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That translates into the loss of hundreds of millions of revenues for the state coffers and a "comparative disadvantage for French companies, in relation to international groups that are organized to evade or minimize their taxation," he says. The commission will make proposals to "create the conditions for a contribution to the fiscal effort of the sector better distributed among the different actors and favorable to the competitiveness of the French digital sector". The soul of the players will be guided by Xico, a small xoloitzcuintle dog. To the rhythm of this sound will be playing the young, child or adult, to place the ball in the ring, your opponent will be measuring the strength and skills of the player becoming in each level more challenging. This fun addition to the Apps store, will be classified as a sport game but the player will have a much richer experience than in a classic sports game. Xico, inspired by this dog from Aztec mythology, is a creation of Cristina Pineda who has been a promoter of Mexican art and culture. His participation in different forums and national and international fairs, has granted him a great recognition in the cultural and artistic field. His current projects represent the culmination of the interest to preserve our roots and spread them with admiration and pride to the whole world. He said that "not only opens the possibility of invasion of privacy but it makes us criminal suspects to users of the network." But Romney's passage through Bain would also be becoming a kind of disadvantage. The Democrats have highlighted the bankruptcy of companies and the outsourcing of jobs in other countries under the management of Bain to say that Romney only cares to help other billionaires like him. Romney's campaign has said that his candidate should not be held responsible for many of those decisions, because they happened after he left Bain, in February 1999. The message summarized in the famous phrase "Yes, we can" contributed to their victory in 2008. In March, they surprised the country by issuing a joint declaration announcing the end of the violence and a halt to the recruitment of new members, especially near the schools in the poorest neighborhoods. Thanks to this unprecedented truce, the murder rate has fallen to about five per day from the daily dozen days before the pact. On April 14, El Salvador registered its first day without assassinations in three years. It is a waste of life, all those who have died in this conflict, "said Garcia, who carries the hand of a skeleton tattooed on his shaved head. Formed in the 1980s in the United States by Central American immigrants, the gangs arrived in the region when several gang members were deported back home. In the last decades they grew dramatically in El Salvador, where there are an estimated 64,000 gang members. The gangs sell drugs, run prostitution rings, extort businesses and commit assaults. Many of its members cover their faces with threatening tattoos, in a kind of proof that their commitment to the gang is for life. And the territorial struggles are hard, often taking white from the families of the members. But shortly after the announcement of the truce, 30 of the top leaders were transferred from maximum security prisons to others with benefits such as family visits. The government has praised the truce and seeks to ensure that it prevails for a long time by collaborating with business leaders to offer rehabilitation programs and even work to gang members. It is a turn in the "hard-line" policy applied against gangs for years in Central America. Therefore, we do not expect these gangs to stop committing crimes overnight, "said Munguía. Officials and gang members in other countries remain skeptical about the possibility that the success of El Salvador could be extended. Only last week, 40 gang members were arrested for extorting residents in a neighborhood of the capital. The gangs have lucrative schemes of extortion and demand "war taxes" from local merchants, bus drivers and even homes. They usually kill those who do not pay. Young people are well armed, they take over houses in areas where they exert control and extort and terrorize the population, "he explained. With the movement of civil resistance the natives seek to stop the fighting in the southern department of Cauca in order to return peace and tranquility to the area, declared neutral in the face of the conflict. The armed clashes, which have affected a dozen indigenous villages, left 20 people wounded last week, 74 houses destroyed and some 4 thousand 500 displaced for fear of dying in the crossfire of the clashes. Monday, July 16, 2012, p. 29 Montevideo, July 15. The incorporation of Venezuela could be agreed upon by the previous suspension of Paraguay, whose parliament had blocked it for years. Franco said he does not plan to communicate with his peers in the region because the conditions are not there. Roncagliolo clarified in the interview with La República that the government suggested on July 11 that the agency express its deep concern about the political situation in that country. There were photographic exhibitions, documentaries were shown, and there were performers of popular music and other artistic manifestations, as well as pronouncements against the actions of the Senate last month. The organizers summoned the people using social networks and raised during the political act that it is a way to resist the coup leaders with creativity and joy. Peruvian support falls to President Humala Lima. It's what Silvio Berlusconi just did. Without saying officially this mouth is mine, only fueling rumors about his supposed return to politics, has organized the marimorena in Italy. The problem is that Berlusconi was never a fine stylist, but a screwdriver whose sloppy and cheating game led Italy to economic, political and moral ruin. Il Cavaliere is trying - a titanic task where they exist - to redesign his profile to distance him from the one he so efficiently cultivated during the last 18 years. But nothing of young models willing to disguise themselves as Obama or Ronaldinho and then remain naked. Because, and