Mount ntfs debian write my essay
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System tricks Table of contents 9.1. Screen use scenario 9.1.2. Keyboard shortcuts for the screen command 9.2. Data registration and presentation 9.2.1. Correct registration of the activities of the interpreter of orders 9.2.4. Customize the display of information in text format 9.2.5. Personalization of the date and time display 9.2.6. Order interpreter in color 9.2.7. Recording of the activities of the editor with complex repetitions 9.2.9. Capture a graphic image in an application X 9.2.10. Saving changes in the configuration files 9.3. Monitoring, controlling and initiating what the programs do 9.3.1. Timing of a process 9.3.2. The planning priority 9.3.3. List of files opened by a process 9.3.6. Charting the activity of a program 9.3.7. Identification of processes using files or connections 9.3.8. Repetition of an order at constant intervals 9.3.9. Repeating an order on files 9.3.10. Start a program from the graphical user interface 9.3.11. Customizing the start of a program 9.3.12. Planning once of the tasks 9.3.14. Regular planning of tasks 9.3.15. Tips for system maintenance 9.4.1. Hardware identification 9.4.4. Hardware configuration 9.4.5. System and hardware time 9.4.6. The configuration of the terminal 9.4.7. The sound infrastructure 9.4.8. Disable screensaver 9.4.9. Disabling beeps 9.4.10. Security and integrity verification system 9.5. Data storage tricks 9.5.1. Disk partitioning configuration 9.5.3. File system configuration 9.5.6. Checking the integrity and creation of the file system 9.5.7. Optimization of file systems through mounting options 9.5.8. Optimization of the file system through the superblock 9.5.9. Hard disk optimization 9.5.10. Optimization of a solid state disk 9.5.11. Expansion of useful storage space by mounting another partition 9.5.15. Expansion of the storage space by the link by mounting in another directory 9.5.16. Expansion of the useful storage space using a symbolic link 9.5.17. Expansion of the useful storage space using «overlayfs« 9.6. Creating a disk image file 9.6.2. Writing directly on disk 9.6.3. Mounting the disk image file 9.6.4. Cleaning a disk image file 9.6.5. Making an empty disk image file 9.6.6. Viewing and editing binary data 9.7.2. Manipulate files without disk mounting 9.7.3. File data recovery and forensic analysis 9.7.5. Division of a large file into smaller files 9.7.6. Cleaning the contents of files 9.7.7. Completely erasing a hard disk 9.7.9. Delete unused hard disk areas 9.7.10. Recovering deleted files but still open 9.7.11. Searching all hard links 9.7.12. Disk space invisible consumption 9.8. Tricks to encrypt information 9.8.1. Encryption of the swap partition with dm-crypt 9.8.3. Files automatically encrypted using eCryptfs 9.8.5. Automatic assembly with eCryptfs 9.9. Compile the kernel and associated modules 9.9.5. Drivers and hardware firware 9.10. Virtualization tools 9.10.2. Virtualization workflow 9.10.3. Mounting the virtual disk image file 9.10.4. Several desktop systems Here, I describe the fundamental tricks to configure and manage systems, mainly from the console. Screen is a very useful tool for remote access to sites with unreliable or intermittent connections as it allows connections with networks whose connectivity is intermittent. Here is a typical scenario of using screen. You access a remote computer. Inici screen in a single console. Run multiple programs in the screen window with ^ A c. You can switch between the multiple screen windows with ^ A n. If you suddenly need to leave your terminal, but do not want to lose your active work by keeping the connection. You can separate the screen session by any method. Screen magically reconnects with all the previous screen windows with all the active programs running. Tip You can save the connection entry with screen for the network connection as a dial-up and packet connection, since you can leave the process active while it is disconnected, and then retrieve it later when you connect again. In a screen session, all keyboard inputs are sent to the current window except those that are keyboard combinations of commands. All screen command key combinations are started by pressing ^ A plus another key. Here are some important to remember. Relation of keyboard shortcuts to screen function meaning ^ A? Many programs register their activities in the "var log" directory. Here are the most important trace analyzers). Its most common use is as an unwanted email filter but it can also be used as a trace analyzer. The use for the registration of the activity of the interpreter of orders, without more, of script produces a file with characters of control. This can be avoided with the use of cabbage as shown. You may want to extend the buffer of the line to improve the ability to go backwards. Later you can use «C-x C-w» to save the buffer to a file. Although paging tools like more and less and custom tools for marking and formatting can display information in text format in the right way, general-purpose editors are more versatile and customizable. Tip In vim and its paging mode known as view, «: set hls» allows the search of highlighted texts. The format of the time display and the date of the command «ls -l» depends on the regional configuration. The actual default display format for each regional configuration depends on the version of the standard C library. That is, different Debian distributions have different default values. You can save the editor's activities with complex repetitions. There are several ways to record a graphic image of an X application, including an xterm screen. When you change your settings, you can use git regularly to save it. It also automatically saves changes every time it executes package management orders. The activities of the programs can be monitored and controlled using specialized tools. You could learn about all of this. It