British at the Battle of Jassin. These initial victories allowed him to capture new weapons and supplies to the enemy with which he could better supply the small army, but at the cost of considerable casualties. Great library that should belong to the nation. He died in the modesty of his home, in poverty, at the age of 95, but until the last of his days his pension as a general was honored by the Bolivian Congress. In 1805 or 1810 he would have moved to Chile, living in Santiago. His presence in Chile would be to fulfill military duties. He found there a favorable environment for religious painting, military portraits and the characters of the wealthy classes, of great demand in the nascent republic. Gil de Castro became the great portraitist of the campaigns of the liberating armies of South America and, consequently, his painting represents the passage from the colony to the period of the republic. The artist's scholars say that according to the dates of his paintings, the painter remained in Chile until 1825. As of that year, only works signed in Lima correspond to portraits of the most important and elegant ladies of society. Peruvian You can see from his oil paintings the prevailing characteristics of the pictorial art of the colonial era. A studied drawing and the gradual use of luminous and symbolic colors such as red. He showed a particular sensibility to capture the physiognomic features of his models, including all kinds of details and scenographic elements with an emphasis on the lineage and dignity of the people portrayed, now very much of his style, somewhat stifled given the hieratic way he used to dress them. In this way his paintings acquire not only an artistic value, but also valuable historical testimony. Soon that space became a place of obligatory visit for anyone who wanted to pass for bohemian or intellectual, which in some way also gave him some artificiality. Viceroy Theodore de Croix; 1784-1790 35. Viceroy Gabriel de Avilés; 1801-1806 38. Viceroy Joaquín de la Pezuela; 1816-1821 40. He is the author of the magnificent book Ferrocarriles del Perú: a journey through his history, a singular work for its content and scope, indispensable in the library of all Peruvians. It is appropriate to mention here that the Central line, when the war of 1879 broke out, reached Chicla. Now it is in a slow but clear recovery. Gratuitous and evocative this event, made effective on the basis of the particular photographic heritage and the erudition of Mr. Galessio. His independence as such is achieved in 1918. His family, nationalist dissident and patriot, had to take refuge in France, where he arrived in 1831 when our subject was thirteen years old. Malinowski arrives at Callao on October 31, 1852. We can summarize his work in this way: 1. His direct participation in the Pisco-Ica railway project. In 1859, he presented the transandean railway project to the government of Castile. Ramón Castilla did not give priority to this project; Malinowski did not give up on the idea and continued to present studies in this regard on subsequent occasions. Malinowski made the preliminary outline, selected the route through the Rímac creek - discarding other possibilities - and prepared the budget for the works. Malinowski held the position until the return of the owner in 1890. During the Chilean occupation he was forced to emigrate to Ecuador in 1880, and returned in 1886. Three of these consequences or implications were international. Disarmed, the Chilean troops were driven to the city of Arequipa, there they were hospitalized to be returned to Chile after the war, in October 1891. Peru was reconstituted gradually, with serene firmness. This anomalous situation was not objected and the clever Briton knew how to reward such tolerance with largesse. Nothing, absolutely nothing, could be done without their acquiescence. An interesting case where real rights, private tenancy, national sovereignty and public morals are combined. The great Chilean magnates raised it to their level without the slightest difficulty. North continued to rise above that monetized aristocracy that was so humiliated. The lists of deputies and senators used to pass through their hands, because the supporters required the "advice and collaboration" of the great man of the City. The documents have shed light on the enormous corruption that North sowed on a social class that, blinded by gold, twisted one of the noblest traditions of Chilean history: its austerity. He then endeavored energetically in a campaign to reverse this situation in some way by facing the anomalous state of affairs, without departing from his liberal policy, but keeping in mind the Portalian spirit that seized him. 49 and other articles of the Constitution that constitute the fiscal Congress and judge of the high administrative officials; 7. 28 of the Constitution, which establish "that only by virtue of a law it is possible to: fix annually the expenses of the public administration and also fix in each year the forces of land and sea that must be maintained in peacetime and of war"; 10. For the first ones the command was centered in Iquique and for the rivals it was Santiago. It should be noted that the army, in its great majority, was on the president's side and that there were frequent betrayals and those other misfortunes of the internal wars, which were pressed by resentment, material and political ambition at the moment, according to the situation. Considerable resources were mobilized on both sides, and with this there were some international incidents related to the acquisition of war material. It had the bulk of the Navy and the glorious monitor Huascar was among the mutinous ships. They do not feel capable of facing the fight. The unnecessary killing and acts of repase and all sorts of excess experienced in the recent war with Peru are repeated multiplied, but the loss of lives on this occasion is substantial. The people of Arequipa, resentful and clearly annoyed by the presence in their lands of those enemies of the recent past war, showed somehow their indignation but without reaching greater hostility. The revolutionary government demanded diplomatically the delivery of Arrate, equipment and men, but Peru refused. The fate of this detachment in Arequipa lands would not have been entirely bad, because the unsurpassable climate and abundance of the beautiful and fertile valley were not foreign or denied. With the victorious revolutionary events, it was clear that victory was coming and with it the end of the civil war and its considerable damages. Colonel Arrate sent a note dated September 16 to the representative of Chile, explaining his distressing situation and requesting tickets to return to the division. These troops who had been faithful to Balmaceda, upon their arrival had to suffer the harsh and unappealable dictates of the victor. As for the purchases of warships by Balmaceda, some armored vehicles were obtained, which were eagerly awaited by the government for eight months, but, given the revolutionary victory, they continued their navigation in European waters. Captain Recaredo Amengual requested permission to hire workers and ship supplies, water and coal. The hostility of the imperial government was manifest and the German port authorities limited the delivery of fuel and supplies to a minimum. On September 17, the cruise ship sailed bound for the