here comes the good, Berlusconi considers himself the victim of an injustice. If we believe those who speak by mouth, the former prime minister wants to return to politics in search of justice. It is the legitimate desire to have a popular judgment on the most difficult years of republican history. The dark years of the economic crisis, unjustly attributed to Berlusconi. The years of moralistic aggression transformed into criminal proceedings... At the end of a quinquennium like this, it is right that the protagonist of this story asks the people for a new trial and a new mandate ". It is curious, very curious, that the author of those words - of that comprehensive interpretation of the wishes of his boss - is precisely the greatest loser in this story. Even with many vices of the past - endemic corruption, privileges - Italian politics seemed to be awakening from a nightmare of two decades. However, by the middle of this week, the past was present. If it is decided, I will be there and we will be by his side ". The operation back to the past was underway. They say that the frustrated successor had tears in his eyes. Berlusconi remained silent or, better, speaking through the mouths of others: "They tell me that the business world wants my return." The previous prime minister let himself be loved. During the last weeks he had been seen in Milan and also getting off his plane on the island of Sardinia. However, coinciding with the publication of the surveys, Berlusconi He returned to settle in his luxurious Roman mansion, the Grazioli Palace. From there he sees the reaction of politicians to his presumed decision to return. Nobody-except his most faithful followers-considers it good news. But a Berlusconi 'grillino' alarm. For now, Western governments are silent. But since yesterday they have another weapon against Italy. " The question is: what does Berlusconi really pursue? I would have liked to have made the announcement something later, maybe in the beginning of autumn, but here nothing can be kept secret. " After two decades of watching him every day on television, in the courts and in the government, it would be difficult to find an Italian capable of believing in his face the words of that great comedian named Berlusconi. Maybe he just wants to protect himself even more before the judicial processes that are still pending. In any case, ready and fullero as he alone, has already begun to handle two arguments. The arsonist talking to the fireman one by one. They are already two months in the Elysee and it maintains the same apparent calm and the same speech of lefts with which it won the presidential ones. But the State will not let that happen. It is an unacceptable plan and will be renegotiated. " Hollande accused the owners of Peugeot of having delayed the restructuring plan with the excuse of not interfering with the electoral campaign and rejected that the biggest problem is labor costs, as he affirms. The president reviewed his first eight weeks of work and said he had spent "absorbed by international appointments, defending the interests of France and respecting the promises of the campaign." Hollande gives the impression of facing the crisis with parsimony and mettle, without getting carried away by the ultraliberal manual dictated by Brussels, guided by social dialogue and common sense. No more dogmas than social justice and transparency. On Saturday he shied away from talking about austerity and cuts, and coined the expression "just effort". We will put all our resources at stake, with imagination and intelligence. And we will make a great fiscal reform so that the richest ones contribute more, unlike what happened with the previous Government ", he crushed. The head of the State rejects the critics who affirm that he does not think enough about competitiveness. Hollande devoted little time to the international situation. Private life was for the end. The French want clear things and the leader they have chosen to lead the state without interference. Valérie will continue working, and when the protocol demands it will be by my side ". The first battery of measures with the seal of the new president has, as he affirmed in his interview on Saturday, the mark of "social justice". Among other corrections to policies of the past, numerous exemptions are eliminated and the social contributions on extra hours, which promoted Sarkozy and have a current cost of 5,000 million per year, are no longer taxed. Conservatives claim that the modification will hurt the purchasing power of the French. Socialists retort that lowering overtime creates more unemployment. The text that Moscovici will defend in the Parliament includes the rise of the corporation tax and stock options, but also the 30% reduction in the salaries of the president and the prime minister. In the last hours, a socialist deputy has also proposed to tax the profits of tobacco companies, but it is not clear whether this measure will be approved or not. The rate of 75% on incomes greater than one million euros is scheduled for the fall. Moscovici has affirmed today that it is a "patriotic tax", but not "punitive". These are the fundamental measures and their valuation in euros: - The socialists suppress the lowering of social contributions to employers and employees, although to compensate for this lack of income will raise two points the property tax. Another amendment proposes to abolish the tax exemption, which would amount to 1.5 billion, but its presentation It is uncertain. It will mean 140 million euros in 2012, 1,220 million in 2013 and 1,430 million since 2014. It will raise an extra 550 million this year. It will be the first woman to lead the organization and was imposed after several months in which the mandate of the former executive had been extended due to the inability of the organization to reach an agreement. She is 63 years old and has experience as Minister of Health and Foreign Affairs of her country. The evaluation made by the instance is an important reference that allows the parties to a conflict to determine what amount and what kind of force they can or can not use. International humanitarian law gives the parties to a conflict