shows the time used by a process invoked by the order. Use this order with care. The pstree command shows the process tree. top in the Debian system is rich from the functional point of view and helps to identify which processes act strangely in a timely manner. It is an interactive full screen program. You can get help by pressing the «h« key and exit by pressing the «q« key. You can list the files opened by a process with the process identifier, p. ex. You can follow the system invocations of the command ls with shown. You can also identify a process by using its connections using fuser, p. ex. for «smtp tcp» as shown. watch runs a program repeatedly at a constant interval while displaying the output of the program in full screen. For advanced uses of find see Section 10.1.5, "Ways to select files". The *.desktop files are reviewed as follows. So the base directories and the application directories are as follows. Some programs start another program automatically. Here are the points to be compressed for the personalization of this process. I recommend reading these files orders. Use killall or pkill to do the same with other attributes such as the name of the process order. You can plan the execution of processes as a normal user, p. ex. Here is an example of a crontab file. You can check who is in the system as shown. who shows who is accredited. w shows who is accredited and what they are doing. last shows a list of the last user sessions. lastb shows a list of the last unsuccessful attempts to access a session. You can send messages to anyone who is accredited in the system with wall as shown. The following reconfigures the time zone used by the Debian system. Tip In systemd for time synchronization through the network use systemd-timesyncd. There are different components to configure the character console and the ncurses system features. Tip If you can not get sound, your speaker can be connected to a silent output. Alsamixer in the alsa-utils package will be useful for volume and silence settings. E application software can be configured not only to directly access the sound devices but also to access them through a sound server system. Each sound engine used by the application can choose to connect to different sound servers. To disable the screen saver, use the following commands. Removing the core module pcspkr does that work for you. The following prevents the readline program used by bash from beeping when it finds an alert character. The kernel boot message in "var log dmesg" contains the exact size of available memory. free and top displays the information of the memory resources in the running system. More than 600 MB difference... «. Do not worry about the large size of "used" memory and the small size of "free" memory in the "Mem:" line, but read what's below and relax. For security and intergravity checks, you should start with what is shown. For the chkrootkit package see chkrootkit. For the clamav family of packages see clamscan and freshclam. df shows the disk space used by the file system. du reports the disk space used by the tree of a directory. Tip You can use du output as xdu input to have a graphic and interactive presentation with «du -k. For the configuration of the disk partition, although fdisk was considered in the past the standard, parted deserves our attention. Although fdisk was the standard tool for disk partitioning, it has been replaced by parted. Although the reconfiguration of your partition or activation order of non-permanent storage media your partitions can have different names, you can access them consistently. Tip The nodes of the devices as well as the non-permanent storage media can be made static with the use of the udev rules, if necessary. See Section 3.3, "The udev system." The mkfs and fsck commands are in the e2fsprogs package as the interface of several specific programs in the file system. For the ext4 file system there are mkfs.ext4 and fsck.ext4 and e2fsck). The following commands are available for each file system that Linux supports. It is expected to be the next default file system after the ext4 file system. Warning You should not use the Btrfs file system for your critical data until fsck does not have the live kernel space functionality and boot manager support. Tip Some tools allow access to the file system without Linux kernel support. The mkfs command creates the file system in the Linux system. The fsck command provides integrity checking to the file system and the ability to repair the Linux system. The current Debian does not execute fsck periodically after the creation of the file system. Attention It is usually not safe to run fsck on mounted file systems. See mke2fs.conf and tune2fs. The basic static configuration of the file system is done in "etc fstab". The most relevant are the following. The option "noatime" or "relatime" is very effective to improve reading access. The "user" option allows a normal user to mount file systems. This option involves the combination of "noexec, nosuid, nodev" options. The combination of "noexec, nodev, nosuid" options is used to improve security. The "noauto" option only allows assembly explicitly. The option "data = journal" of ext3fs can improve the integrity of the information in case of force drops and loses some writing speed. Tip You need to provide kernel boot parameters, p. ex. In lenny, the default operation logging mode is "rootflags = data = ordered". For squeeze it is «rootflags = data = writeback». The characterization of the file system can be optimized through its superblock using the tune2fs command. Tip Despite its name, tune2fs works not only with the ext2 file system but also with the ext3 and ext4 file systems. Warning Please check your hardware and read the hdparam manual pages before testing the hard disk configurations as it can be dangerous for the integrity of the data. You can check the speed of access to the hard disk, p. ex. You