French port of Le Havre. The aforementioned general led the army in the battle of Concón on August 21, 1891, and August 28, 1891 in the Placilla. In this last one he was wounded and seeing everything lost he tried to escape, but cornered by a group of cavalry on the way to Valparaiso he was barbarously murdered. His corpse tied by a bow to the implements of a horse was dragged through the streets of Santiago. For his distinguished services he would be decorated by the Kaiser. Revolutionary troop Every fifth man in a column is passed by arms. Later, the modest character would reap fame and fortune on the basis of the misery and dispossession of the Peruvian owners and workers. The war was imminent and inevitable at that time. The moment was speculative. Then North negotiating advantageously with those individuals in process of ruin, it was transformed, very soon, into the exclusive holder of the nitrate rights and with it acquired the total management of the lucrative industry. Once the Chilean government had arranged the delivery of the nitrate offices to the holders of the respective titles, the wealth of the province would no longer return to other hands than those of the fortunate North. Neither would Chile enjoy it. With all of which he obtained the dominance of the nitrate industry and also the political influence in all Antofagasta and its neighbor Tarapacá. Add to this the important input that represents nitrate in the manufacture of gunpowder, so demanded at all times. The once modest English adventurer, who had once arrived on the shores of Tarapaca with just over £ 10 in his pocket, was now inaugurating a personal empire whose head was to be located for a long time. North of the 27th parallel was the master. For Peruvians the procedure proved fatal, especially to those who, under the weight of events, chose to sell their rights on the international stock exchange and had to do so at miserable prices. Chile showed no interest in acquiring the rich patrimony for lacking a shrewd treasury policy and thus making itself for the State of all Peruvian credit. Apart from the direct offers made to British industrialists by the ruined Peruvians, the remaining shares were delivered to the London stock exchange. By 1886, North owned 40% of the Peruvian titles offered for sale and all the nitrate mines that as a result of its examination proved an adequate yield. He then bought all the initial contributions, including those of his partner Harvey, becoming the highest ranking nitrate arbitrator. However, this overwhelming monopoly boom, during the government administration of an influential politician of the Chilean bourgeoisie, was to become scaly for North. The great Chilean magnates raised it to their level without the slightest difficulty. North continued to rise above that monetized aristocracy that was so humiliated. The lists of deputies and senators used to pass through their hands, because the supporters required the "advice and collaboration" of the great man of the City. The documents have shed light on the enormous corruption that North sowed on a social class that, blinded by gold, twisted one of the noblest traditions of Chilean history: its austerity. There, North's will was the only valid one. Tax Balmaceda of this reality, decided to revert in some way this shameful situation, because they were subjected to severe test national sovereignty and dignity. It then reduced its nitrate policy to the exploitation of undeclared deposits, to the improvement of the performance of slow companies or with uneconomic performance. Moderately raised export taxes to apply them in public works. That is, a timid initial reaction against the power of the British. However, in April 1887, he issued a decree that end to the nitrate certificates for sale in London claiming them for the government. By 1890, Balmaceda had rescued for Chile 71 nitrate offices plus 60 that the Peruvian government had declared in abandonment, and all potential denouncement sites, discovered but not exploited. Balmaceda corrected, along with his mistake, that of the suicidal policy of the government of Santa María. He then went on a clear and active crusade. Although, the rescued nitrate heritage complex could not compete with the 21 offices of North and its overwhelming industrial and economic machinery allowed to try an equal treatment with the potentate and overwhelming competitor. The deployment of the propaganda was of the magnitude that only he was able to provide. The expenses for the parties that followed the event were borne by the nitrate company. That is to say, it was arranged that as long as North remained in Chile, all consumption of the workers of the nitrate offices would be for the account of the company. Finally, the Englishman decided to negotiate directly with Balmaceda in peaceful terms. The president with this determined attitude confirmed his firm intention to rescue for Chile the wealth of saltpeter. Warned by this and other gestures of the failure of his purposes, the English potentate left the palace of La Moneda and left the Chilean coasts never to return. In response Balmaceda ordered the loyal army corps to march against the rebels. The parliament against the executive. A war that would be more bloody than its Pacific precedent; thousands of Chileans lost their lives and the material damage was considerable. With the battles of Concón and Placilla the actions that put in defeat the punished troops loyal to the government ended. He was born in Yorkshire, England, on January 30, 1842. More than 15,000 men were transported in numerous ships convoyed by navy ships. But the fire of the powerful guns of the squadron and the burning of the sacks of saltpeter that were crowded in the dock allowed, with many casualties of the attackers, the final disembarkation and the taking of the square. The occupation of Peru had begun. Patricio Lynch Zaldívar, officer of the Chilean Navy. President of Chile in the period 1881- 1886. In October of 1996, on an official visit for electoral reasons, I arrived in this distant southern port of Chile. The color of the roofs of the houses, the view of the Strait and coincidentally coincided with the arrival of my arrival, gave me a special feeling. The sun looks far away in those latitudes; the light is still shown after 22 hours. Veterans of the Guerra del Salitre took up arms on both sides and were recorded as weapons facts without antecedents. This humble origin would undoubtedly be the incentive to rise up in the world of universal knowledge at infrequent levels. Product of this last specialty is that he translated the drama Ollanta from Quechua into Spanish. Librarian of the College of Medicine and professor of Greek at the same institute. He founded an Academy of Sciences. He obtained his retirement in 1905 and died in Lima on December 4, 1909. Obras Ollanta, or the severity of a father and the clemency of a king. Memorandum of the Peruvian natural products that come from the three kingdoms. First President of the Republic. In charge of the Command, with full powers, Grancolombiano. Liberator of Peru, Grancolombiano. He would have to dedicate to Peru, especially Lima, about four years of his existence that reached early departure at fifty-six. Much of that time in Peru remained in the capital, from mid-December 1842 until the end of January 1845. He also traveled through different