the right to use appropriate force to achieve its objectives. But attacks on civilians and the mistreatment or death of detainees can constitute war crimes. International humanitarian law applies to all areas where there is hostilities, "said Hassan. Day of violence The Syrian army and the rebels yesterday fought violent battles in Damascus after government troops bombed and stormed several neighborhoods of the capital, in a day that left more than fifty dead. The differences between the parties that make up the government coalition have endangered the survival of the Executive, which threatens to dismember itself if a consensus is not reached in the coming days. With his words, Netanyahu tried to disguise the huge crisis that his Executive is going through and above all the internal tensions that tear the country apart. The question is of maximum magnitude. It is not only the political disagreements of the day, what the Israelis play with this law is the very identity of a country, in which the ultra-Orthodox population grows at a gigantic pace and accumulates privileges that the secular sectors say they are not willing to tolerate more. Tens of thousands of secular Israelis have taken to the streets to pressure the Executive and demand that the children of the religious play the type in wars like others. This week it is the turn of the ultra religious, who promise to sow chaos in order to preserve their privileges and that no one separates them from the intensive study of religious texts. The new law must be in force on August 1, according to the date set by the Israeli justice. The idea was that they could devote all their time and energy to unraveling the Talmudic texts. What Ben Gurion probably did not foresee is that those hundreds of Haredim would become hundreds of thousands over the years. The ultra-religious families have an average of almost seven children and today represent about 11% of the population. Demographic projections skyrocket for the next decade. The ultra-Orthodox Jews and the Palestinian citizens of Israel, which the new law could force to do some kind of civil service, account for about a third of the population. The rest of the Israelis are obliged to perform military service. Until past the 40 remain in the reserve. The current government coalition was formed precisely with that condition; the one to take forward the new law that forces the ultra-Orthodox to go to the Army. If an agreement is not reached in the coming days, Kadima, Mofaz's party, would have pulverized the little popularity that remains. At that price, Mofaz thinks, it is better to go to the opposition. Religious parties, also members of the government coalition, are on the warpath before changes that they consider threaten their very existence. If approved, the new measure would affect some 60,000 yeshiva and kollels students. The Jewish nation has survived the Holocaust, everything, because we prayed. This is the land of God as the books say. The Jewish nation can not survive without people who pray night and day. We are an army of people who pray. " We will not comply with the law and we will leave the Government. " The haredim and the The rest of society speak two different languages. " And he adds: "If we do not reach an agreement, I anticipate social disorders". Some 20,000 Israelis took to the streets over the weekend to demand an equitable distribution of the "burdens" among all citizens. It occurred to Mofaz to appear at the demonstration and left scalding. They booed him and he had to run away. Opinions such as that of Sigal are often heard throughout the country and reflect the depth of the growing gap that separates religious and lay people in the country. The generals handed power to Mursi, but first issued a decree by which the army retained key faculties and stripped the president of others. The president responded by repealing a decree in which the generals dissolved the parliament, dominated by the Muslim Brotherhood, based on a judicial verdict of June 14. Monday, July 16, 2012, p. 27 Tehran, July 15. Salehi stressed that Annan has adopted a fair and unprejudiced attitude to the conflict, and stressed that there are promising prospects for solving the problem. The fighting in Damascus had never had that intensity, he added. According to the opposition, about 200 people would have died in Tremseh on Thursday. Monday, July 16, 2012, p. 27 Alexandria, July 15. In this city, the US official went to the reopening of the consulate of her country. The presence of numerous agents was not enough to prevent expressions of rejection in the meditarranean port. Two other demonstrations took place in the vicinity of the Ministry of Defense and in front of the hotel where the US delegation stayed. Clinton, during a speech at the consulate, did not miss the opportunity to talk about the press releases that indicate that Washington was involved in the electoral process of the month padado. Clinton also referred to US aid to the Egyptian economy, which is paralyzed, according to the State Department. Clinton also met with representatives of the Coptic community, which represents between 6 and 10 percent of the country's population. Subsequently, the head of state diplomacy traveled to Israel, where she arrived on Sunday night. The decision has surprised in Seoul, where experts and analysts consider the movement very strange and doubt the official explanation. It has not transcended who will replace him. Hence, his unexpected departure has unleashed speculation about his possible defenestration. Last April, Kim Jong-un placed young officials with economic training in key party positions as part of his effort to boost the economy. In recent years, he was also promoted to important positions in the party. He has been with Kim Jong-un since his father appointed him heir to the throne of the world's only Communist dynasty in 2010. He often appeared between the two Kims at public events. The rocket exploded in the air and fell into the sea a few minutes after takeoff. International negotiations on the dismantling of the North Korean atomic weapons program are stalled. We need to assess the situation comprehensively and recognize