can check the functionality of the hard disk cache writing, p. ex. To disable this functionality run «hdparm -W 0 dev sda». The performance and wear of a solid state disk can be optimized as follows. Use the most recent Linux kernel. Reduce writes to disk for read access. Assign the option "noatime" or "relatime" in the assembly of etc fstab. Assign the "discard" option in the crypttab etc to dm-crypt. Have the system synchronize the data every 10 minutes to the disk if you use a laptop. Assign the assembly option "commit = 600" in fstab etc. Activate pm-utils to portable mode even if it is connected to the mains. Warning Changing the rate of data synchronization from the default value of 5 seconds to 10 minutes makes your data vulnerable to current failures. Install the smartmontools package. Identify the devices that are hard disks by listing them with df. Assume that the hard disk device to be controlled is "dev hda". Activate the smartd daemon by executing the following. Tip The smartd daemon daemon can be customized using the smartd.conf file etc that includes the alert notification mode. Applications usually create the temporary files in the temporary storage directory «tmp». If you have an empty partition, you can format it with mkfs.ext4 and mount it in a directory where you need more space. The use of real disk grows with the storage of data. If you have an empty directory in another partition with usable space, you can mount it with the option "--bind" to a directory where you need more space. If you have an empty directory in another partition with usable space, you can create a symbolic link to the directory with ln. As a symbolic link it can be overwritten when the system is updated. Attention Some software may not work correctly with "symbolic links to directories". Here we will discuss the manipulation of disk images. The file of the disk image "disk.img" can be written as an unmounted device, p. Since the "loop" device does not manage partitions by default, we need to start it as shown. But it is more prone to errors. A disk image file, «disk.img» can be cleaned of deleted files in a scattered image clean «new.img» as shown. This discrepancy is possible since ext4 can be represented by a scattered file. Tip The actual use of disks that a scattered file uses grows with the data that is written in it. You can find a usable device as shown. Here we will discuss the direct manipulation of binary data in storage media. The most basic method of displaying binary data is the command "od -t x1". There are tools to read and write files without mounting the disk. There are tools to add redundant data to files at the application level of programs to also achieve high reliability in storage. When the data is too large to be stored in a single file, you can obtain a backup of its content by dividing it into, eg, ex. pieces of 2000MiB and put them together later to get the original file. To clean the contents of the files like the log files, do not use rm to delete it and create a new empty one, since you can try to be accessed between both operations. The safe way to clean the contents of a file is the one shown. If it existed previously, its mtime is updated and its content and its length remain unchanged. If it existed previously, its mtime is updated and its contents deleted. There are different ways to completely erase information from a hard drive as a device, p. ex. a USB memory located in «dev sda». Delete all the contents of the disk by setting all information to 0 as shown. The areas in disuse of the hard disk, p. ex. These can be cleaned by overwriting them. Most of the deleted file names and their attributes can be hidden and remain in the file system. Even if you have accidentally deleted a file, as long as that file is used by some application, it is possible to recover that file. Your inode numbers are common «2738404«. This means that they are the same file using a hard file. If you do not want to find all the hard links by chance, you can search for them using the inode, p. ex. These can be listed along with their size as shown. This means that the password access system may not secure your sensitive and private data against possible thieves from your PC. To do so, you must deploy some information encryption technology. dm-crypt and eCryptfs help the automatic encryption of information in a native way by means of Linux kernel modules with minimum effort on the part of the user. Device mapping relates one block device to another. eCryptfs is another cryptographic file system that uses the stacked file system. Stacked file systems stack themselves on top of an existing file system directory that is mounted. Please evaluate costs and benefits. You can encrypt the contents of the massive removable devices, p. ex. Simply format it as shown. The difference is that every data written on it is encrypted. Alternatively you can format the medium in a different file system, p. ex. Note If you are really a security paranoid, you may need to overwrite them several times. This operation needs a lot of time. Let's assume that your original "etc fstab" contains what is shown. Move the files with sensitive information to "~ Private" and create the symbolic links you need. Tip Because eCryptfs encrypts only sensitive files, the cost to the system is much less than using dm-crypt on the device that contains the entire directory tree or "home". It does not need an effort to locate the disk storage but it does not maintain the confidentiality of the meta-information of the entire file system. password required pam_ecryptfs.so which is quite convenient. See Chapter 4, Accreditation. Attention If you use your access password to access the encryption keys, your encrypted data is as secure as your user access password. Unless you are careful when choosing a strong password, your data will be at risk when someone runs some software to burst your password after stealing your