provinces and departments in the south. Dragon of the President's escort. Rugendas would have bequeathed us the flavor of that capital of Peru at the time of which there is still a lot to admire. Let's look carefully at the chosen engravings to understand it. Profuse Mudejar arches in cloisters and patios, doors, windows and gates. Towers and viewpoints, which look like watchtowers or minarets that were, after all, that; atavistic prevailing customs, not completely disappeared in our days. Rugendas, 1843 In the new mall of the Rímac. The demanding explorer found in the young artist the right person for his expedition to Brazil, where he arrives in 1821. Contagious of lively nostalgia and adventure returns to America. The second when, in his eagerness to save two conspirators against General Ambrosio Benavente and allow them to flee, he is imprisoned for two months and then expelled from the country. It remains on Mapuche land, beyond the projected, captivated by the beauty of the landscape and the native. Rugendas agreed to a passionate and clandestine adventure, which ended with the retirement of the mistress in a religious house. Also in Chile its production is generous; more than 850 plates, including oils, watercolors and sketches are recorded there. Carried away by his passionate spirit, he knows and undertakes love affairs with a beautiful young woman from Valparaíso belonging to a wealthy family. From the top of the Alps to the distant Andes mountain range. A heart attack removed him from life on May 29, 1858, before his month of marriage. It lies buried in that village in North Bavaria. As the sources of inspiration invite the research itself, we have collected some data whose historical and sentimental value we consider of some use. The result of all this immoderate affliction hurts the eye: a conglomeration of forms, perhaps only value, but not the one that at its cost has been sacrificed. The most scandalous scandal caused the death of his excellence in that remembered street, today third block of the Av. The urban nomenclature of then had followed the remote origin of the remarkable events, as it is the case of the street Egg, fifth block of the Av. fauna has also lent names to numerous streets, of them Pericotes, second block of the Av. All this was called the Long Alley: a wide and dark passage where the people formed the resistance, was grouped. What he was doing was simply waiting for a Chilean soldier to pass by, they were ambushing him and hitting him. Recall that this corner of the city was then outside the city walls of Lima. For that, several suspects were arrested from those neighborhoods that were shot along with Don Carlos, the German and others on the border wall, to enter Bravo Street. Nailed to the top of the wall, two crosses that empirean the vulgar painters to cover with tempera paint, remember such tragic events. The word lynch was born there. The Chilean dictator quintet, that is, shot one out of five, to the surrounding villages for three eternal days. The protest of the diplomatic corps, of course, did not wait. He only did it when he understood that nobody was going to present himself to confess: laws of the resistance, that they are called. "Calle de Aldabas. Point to Leonce Angrand's pencil. The style of the Bauhaus was characterized by the absence of ornamentation in the designs, even in the facades, as well as by the harmony between the function and the artistic and technical means of production. Long, harmonic facades on its floors, with profusion of glass in large windows. 2 Founder of the famous town of Zaña, in Lambayeque. 3 This virrey is known as his pious native, he listened to all the masses, including the dawn called misa parva. It swept the church of Los Desamparados, next to the palace. Their assets went to the hospice houses and to the asylums. 5 The original article was published in Ultima Hora, in February 1992. Subsequently, it received amendments and additions, a process that apparently does not end. That phrase "It's for the cat" he had heard it and even I mentioned it myself without knowing its true origin. I hope still not be for the cat. They are faithful to the description and in many cases improve those. After all, Palma is no more descriptive than narrator, on the contrary, the brushstrokes of characters and customs are sketches that reach the mind of the reader so much richer are their knowledge of colonial art, especially Lima. In the case of Maestro Castillo, this matter is patent. Dress in livery, high leggings, black shoes and a powdered wig. It is possible that the coquetísima Lima of saya and mantle with embroidery of flowers and lace of the wide skirt, to exhibit those white arms so well formed, with the gesture that assumes in the crucial moment, move without remedy the fantasy of more than one admirer in love. If the vanity and softness marked in the metropolis matters of the aristocracy, because the Peruvian was not far behind, given the important nobility of the conforming society of those centuries. As a young man, he continued his studies in Europe until 1885. This was the advice of his drawing teacher, the Cuban Boudat, to Castillo's father. He is the first to bring illuminated photography to Peru. He still goes to Spain in 1908 because he wants to see Fortuny again. On his return, he exhibits at the National Library and begins his activity as a painter and art critic. Castillo is the painter of a life that passes lightly, as if suspended between beautiful architectures on a country that remains distant and unknown. Fine-sketching artist and one of the best art critics of his time, he is the painter of Lima's past par excellence. I paint with affection and with mastery of technique, of impressionistic tendency, bequeathing us beautiful pictures evocative of our Inca and viceregal past. Doctor Francia, resolute and with a firm hand, did not allow any interference in external affairs or inmates. He maintained an absolute neutrality. Prohibited the departure of natives, except on rare occasions and with exceptional permits; neither the entrance to the foreigners, reason why it did not have accredited any diplomatic agent. Self-support and non-dependence were the goals of that iron conductor. Hated with special cruelty, but in spite of those feelings he kept his intentions against the reaction, credulous of his apparently omnipotent power without allowing or allowing himself a glimpse of fear or contemplation. Isolated without remedy, in the Chaco, he led the autonomous development of his country. However, in that long interregnum, which would be a reason for uprising and suffocation, France raised the material conditions of the nation. An example that England was not willing to tolerate. With him had also succumbed much of the brave Paraguayan nation forged in the anvil of Dr. Francia. Anticlerical, xenophobic, tyrant and advocate of economic autarchy, however was the founder of the Paraguayan nation. The viceroy used both reasonable condescension, generous persuasion, and military action for this purpose. At the time Abascal faced such a delicate situation with ingenuity, courage and success, although temporary, but when he no longer occupied the viceregal seat. Hygiene and medicine had by this time not reached their beneficial generative and dispensing action of extended life. But exceptions have the rules and in that subject we lack