the problems, difficulties and risks, in particular the downward pressure of the economy, "he said. The central bank also issued a warning on Friday and said weak global demand will hamper growth. He described the world situation as "extremely" complicated. The official growth target for the whole year is 7.5%. Wen said that "the fundamentals for development are still solid", he reiterated that "the number one priority" is to stabilize growth and has ensured that in the second half of the year adjustments will be made to meet the forecasts. The Government will give priority to the creation of jobs - one of the great challenges of the second economy in the world -, will boost the activity of private companies, and will provide financial aid and tax advantages to export companies affected by the fall in foreign demand. It will also encourage the development of emerging markets and private investment. The prime minister said that the moderation of inflation, the rise in wages and the improvement in living standards and investment in infrastructure augur future growth. The government recently cut interest rates for the second time in a month, and since December it has decreased three times the reserve requirements that banks must have. Chinese inflation stood at 2.2% in June, the lowest value in 29 months. Beijing is injecting money into the economy through investments in state companies and increased spending on low-cost housing projects and public works. But he is doing so with caution, as the stimulus plan approved in November 2008 worth four billion yuan to deal with the global financial crisis triggered inflation and triggered a real estate spiral. The search for growth that guarantees the development and creation of enough jobs, without overheating the economy or unleashing inflation, has been a constant in Chinese politics for years. The incentives and responsibilities in that sector remain the same as before the crisis. Only in recent days has it been known that Barclays actively participated for several years in the manipulation of the Libor rate for loans between banks. This serves as a reference for many transactions whose value is estimated at 360 trillion dollars in transactions with derivatives, loans, mortgages and which is linked to other rates such as Euribor. This is compared with the Volcker Rule, which limits the investment activity of banks' own funds due to their possible harmful effect on the stability of the system as a whole. Banks sell their customers products without sufficient information and high risks, but very profitable for them. This happened in the case of Novagalicia in Spain, which has asked for forgiveness for placing preference shares that have lost their value. Thus, the reputation of banks is quite bad although not all of their operations are of this type. So far neither growth has been restored, nor unemployment absorbed, and even less the financial system has been ordered. Far from it, the largest banks, with their different operating arms, remain at the center of the crisis and generate much instability and inequity. The counterpart is the recession and greater public debt. This creates a strong discordance in the policies of governments, especially in the allocation of resources. The economic adjustment and the measures to face the crisis collide with the operation of the financial system, concentrated in relatively few large banks with enormous power. Politics lags behind in this process. The creation of huge amounts of money by the Federal Reserve with interest rates of almost zero, has not been able to promote demand and spending on investment. In Europe the path has been different, but equally ineffective. The spending adjustment aims to reduce the high level of public debt, whose growth is due to the same financial crisis. The vicious circle can not be broken. Risk rating agencies punish sovereign debt and investors demand high interest rates to buy the bonds of weaker countries. Meanwhile, others such as Germany and France place debt at negative real rates. This disparity is not sustainable for long. A key aspect of the crisis has to do with the way banks operate. During a long period, the financing of assets created speculative episodes whose end brings increasingly higher costs. The extensive deregulation of transactions has created a set of instruments that facilitate speculation and the increase in risks, which became systemic in nature. The economic expansion that was created came to an end in 2008 and a conscientious balance is required to appreciate the nature of its repercussions in the face of the conditions of the crisis that was finally caused. The costs of the crisis seem to be greater than the benefits of the long process of growth and stability. What has been called the era of the Great Moderation in the development of capitalism in the advanced countries since the mid-1980s came to an abrupt end. In the midst of this boom and bust cycle, banks have played a crucial role. Along with financial innovations and technological changes, the role of financing was altered and the relationship with productive activities was increasingly separated. It was believed to have reached a kind of nirvana, where you could go from money to more money without having to be distracted in the creation of merchandise, employment and income for the people. The ideal of money as a general expression of value seemed to have been consummated. The ocean in all its power hits the cliffs and rock islets with ancestral fury. There is fierceness in the wind and not a cloud in the blue of a shimmeringly clear sky. There we went to give Chico and I one day this summer. It must be Monday, because we found it closed. Not a soul around except a motorcyclist in black leather armor taking off his helmet at the foot of tremendous Harley Davison. An iron pen without a fence, rather symbolic, blocked access. The same I wonder, said the motorcyclist without moving. We walk towards the fort and the sea leaving behind the hesitant biker, shielded by the fact that the Boy is small enough to argue innocence if necessary. We found two police patrols. Seeing that nobody shot or arrested us, the biker finally