laptop. Debian distributes the modularized Linux kernel in packages to support the architectures. The devices are created by the udev system. The network packet filter functions use the iptables core module. The version jump between Linux 2.6.39 to Linux 3.0 is not as a consequence of important technological changes but because of its 20th anniversary. Many Linux functionalities are configurable by means of kernel parameters as shown. Most of the normal programs do not need kernel headers and can actually produce errors if used directly to compile. module-assistant helps users to build and install the module package easily for one or more custom kernels. Debian has its own method for compiling the kernel and the associated modules. Note The support of the nucleus to dynamic modules is a new frame of independent distribution designed to allow the update of loose modules without changing the complete nucleus. This is used to maintain external modules. This also facilitates the rebuilding of modules when you upgrade your kernel. For the construction of custom binary kernel packages from the kernel source code, you could use the "deb-pkg" objective that is provided for it. Most of the hardware drivers that are available as free software are currently included in the normal packages of the Debian kernel in the main area. Some packages with firmware are available as free software but not the majority since they contain binary information without their source code. The use of virtualized systems allows us to execute several instances of the system at the same time on a single hardware. There are several virtualization and emulation systems with their corresponding packages in Debian beyond the simple chroot. Some packages will also help you configure these systems. Note Some features that we will discuss here are only available in squeeze or in later distributions. The workflow of virtualization involves several steps. Create an empty file system. The file of the raw disk image can be created with dd. Mount the disk image with mount in the file system. For the raw disk image file, mount it as a "loop" device or device mapping. Fill the target file system with the system information. The use of programs such as debootstrap and cdebootstrap help in this process. Use of installers of the operating systems in the emulation of the complete system. Run a program in a virtualized environment. chroot offers a basic virtualization environment for compiling programs, running console applications and running daemons on it. VirtualBox offers a complete emulation system in i386 and amd64 with or without hardware-assisted virtualization. For a raw disk image file, see Section 9.6, "The Disk Image." For other virtual disk image files, you can use qemu-nbd to export them using the network block device protocol and mount them using the nbd kernel module. Network block devices can support partitions in the same way as loop devices. You can mount the first partition of «disk.img» as shown. You can learn how to create, configure and use chroot by running the pbuilder program in script as shown. they may need to be assembly link or be copied. Tip The original purpose of the package of specialized chroot, pbuilder is the construction of a chroot system and build packages within chroot. Hint The similar schroot package can give you an idea of the execution of a chroot i386 system on an amd64 guest system. This allows you to run "unstable" and "on test" desktop applications without the usual risks associated with it. VirtualBox is provided with Qt graphical user interface tools and is quite intuitive.
What happens is that we do not all ignore the same things. It's a pleasure to help, and to see that someone is useful. It is a pleasure to ask for help and see that someone gives it to you selflessly. During the installation of Debian, did you give a password to "root"? In Catalonia there is a similar saying. That is, "Who does not have work, the cat combs". Debian also does not recognize the swap in sdb or in sda,.Sera because this s.o. I install it but everything works properly, the grub of debian gives me access to all the others and if I do not connect the external one, I have gru2 for ubuntu and vista. I hope you have made an idea, of mess Salu2 enae P.D. Each system will recognize and use only the swap given by the installer during the installation. If the partitions were made "by hand", it is not necessary to have more than one swap. An exchange file is created in the Güindous style. A screenshot of the gparted would not be bad either. You have a little mess with the partitions. This reminds me of a certain forum user who asked similar questions a year ago. If you removed the Güindous, everything would be easier. One suggestion: Install Debian first. Then all the "Ubuntus" you want. Regards and I regret not being able to help you more. The swap is the same for all systems.
With the -t ext4 parameter we are specifying that the file system to be mounted is of type ext4. But in case you have doubts with this command "sudo fdisk -l" you will see the type of format that has usb memory. If you do not want to do any of this I think that if you do not specify any format, it will automatically autodetect itself. You just have to try and you will have the answer. If you do not do well, I do not know what your problem may be. Linux could read it and windows could not. I do not remember that I had the pen, so it does not matter to me to format it and to use it again, but I do not know how to do it. Follow the instructions in the post and mount it. What I want is to format it or whatever it is to make it work again. Could you teach me how to do it? Thanks for the help, and... When you have an answer... how do I find out? the blog has a notification service, or you write me to my mail, or just the opposite. Any amount however small will be well received.
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