competence. Thus, the future first Marquis of Concord had won, meritísimo, those titles in his great performance performed with skill and in conditions of the most pressing that some governor suddenly came. This prince, ambitionado to happen to the father in the first opportunity without waiting for him reached the natural death and in his bed. This should not call scandal, because not a few cases were recorded old when more than one prince put an end to the long reign of his father to see that his existence matured without hope of inheriting the throne. Put thus in the circumstantial of the history, the Spanish town when knowing itself without king did not accept the intruder king and on the contrary decided to fight the French domination. He argued that the power had been given by God to the people and entrusted to the king, but not having it, that power returned to the people and therefore ruled from the so-called juntas. Later, restored to the throne, this king would betray those noble efforts of his people. Consequently, impetrados of equal prepositions the peoples of America imitated them: they formed boards of government integrated by criollos who assumed the government in the name of the absent monarch. But the emancipatory ferment, so dear to the circumstances and the unconfessed desires of many criollos, was manifesting itself in the facts despite the care that Abascal put on safeguarding. A shrewd step to win the will of the lawyers, great trainers of conscience and therefore potential and severe opponents. Instruction as a tool for progress. After serious struggle the royalist troops finally recaptured Chile for the Spanish Crown in 1814. This task had meant a great financial effort for the Viceroyalty of Peru since all the efforts of the colonial administration were directed towards war aims, neglecting any civil work. The confinement, as few Sundays had been yesterday, of the good ones; six beautiful bulls of the Jaral waited watching the wind their exit to the space from the chiqueros where they huddled together. Despite the bans of all meetings, the square was full butt. The shout and fanfare of the assistants, so magnanimous in procuring them, as avaricious in lavish applause, already thundered the airs in open protest by the delay. But, a well-known pawn of the square, of those affected with the contagious spectacle, opened the door of chiqueros and soon they broke into the rowdy arena of the six of the Jaral. Launching bulls that emptied anywhere wherever they were in those unfortunates. You can imagine scenes of the most frightening, and you will have guessed right. It is therefore, my lord, that the defeat of Pamplona was punished on Sunday in the serene Plaza de Jaén where there is no French living to tell it. With the hope put in this note that will take to your heart of Spanish the natural rejoicing by as strange as overwhelming victory in the mountainous areas of my town, I say goodbye to you And tremble in your centers the earth, to the sonorous roar of the canyon. This happened in the interregnum from 1861 to 1867. France withdrew its dejected troops to never repeat another attempt. From this bloody form, as in Ayacucho in 1824, in Callao in 1866, American independence, long fought, was assured. With the action he showed his willingness to go with arms in support of Mexico. Here a tight synthesis of those events, the dramatis personae and its outcome. Once the international deadlines and constraints had expired, the proud European creditors, unable to recover their speculative profits, subscribed to the London Convention. That document expressed the commitment to recover their debts on the basis of a punitive intervention in Mexico. For this purpose, their respective expeditionary troops would embark. It should be pointed out that the War of the Reformation faced the two sides in which the Mexican society of liberals and conservatives was divided. Juarez, counting on the respective legislative approval, had declared suspended those commitments acquired and the postponement of the payment of the large debt to its European claimants. Its objective, the taking and submission of the city of Mexico. His troops incorporated the regiments of the famous Foreign Legion and the Egyptian Mamluks in their unique uniforms. The soldiers of the country in relative inferiority of arms, empirical but constant experience and with a cash below the required number, they showed themselves out of these circumstances and limitations with the redivive value of stripping their independence once more, however it might be. Now, it was the turn of the French to make an incursion into the territory of the brave Aztec nation. Latrille was willing to comply with the effective French intervention, which immediately made itself felt. But the ambition was superior to that purpose as we have told it. In the first confrontation the Mexicans waited for the leaks of Puebla the French attack. Produced the action and fought in firm the result was adverse to the attackers; It cost the French dearly. His general in chief Lorencez, defeated and his shattered columns escaped in complete dispersion could not avoid crying at such a failure, which decided to retire to Amozoc. The crossing to the Mexican coasts of the Atlantic was made on the French frigate Novara. The Mexican Congress declared him a traitor to the country, giving orders to arrest him in case he returned. Iturbide, ignorant of this resolution, returned to Mexico in July 1824. Upon disembarking in Tamaulipas was arrested and later executed by a firing squad. By the time of Maximilian I, the Mexicans were a numerous native people and their miscegenation added to the years of internal struggle had them unified in terms of courage and patriotism. His proclamation, in addition to encouraging the defense to shake off the new yoke, leaves feeling the search for international support. He was officially received by the Mexican government of Benito Juárez on March 16, 1862, and immediately engaged in intense activity. Document that in its fundamental part stipulated the mutual aid in case of being attacked by forces coming from foreign countries. The latter referred to Mexican republican and nationalist liberals. However, the fatality had to rule with our diplomat, the ship that was driving it caught fire and as a tragic consequence that enlightened Peruvian disappeared in the waters of the stormy Caribbean. However, I intend to answer, although very briefly, the most important points of your letter. In response to such absurdity you demanded the free expression of the national will, as a result of universal suffrage. Frankly speaking, I've been very deceived: because I believed and hoped that you were one of those pure organizations that ambition can not corrupt. It is impossible, sir, to accede to this instance, because my official occupations do not allow it. We know too well in America the value of that public faith, of that word and of that honor, just as the French people know what the oaths and promises of a Napoleon are worth. The lack of time forces me to conclude, and I will only add one observation. But there is one thing that is beyond the reach of the false and perverse, and this is the tremendous sentence of history. This act also gave rise to the railroad in Peru and South America. However, the dream of the iron road had been waiting for a long time. If