followed us over the pasture. The boy was telling me that guy is Russian. For the accent, he said; He knows many Russians, he knows the tone. The original fortification was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake, as was the city of San Francisco, some 120 kilometers to the south. Rebuilt faithful to the original for recreational purposes, the location reveals military wisdom. From an impregnable promontory, it dominates the south of Bodega Bay, with hills behind. To the north extends Bodega, the bay that the Russians called Rumatisiev. The Slavic and German settlers built the first windmills in California and the first shipyard there. They founded Sebastopol and sold arms to Mexicans, who will not know how to take advantage of them when they need them. The motorcyclist, with a sunny face, said he came from St. Petersburg, where he is a prosperous programmer. He told us about the popular rock opera Juno y Avos, which happens around here, when in a hollow we came across the cemetery. About 200 settlers and Russian soldiers pay that soil. The Sanpetersburger biker stopped and kept a minute of silence. El Chico and I went ahead and turned on the next corner of the red pine wall to urinate. Gamallo warns that to continue aspiring to receive funds, the proposals of Galicia must bet on innovation and projects related to employment. On the future of the delegations of the Xunta abroad, he points out that they will not be integrated into the embassies since they have managed to cut their budgets and increase their productivity. Now we will have to wait for the decisions of the Parliament and the Council, but I am optimistic, although it is clear that within the latter there are positions among the different countries that do not coincide. The debate on the reprogramming of the current cohesion funds is present in the Council and is a complex debate. Q. What changes can be made to the period of application of funds ending next year? R. What you will have to face is a change of mentality to present projects that opt ​​for specialization intelligent. The European funds will be mainly dedicated to innovation, so we will have to continue doing what we know how to do otherwise. We must present projects that provide more added value and greater efficiency. It is also going to bet on those initiatives that opt ​​for public-private collaboration and for the generation of employment. Projects with cross-border collaboration are another important way to obtain funds. A. I do not agree with the fact that there are no projects in progress within the Euroregion, plans are currently being implemented for a total amount of 137 million euros and we are also dedicating a lot of effort to preparing the scenario for the period 2014-2020. During those years there will be 40,000 million euros of European funds to invest in European transport networks. A project could be undertaken to improve the current road and reduce the connection time by half. P. Up to now the European funds have been dedicated to very diverse things. R. Innovative and efficient projects are the way of the future. Q. What will happen to the delegations abroad that depend on your general management? A. In the delegations what needs to be done is to apply strict efficiency criteria and it has already been done. It will not be produced in all cases since it could end up being more expensive when having to rescind contracts in force. But it will help, if we assume our responsibility to modernize the country. To do so depends not only the future of Spain but even the survival of the European project. The lack of growth prospects of the southern economies, and especially Spain, is making Europe doubt the viability of the euro. If we show that Spain can grow, with real reforms and not just brutal cuts, we will give our European partners the confidence they need to bet on greater fiscal and economic integration, and we will help Europe to save itself. Today Europe is the problem and Spain is the solution. But, far from responding to the challenge, the country seems determined to look for external culprits. Nothing good will come from this attitude. Spain does not work well, the responsibility is ours and deep down we know it. It is urgent to assume the seriousness of the situation and the need to face it collectively. Germany's position is rational and reasonable. You are asking a country that has engraved by fire for its history the danger of fiscal laxity that put the money to finance a project that they think, rightly, can be a bucket without funds and end up breaking them as well. We ask to shoot with German gunpowder. And Merkel, pressed by her worried public opinion, logically refuses. Before you want guarantees that the economies of the south can repay their debts and the EU is economically viable. The risk premium is a symptom, not cause of the problem. And a greater reduction in interest rates would hardly have an impact, since in a debt recession the priority is to reduce debts, not to obtain cheap credit for investment or consumption. But nothing that we are asking of Europe would take us out of our particular hole. Indeed, there are imbalances between regions and there are no adjustment mechanisms and institutions that manage them. Spain is going bad, and denying it is as irresponsible as it is counterproductive. We have told a story of a rich, innovative and dynamic country that is not true. Our economy is uncompetitive, is concentrated in low productivity sectors and companies do not invest enough in R & D and training. We do not have natural resources or competitive advantages in sectors of high growth and employment. Many markets are protected from real competition by an ancestral corporatism. The main culprits are undoubtedly the politicians and equal or more the business and financial elite, which has brought the country to the brink of bankruptcy. But they are but a reflection of a disclaimer of collective responsibility. Too many corrupt people have been legitimized with absolute majorities. All the above is of course qualifying. But what cuts does not take away the brave. The main cause of our current predicament is the lack of reformist ambition during the last fifteen years. Overcoming it means becoming aware of the immense challenge we face and undertaking this true project of national regeneration. Enough of blaming Europe. And it is that Spain faces a historical challenge. The world is undergoing a seismic change due to the emergence of emerging economies. Three fifths of the world's population are being incorporated into the global economic system. With huge reserves of cheap labor, and more and more innovation, they will generate an economic dislocation as the world has not seen in centuries. Spain does not have willows to compete in this competitive environment. The country needs a real shock of modernity; not only social cuts or changes in margins, but authentic reforms that energize the country and dismantle vested interests. We must dismantle the myth that reforms are necessarily synonymous with sacrifice. True structural reforms break privileges and benefit the majority. Progressive taxation and the creation of the welfare state are good examples. The equivalent in today's Spain must be reforms that democratize innovation; that give access to the instruments that allow to innovate to a much greater base of citizens and companies, and thus liberate all the creative potential of the country. We must liberalize the economy, breaking the corporatism that has gripped it, and that results in a plutocratic mercantilism that is dominated by big companies, in connivance with public powers and to the detriment of most companies and entrepreneurs. We must reform the Administration, to put an end to the conservative corporatism of the high official and his practical monopolization of political life. But none of this will be possible if Spain is dragged to a too fast socially unviable setting with impossible demands for austerity. We need space for encouragement and to implement growth policies, starting with a new industrial policy. Because if something characterizes the movement of the outraged, is that it is composed mostly by children under 35 years. 70% of them have university studies and more than half are students. In addition, the members of the 15-M are much more ideologized than the Spanish average and about 80% of them are located on the left. Contrary to what is believed, more than half of those who participated in these mobilizations did vote in the successive elections of 2011, although the overwhelming majority opted for minority parties. The 15-M breaks with one of the most widespread topics of the present and that recalls that any past time was better: the young people of today are interested in politics. It is true that, as in the whole of society, a minority is the one that shows the greatest interest. That is, today's young people are more interested in politics than their parents. However, it is true that the 15-M participants are not a representative sample of the whole youth. If that were the case, we would not understand what happened in the last general elections. In the socialist defeat of November, young people played a very important role. So, does this mean that most young people are conservative? If we analyze the ideological evolution of those under 35, we see that their preference for progressive values ​​has diminished substantially since the beginning of democracy. That is to say, the majority of those under the age of 35 are still on the left, although conservative positions with a lower ideological profile have gained weight. There is a second ideological feature that differentiates them from the rest of generations. When the question of ideological identification focuses on labels, most young people see themselves as liberals, something that does not happen in the rest of generations. Identifying oneself as a liberal does not lead inexorably to voting for the Popular Party. If the majority left wants to regain the confidence of youth, it needs to achieve two objectives that are related to each other. In the first place, in the movement of the indignant, he must pay more attention to what unites him, than to what separates him. Second, you need to develop a discourse that responds to many of the concerns of young people and know what they expect from our political system. Again, public opinion data can help in this task. In it, he asked himself about the most important characteristic expected of a democracy. For the elderly, the priority is economic and they expect a decent income to be guaranteed. On the other hand, those under 30 years of age mostly opt for a more political option, demanding that the parties defend and represent the interests of citizens, albeit at a very short distance from the economic motivation. That is, each generational group expects things other than democracy. In short, nowhere is it written that young people will continue to favor the Popular Party in the future. But if the left wants to regain its trust, it needs to offer more than an economic exit to the crisis. The young people of today are very concerned about the functioning of our democracy. The official story, which has achieved a remarkable consensus in the ranks of the opposition, is that everything would be resolved if we had more financial resources. There is no doubt that the data that substantiate such assertions are conclusive. We are all aware of the enviable Basque-Navarre exceptionality. And we also know that the share of solidarity with the rest of Spain does not explain the imbalances in the ordinality of the autonomous communities between the creation of wealth and the amount of transfers. The consensus on the inequalities and grievances that this implies is widely shared in Catalan public opinion. Or, if I am allowed an example at random, in macrocasinos than in ecological agroindustrial development. We are at a time when everything critical is strategic. We can not address what is falling every week from the decremental logic. Today, that fluid does not seem to circulate so easily and the symptoms of abstinence and despair increase. Detoxification is not easy, but it is essential, and it affects not only those responsible for politics or financial interests, but also the ill-used citizens. Rethinking things implies understanding