one takes into account that the mass transport of cargo and passengers was done by carts and stagecoaches pulled by horse trunks, the change must have been remarkable, practical, comfortable and profitable. The graphs show that locomotive moved by a piston coupled to a crankshaft, directly to the driving wheel, which was moved by steam produced by a cauldron fed with coal. You can see the machine that pulls the coal tender and its water cask. Later it will make it of the train wagon, with which the heavy transport for cargo and passengers is revolutionized. Edward Pease, promoter of the company then granted Stephenson the position of chief engineer and on September 27, 1825 a locomotive began the journey carrying eight tons of weight, at a speed of 25 kilometers per hour. Can the reader imagine the importance of that new advance of the transport by land at that time. After a long technological battle and in spite of the decided rejection of the peasants and farmers, on September 15, 1830, the Liverpool-Manchester line was inaugurated. By 1829, our designer and inventor had manufactured what he called the suggestive The Rocket, to transport cargo and passengers at the dizzying speed of 40 km h. Then began the slow decline of carriages and stagecoaches, for progress had arrived. On the matter there is a marked discussion. If this temperament is adopted, then the question of the South American primacy in the use of the railway will be reduced to criteria of mere taxonomy or classification; that in truth, true Peruvians and Chileans, we come together. In Chile, on December 25, 1851 marks an unforgettable date for Copiapó. To the rhythm of bells and whistles the first train made a complete journey from the nearby Caldera port to the so-called capital of the silver ore, dragged by a locomotive, the Copiapó. The team arrived on June 21, 1851 at Caldera. I apologize for having stopped for a moment on this memorable trip through the northern deserts, but I must confess my lability in historical matters. It was the first passenger and cargo railroad in South America. We will be tight, as far as possible, to the learned and documented narration of Ing. Only one bidder, the Ing. Tomás Gill, creditor of a sum of money for the reconstruction of the pier of Callao, destroyed by contingencies of the war of independence. However, Gill was the author of the route of the railroad in 1834 that his colleagues used in 1850. The contract fulfilled its main purpose less that corresponding to the railway. Finally its construction was arranged by Castile on November 14, 1845 and an official convocation, in January 1846, Ing. It was a fact and everything showed that the railroad was an imperative necessity and for those who turned out to be its favored exploiters, a really lucrative business. The government made the documentary examination of the bases and proposals by the officials of the branch, in addition the report of the Supreme Court and with it its elevation to the Cabinet of Ministers, entity that accepted the contract on December 6, 1846. Then its transfer to the ministry of finance, for the subscription of the deed and the payment of 20,000 pesos to the contractors, as stipulated in the rules. Its extension ran between the pier of Callao and the Capital; the company would enjoy the exclusive privilege for 25 years. After 99 years, from 1851, it would pass with its movable and immovable elements to the property of the State, without any retribution of this part. The start of work would not exceed twelve months after the contract was approved and would end within three years of receiving the official proof of the signing of the contract by the country's agent in England. On the point of exploitation, fixed rates for 1st and 2nd class passengers; freight rates would be calculated per ton of weight or tons of ten cubic feet. The luxury cars, would be provided by the company, at special prices. The troops with their impedimenta, state charge and correspondence were free. What better start than to endow this means of transport as an effective complement to the old road from Callao to Lima, trafficked by carriages and mules and not always in a correct state of preservation, where a band of assailants also attacked. In addition to Castile, the names of the true railroad builders, capitalists and technicians are recorded. Nugent gave an expressive speech and offered the president the ceremonial badge of solid silver and carved. The cross section of this road was formed by a causeway, 17 meters wide and two lateral malls of 6.20 meters wide each. Gamarra, where the train station, final and initial point in the port. On September 20, 1850, the Peruvian boat Lima carrying wood from the Chilean forests, mostly destined for sleepers or crossbeams on which the rails would rest, arrives at Callao. On November 8, the first test trip was made, the first in Peru and also in South America. The correspondent added that another twenty people embarked, among officers and national and foreign merchants. The test trips continued in the afternoon with numerous people who disputed a place in the convoy. On the 10th of December, the Druid boat arrived, leaving London, driving the cars and material for the railroad on board. I had used 147 days of navigation. Comfort, ease, security and speed are invaluable advantages for commerce and for the neighborhood in general. " On April 3 and 4, the company began running trains between the Callao quay and a temporary station that had been built rapidly in the so-called third oval of the old colonial highway. They were full of passengers on a free trip. But the businessmen announced that starting on the 5th of that month regular traffic would be established and tickets would be charged according to the approved rate. Thus, on April 5, 1851, can be considered as the commercial initiation of the modern way, since from that day began to be fulfilled an itinerary of three daily round trip trains, or round trip. The tickets were sold, in Callao, in the machine shop and in Lima, in the station of the third oval. They were 1st and 2nd class, but since the cars or second-class cars had not yet been armed, the first ones were provisionally used. The first cars were 24 and 60 seats, distributed on sidewalks of two seats each and covered in leather or straw. By April 19, they had already mobilized close to 9,000 passengers. Castilla had risen to power six years earlier, precisely on April 20, 1845. He put an end to this marked form to his first government. Lima novellera bustled with enthusiasm. The primary length of the rails was only 3. The rails were joined to each other by means of plates or platinas called fish plates. These were applied over time in all Peruvian railways. The weight of each rail was approximately 30 Kg. Each of the machines was 38 tons of weight, two axes motor and coal or tend with 10 tons of weight. The Callao was the one that led to Lima the first passenger train on April 5, 1851, date that at the start of commercial traffic is considered or has character, therefore, inaugural as we have noted. It had a branch to Bellavista opened in 1897. It was then the era of the trams. In 1934 the Peruvian Corporation bought it, paralyzed most of the route and took charge of the still operative sections. The supreme resolution of June 24, 1938 declared the concession contract canceled and ordered the lifting of the road. The oldest train in Peru died after more than 80 years of activity. Then he would remain on duty in that port, aware of the threatening and rapid torpedo boats in the service of President Balmaceda. The behavior of the victor Grau with the shipwrecked and injured Chileans and the custody of the mortal remains of Prat and his clothes. He had fought against the main units of the Chilean navy. To Peruvians and Chileans same feelings picks us up. The same, we lost valuable compatriots example of military conduct. But the sad days of material and institutional poverty to which the irresponsible and successive government administrations are condemned to Peru tells the conscious Peruvians that such precious glory could be in danger in our hands. Lacking funds for maintenance would end his days without remedy. The truly famous ships are afloat, as if they were ready to go anchors for the approval of their heirs. A lot of improvisation and the effort of a few. It is not time to bring Huáscar from Chile. There he is safe from negligence. Peruvians of other behavior and better disposition deserve to receive in the future the glories of the past. I have visited the Monitor in Talcahuano. I felt the shudders of combat on its deck, that rumor haunts me wherever I am and I hear of Grau's ship: under the poop, from the quarterdeck or from the bridge, the ship of immortal memory is absorbed. Then I felt more Peruvian than ever. At least once in a lifetime the pious Mohammedan visits Mecca, once in a lifetime all Peruvians must reach Huascar. The classic gate opens onto a hallway with a tiled patio. El Morro, a simple noun that is a sentence. In the courtyard, quite well-groomed presents its robust mass a Voruz cannon, model of 1866, as used in the defense of the Morro and flown by his servants at decisive moments of the fight. Also another small bronze and muzzleloader from the national smelter of Morales Alpaca. There you can appreciate the magnificent oil, in all its magnitude. A tremendous vision of that rider already in his immortal leap; he is the leader of the battalion Iquique No. The host contemplates that Centaur in a hero's trance. Suddenly on a steed, among the tumult that the invader tramples, fast advances Afonso Ugarte; wield a meteor Such in the shadows of hidden pain shines, sometimes, a ray of hope... His steed is white. It tears the mist like a fast arrow; and on the high summit, standing on two feet, splashing foam with neighs of horror... and then jump! On the second floor, a glass protects the diorama on a scale of the Morro with the signals of the movement of the attackers, positions of the defenders and the relief of the field of operations on the day of its epic defense. Bayonets, swords, sabers, yataganes. It describes with epic drama the culminating moment of the battle and the death of the old defender of the square. In the foreground you fight hand to hand to the bayonet. That resolute group, then defenseless by the state of shipwreck in which it was, now seeks death on land. It is a simple handful of sailors turned into infants in their last hour climbed on top of that boulder loaded with salty sand and blood. A Peruvian soldier has passed with his bayonet to an infant of Rancagua, who mortally wounded accuses the terrible trance. They respect and protect the life of the ally chief for having been ordered by one of his officers. When I retire from that dwelling, converted into a museum, there is an impression on the soul, it is the imprint of the past stamped on the matrix of memory. The house on Afligidos street. The sleep of the neighbors has been broken by the deaf march of brackets or ministriles of justice with escort and apparatus; then some curious people appear to see the strange parade that cold morning. The intersections have been closed and the contours of the apple trimmed. Don Domingo de Orrantia, gentleman who presided over the party, is baffled. The secret and secret slogan for the surprise that they hoped to produce and that now they received it. When making his entrance in tropel in the vestibule and immediate patio it is allowed to see in the semi-darkness a long column of breviary friars in hand and the pouch at his feet with his meager belongings. It was the occasion to make her parade in the greatest secrecy through streets and squares at an early hour and drive her out of the kingdom of Peru, far, far away, so far as no one else could be known. The infamous unjust purge of the Jesuit fathers had begun. In all the kingdom these diligences were carried out in similar hours. Wherever there was a Jesuit community, it was the same. It is September and the damp mist with the early drizzle spurs the cold. On January 1, 1768 they sailed again to arrive in Cádiz after four painful months of navigation. The total of the kidnapped, according to documents studied, states that it reached 499, of which 429 embarked for Spain. There was enough complaint contained in the real offices by the way the Jesuits administered the missions or reductions of the Paraguay seat of the native Calchaquíes and Guarani and the prosperity that they had achieved in community. Situation that of another side would have put in bankruptcy to the encomenderos, that although it was certain they were known abusive and indolent, at the end of accounts they were also tributary of the king. And in matters of knowledge and culture, the illustrated brothers had a library rich in volumes of the most varied titles, mostly treaties of science and theology, was not this a power of the first order? With the expulsion and the time that collection happened to form the Library of Lima, ravaged by the Chilean soldiery in 1881 and devoured by the fire of 1943. The expulsion of the Jesuits from all the kingdoms of Spain would be the culmination and for this would put something of his effort as a Mason and natural enemy of the Ignatian Order. It also took into account the well-founded suspicion that the recent mutiny called Esquilache, in Madrid, the Jesuits had propitiated or supported. The measure advocated the use of the short coat and the tricorne or three-cornered hat of foreign origin. The fine in case of disobedience amounted to six ducats and twelve days in jail for the first offense and double for the second. To this Italian he owed Madrid the sanitation and cleaning works, which had been so necessary. To him also the paving and lighting of streets and the creation of walks and gardens. The edict of marras gave rise to an uprising in the old capital on the banks of the Manzanares and other parts of Spain, but it is possible that the manifest scarcity, poverty and famine that really ravaged it would have been the real cause that had put at risk the stability of the king himself. Esquilache was forced into exile and thus ended the mutiny. There was much bitterness against the famous Order in Paraguay and its revolutionary work. The value of the constant effort combined with the Christian virtue for the good work had awakened in the natural singles a redivive pride. Singular masterpieces, whose abandoned vestiges are still a source of admiration. Perhaps the scope of Western culture implanted with patience and love for these industrious friars was not remarkable. And for their uniform execution in all of them I give you full and exclusive authority, and for you to form the necessary instructions and orders, as