where we are. The combination of powerful and environmentally friendly agriculture, with reinforcement of own production and close distribution, will be a basic component. Also the investment in industrial production based on cooperation and distributed capacity, with logics of self-sufficiency. The recovery of work from people, not from non-existent workplaces, will be a priority. The renovation and the educational extension is now fundamental. Strengthening local powers, adapting size and scale, is also essential to bring services closer to citizen involvement, transparency and control. The decisions of these weeks rather point in another direction or simply do not point. Those who scold us and threaten us with all kinds of divine plagues. I would advise more modesty, accept that not everything is controlled and that not everything is the fault of Madrid and those who governed before. Because the "before" started a long time ago and Madrid has always been there. We reclaim resources, but let's not forget to say what we want them for. He explained that, if he had refused to do so, "History" would have "judged him harshly". Bosnia and Rwanda had already passed by. He is still too young for a jurisdiction that alters old conceptions. The message is addressed to all the armed groups that commit abominable acts: one day, there will be accountability. One hundred and twenty-one States recognize it. In the Arab world, only Jordan and, recently, Tunisia. Russia and China remain on the sidelines. The court is like a sword suspended over the heads of dictators. An instrument to preserve and defend at any price. He declared that fiscal adjustment "is a prerequisite for sustainable growth and earnings in employment in the medium term." The measures taken by the Spanish government to cut 65 billion euros "are going in the right direction" and should help meet their deficit targets. Romney's office launched a television ad that accuses Obama of deceptive, slanderous and unfair attacks. Stephanie Cutter, deputy director of the president's campaign, said the article raised serious questions about why Romney wanted to hide the date of his departure. He warned that choosing Romney could reverse years of economic and civil improvements for African-Americans. This information adds a little more confusion to the finances of the candidate, who continues to refuse to publish the amount of his income before 2010 and that of his salaries abroad. Romney's team quickly denied that information, as did the investment fund in separate statements. Later the campaign team of Barack Obama addressed the issue today in a telephone press conference. During the liza in the internal supporters for the Republican presidential candidacy in 2011-12, Romney faced particularly hard adversaries who accused him of dismissing workers from the companies he bought. Romney then argued that he respected the principles of free enterprise. The president highlighted the difference between how he was seen from his campaign speeches, when he was considered a good speaker although he questioned whether he would be able to do a good job, how he was criticized once in the White House. Obama considered that he has to leave more of Washington, spend more time with the Americans, listening to them and having a conversation about "where we go together as a country". You can not open a bank account, get married or study. It is invisible in the eyes of both governments. It happens that the woman, of 40 years, not only is in the United States illegally, but also does not have Mexican documents. This puts her in a situation even more disadvantageous than that of foreigners who live in the EU without legal authorization, but who do have documents from their homeland of origin. The New York public schools accept the same documents so that irregular immigrants can enter their precincts and participate in meetings with their children's teachers. Migrants who have certain documents from their native country can also obtain a tax identification number that allows them to pay taxes in the US and have access to credit or mortgages. They are condemned to a marginal existence. The Mexican does not know if her parents did not register her when she was born and she did not bother to solve the issue when she lived in Mexico. The figures on this type of immigrants are diffuse in the US, because it is difficult to detect them because they try to go unnoticed. They are vulnerable in two ways. " There are cases in which immigrants are arrested and the US authorities do not know where to deport them. If they have children born in the US, they can not offer them Mexican citizenship because they lack a Mexican birth certificate. This can lead to the total separation of the family. The immigrant, who is now 37, said they were asking for at least one birth certificate to continue. I have felt unprotected in many aspects ". His mother, Juana Cruz, was alone and without resources, which made it very difficult to travel to another village where the civil registry office was located. They handed it to her and she took it proud, with a shy smile on her face. The first thing we are going to do is get married. " The lack of identification is common in indigenous communities where Mixtec is spoken and where the fact of not speaking Spanish makes it difficult to carry out bureaucratic procedures. I have my three children born here, but I can not give them Mexican citizenship, "said the immigrant, visibly worried. In addition to not having married or having a bank account, González says he has always had problems when they asked for identification. There are several types of certificates in Mexico, issued by municipal authorities, and are often used by Mexicans who lack other identification. If you meet with the police, if they arrest you, they will require an identification, "Alanis said. And more right now, with Secure Communities. We should all have something that says who we are. " So we check the address, "said Gonzalo Mercado, director of the center. The Mexican government implemented a program last year with the slogan "All united for the right to identity in Oaxaca" to combat the problem in that