you have understood and esteemed for the most effective, prompt and calm compliance. I, the King, February 27, 1767. The expulsion brought with it a setback in the production of the countryside and the industry where the Jesuit task had been. It was also felt in the quality of the instruction and many people acknowledged receipt of the deficiencies, so that after a few years the idea of returning the strangers was conceived. And this was just one of the episodes of the tremendous anti-democratic campaign unleashed in Europe. The consolidation and diffusion were hampered by persecutions in many countries. Complete Peruvian Traditions. But, do you know how much truth there will be in all this? who claim with conclusive and unappealable evidence that Don Ricardo Palma was apurimeño. It's late for substantive claims. He also acted as a correspondent for foreign newspapers. In 1872, the first series of his capital work, the Peruvian Traditions, was published. The success harvested by his volumes of Malevolent Tales and his tireless intellectual work make him a recognized figure in life, in his country and throughout the Spanish-speaking world. He is welcomed as one of the classic writers of exceptional poetry of the Americas. The invading troops set fire to the chapel including their house and personal library; there also vanished his unpublished work The Marañones. After the disaster, to renovate his vast library he was asking for books, with what the beggar librarian gained the nickname. In 1883, he was named restorer of the Library of Lima, which is quite remarkable since he built that institution looted by the invader. His daughter Angelica Palma was one of the outstanding founders of the Peruvian feminist movement. It had been more than fifty years since Peru did not buy heritage abroad. However, there is a conviction that there are still many letters to be found. Complete Peruvian traditions. Post to Cancel A% d bloggers like this:
And my traditionalist brothers continue to sing it in acts of vindication. Let's see, another one that pleads with the heraldry of the idolized flag! The flag is blue and white, and the flag of war always had sun. Maybe you'd prefer it to be blue and have a star or a Phryon Mason hat. Only the liberal sentimentality of which you have not yet detached yourself is guiding you. And now I ask you, who imposed that sun and why does it have 32 rays and not 29 or 12 or 22... etc? Teófilo says: Saturday 16 December 2006 at 12:47 pm Errata. My "afternoon piaste" is jealous because, unfortunately the Argentines are always late. Thank you for allowing me to enter this site. I only ask you to share with everyone your ability to exercise freedom of thought, which according to what you say is what you love most in life, that is, the freedom that allows you to doubt and your free and spontaneous interpretation. And that is why I consult you: what is the main source with which you support, with respect to the Holy Inquisition, when you express "that he killed millions of human beings in the name of a dictatorship of faith". So it would be very good that you share with us that data to take them into account and we can consequently exercise our freedom. You no longer read the "pinin memin" as a data source. It was what Teofilo wanted to clarify. I continue to inspire pity because the hatred that they proclaim here does not let them use their reason to understand others. Do not complain because they are so rejected. Please, if you are not going to say anything truly Christian, do not go any further to this blog. These people usually murder Christians and anyone who really seeks the Truth, saying they do it to fight "bigotry" and "ignorance." They constitute what the Holy Father has called "the dictatorship of relativism." Peter and Paul, all the martyrs... The diabolical "non serviam" against the Christian and Marian "fiat". The ignorant, who only know about verbiage and walk in the dark, intrude into other people's houses to preach their relativism to the top under false pretenses. 2) Catholics are the first to self-criticize, but let's not be naive. Unfortunately I turn to this website with the hope of noticing myself of facts of my interest, but I find people who attack me without having attacked me, as is natural. More than a cult touch to his liberalism, the correspondent without name and number reminds me of the recitation of that zamba "I'm going to Jamescrai. It strikes me a lot that someone who raises the banners of the perfidious anti-Christians cares about the fate of others, but only to vent their rabid hatred for Catholicism in which they have no part. For your information Nazism was pagan and Protestant, do not be confused. I remind you that Israel is one of the few states where torture is legal along with state terrorism, and perhaps the only country in the Middle East that has approx. 400 nuclear warheads, and are they looking for them in Iraq? The leaders of the Jews, outraged to consider him a Blasphemer, stirred up all the people to demand the death of the innocent by raising the excuse that he was a subversive against Caesar. And all the people answered: «let his blood fall on us and on our children»... and handed Jesus over to their will. " All this must be contemplated with happy eyes by the Jews: their Messiah has already arrived, and that people were always destined to be their cradle and to recognize it by converting themselves to Christ. That is why I address all the religions that have fought against Rome. They are all, whether they want it or not, in our ranks, since in the depths of their existence they are as irreconcilable as ours with the domination of Rome. Socialism and mosaism are in no way opposed, but on the contrary, between the fundamental ideas of both doctrines, there is a surprising conformity. The Jews have cooperated decisively in the creation of socialism. It was the Jews who had a preponderant part in the leadership of the first socialist republics. Degreff, Walter, op cit page 241. The doctrine of Freemasonry is the same everywhere. It may vary in its beliefs and rituals in all countries, but not in its philosophy, its symbolism and its religion. Encyclopedia of Freemasonry, page 37. In all the nations of the earth the institution has raised a banner of war without quarter against the empire of Catholic ideas of blind faith in the absurd. French Masonic Congress, 1879: De-Christianized by all means, and above all strangling Catholicism. And many more... Who is the enemy of whom? A "Soviet holocaust" is not viable as the "Nazi holocaust" because the "cannibalism" implicit in the first is easily traceable, since the Stalinist government was full of Jews, of whom Stalin himself surrounded himself, from his women even his direct subordinates. It is presumable, in turn, a Jewish plot to overthrow Stalin, who dies in an unclear situation. What is absolutely unworthy of Leon Trotsky. New York, Pathfinder, 1994, p. Salvador Borrego E., pages 614-615. It must be governed by a right of exception that takes due and adequate precautions against the theological dangerousness of this race. Moreover, it has done so because of this blindness. Liberalism is also condemned in all the legislation and practice of the Church. The Jew must live in the midst of Christians as a blind witness to Christian truth and as an incentive that forces us to remain faithful to Jesus Christ. Neither should it be exterminated, nor should it be frequented. Not the first because it plays the theological role of Cain, who carries the seal of God so that nobody exterminates him. Not the second because it is extremely dangerous. The Jew can be and is good within his people. Their customs are generally faultless and laudable. But with respect to other peoples, even though he lives within them, he is a hypocritical enemy that is lurking in the shadows against those who give him hospitality. Just as one day he judged Christ, he insulted and spit on him and handed him over to the Gentiles to be nailed to the cross, so since then his only reason for being and his only concern is to destroy Christianity. Personally I think both Semites have the same god, which is not even remotely ours. Let it be clear that even remotely I defend or justify the Arabs, nor their regime nor their religion, for me they are equal to the perfidious. It is true that every state has the right to defend itself, and our beloved Argentina?, with the stateless governors we have.... I do not want Israel to be erased from the map for the simple reason that I do not want the mass immigration of strangers to my country or any foreign state. And let's be clear, traditional Catholics are not anti-Semites, we are genuine Roman Catholics, that's all. For my part I am not either, since I do not have time for such stupidities but I do not trust Jews or Masons. And the word "perfidious" is not aggressive since it refers to the Christian faith. What you say about Muslims is absolutely true. You seem philanthropic just like your partner, but do not think that you can go from there like that, the demon is tempting and a liar, do not forget. Thank you for allowing me to confront my ideas with yours. Who do you think knocked down the twin towers? Pablo: The visible Church is no longer Catholic and the Freemasons and the Judas, its traditional enemies, are to blame. You have an opposite formation and contrary to our Catholic tradition, which condemns all synthesis as modernist and desecrates the sacred and immutable Word of God. Likewise, our Sacred Religion does not allow us to hate or avenge us, so they do not have to fear except for their souls for the sake of eternity. This is living according to the Law of God. If we add to this a religion adulterated by corruption, you have the unfeasibility of God's plan on this subject and a non-Christian society that is often separated, the ordeal of marriages. The Church on the other hand has to purge itself and correct itself according to its tradition and on the other mission, to sow, so that society reap its fruits and the kingdom of God comes to us. Divorce is a modern solution to modern problems. I clarify to you that Freemasonry is a sin that leads to excommunication, that is, the Catholic ceases to be so. Different our adversaries and different our enemies. If I am wrong, I listen to it. That discussion is none other than "changing sides", since we are considered anti-Semitic, not so much because of the real meaning of such a concept, but rather the one that the Zionists themselves have taken care of. I would like to test your offer, under what conditions would we be "friends" of the Zionists?. There the religious is mixed with the profane, especially after the Jews were taken captive to Babylon. The authority of the rabbis then displaces Moses and the prophets. The prescriptions for the temporary increase of the Jewish people acquire more importance than the precepts of religious improvement. The Talmud acquired singular virulence after the appearance of Christianity. There the most insolent and sacrilegious infamies against Christ and the Christians were stamped. In this way Christian scientists will have nothing to reproach us about, and we can prevent the greatest calamities from coming upon us and it will be possible for us to live in peace. " They are called Notsrim, Nazarenes, and all the names are used to designate non-Jews. Christians are said to be as abominable as can be imagined. Therefore, every Israelite is obliged to fight with all his strength that impious kingdom of Idumea, propagated by the world. But as this extermination of Christians is not always and everywhere, it is possible for the Talmud to fight them at least indirectly, hurting them in all ways and thus diminishing their power and preparing for their ruin. Wherever possible, the Jew can kill Christians and must do so without any mercy. We will stop at this last point bringing the texts of the work of Pranaitis. Abhodah Zarah 26 b: The heretics and traitors and apostates must be thrown into a pit from where they can not be removed. Only in the faith and love of Christ can your reconciliation be achieved. To the extent that you turn from Christ, you will increase the burden of your sins and increase your mutual enmity as well. It also applies to its lackeys Masons, Protestants, Muslims and others. No, let's not copy the hypocritical example. 20 Remember the word that I said to you: The servant is not greater than his master. 21 But all these things they will do to you for my name's sake, because they do not know him who sent me. 22 If he had not come and spoken to them, they would not have sin, but now they have no excuse for his sin. 23 He that hates me hates my Father also. 27 And you will bear witness, because you are with me from the beginning. Matías says: Thursday 18 January 2007 at 7:16 pm Alejandro is right. rubi juarez torres says: Tuesday, January 23, 2007 at 12:07 am Hello, I just want to send a greeting to all the Jews. I am not a blood Jew but I love the eternal and I try to make you want. abeses I wonder x there is so much war, but only adonai knows. Well, I say goodbye with a warm hug and a shalom kiss. You, who live and reign for ever and ever. You declare yourself to be a Mason and it seems that the freedom of thought is very pleasing to you. I ask: Is liberty praiseworthy in thinking when such freedom leads us to believe stupidities? I know several Freemasons up close. I ask: why should you accept them? 1789 says: Sunday, May 20, 2007 at 3:50 p.m. Ah! It is impossible for me to download it from here... I lend all my adherence to this conference, of which, for now, I only know the title. No less painful than comments like those of the so-called Pablo. so I do not agree with a friend who is re but stupid more silly than a horse. julieta ailen says: Thursday, May 29, 2008 at 12:48 pm the Argentine national anthem has many verses, that's why we sing the first and the last quatrain and the chorus. In the year 1900 a decree was sanctioned by which the country song had a modification and from then until now we sing the stanzas you mentioned before. Well, I'll leave it to you, but I'll let you know a lot of information at school. I am 16 years old, and it really seems very ugly, personally, that people fight and discuss through blogs. In reality, the ugly thing is that they fight, because each one is free to do what they want from their life and to profess their religion, while respecting others and being respected. Thanks for the information, and good energies to all the people! sofia says: Sunday 30 May 2010 at 10:49 pm that the original returns Comments are closed. Error checking email. Please try again Sorry, your blog can not share posts by email.
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