state. Bautista, the immigrant who obtained her birth certificate after managing it in New York, said recently that she called her mother to announce that she would achieve the expected document. This, he argues, is inspired by the idea of ​​fighting the enemy, which reduces citizenship as adversaries. For what is given to the structure of the State a punitive capacity to pursue. According to him, the crimes of slander or defamation are of private action and their execution is done in situations of personal contact and exceptionally by means. That is why it considers that implicitly it is assumed that these crimes are exclusive of the media. The third operation could not eliminate the tumor despite chemotherapy, "he said. He also said that the steroids that Chávez must be taking will have an impact on him, "because in the long run they accelerate the growth of cancer cells." The act of today, which took him to travel in a caravan some streets of Anzoategui and then give a speech of two hours before his supporters, was the first headed by the Venezuelan leader after the start of the campaign on July 1. The opposition candidate, who has been very active with events in different cities of the country after the beginning of the campaign, also took a mass bath today in the central State of Cojedes. Marquina, says the Spanish newspaper, "is one of the few specialists who receives confidential information from the Venezuelan president." For Marquina, Chavez's cancer "is incurable. The third operation could not eliminate the tumor despite chemotherapy. " He adds that "according to the last test that was done, the tumor has not diminished or increased in size." Regarding his apparent physical improvement in public, the doctor states that "the problem is that people think that cancer patients show the symptoms of their disease, and it is not. Cancer patients show their agony at the end of the process "and, points out" what is said is that Chávez may have a relapse from December. Regarding the rumor that the disease was a deception by Chávez to win votes, the doctor denies it outright. Insulza, who concludes a two-day visit to El Salvador tomorrow to learn about the course of the truce, announced that the agency will design a procedure to comply with the partial disarmament. The State must "take away" the "territories they control" with social projects, he said. Although in the truce the gangs decided in May to stop the forced recruitment of young people and declared the disputed schools as "zones of peace", the crimes and disappearances of students have continued, according to human rights organizations. However, Mijango said that in the first 123 days of the truce, 1,077 deaths and a "reduction" were avoided. significant "of the extortion that gangs commit against individuals, merchants or carriers. But in the streets remain, according to the government, another 50 thousand gang members. Franco signed the resolutions during the meeting held on Wednesday at the headquarters of the war material, in the city of Piribeby, about 70 kilometers east of the capital, military sources reported. However, the Paraguayan public prosecutor's office decided to invalidate this supposed evidence in the framework of the investigations it carries out against Maduro. A silent and often unnoticed crowd. They are the victims of poverty. It grows in a bottomless crisis and settles into a brittle normality. Unemployment, which already lacerates 5.6 million people, is a narrow edge. Invoices continue, subsidies are cut; they are exhausted just like savings, and employment does not appear. The descent is more and more accelerated, say the experts, a slide whose descent gains speed and to which a growing number of people appears. There are hostels with a waiting list. More than 5.6 million jobs and tens of thousands of roofs razed by the hurricane of the crisis. More than 300,000 foreclosures started in the last five years, many of which have resulted in evictions - more than 100,000 - to which are added those motivated by non-payment of rent. That is one of the things that Carmen has learned in recent times. This 40 year old woman was until one and a half years ago a successful businesswoman. Up to 16 employees came to have, he says. So well were the things that they managed to buy a flat in an expensive neighborhood of Madrid, Chamberí. Now the woman lunches every day in a social dining room a stone's throw from the floor she had. The construction crisis took its business ahead. There were no wires to put in homes or brand new shopping centers. We gave them what they deserved and a little more. Goodbye to the buoyant times, when they amortized the mortgage with anticipated and vertiginous reimbursements. The crisis took the company, the floor, the welfare, but the claw did not stop there. Carmen's son is now in a juvenile center: "He stole to try to help us". The husband survives on a farm, "milking cows". This would avoid having to spend the day on the street: the hostel closes from ten in the morning until six in the evening. People should not forget that, however high they are, they can fall far below. We are all human beings and this can touch anyone, "recapitulates. This 38-year-old from Madrid has settled in a Chamberí arcade. His degree in Second Degree Vocational Training does not help him find a job since he lost it in 2008, when he was in charge of technical tasks in a brick factory. He collected the strike until it was over. In 2010 he lost the flat he paid to the bank and settled on the asphalt. They tell me to go with my brother to his house, but he's up to his neck. He's going to have to sell the truck and he has two children, "he explains. So he is still on the street while "three million floors are empty." They came last August, when they despaired of finding work in Hellenic lands. They brought a job offer that turned out not to be such. When the savings ended, only the weather was left. Every day they take turns - we have to watch the equipment - to the public library. On computers, they send resumes and look for work. They also carry the mobile phone there: we must have it ready in case, through the call, hope arrives. A hope that "every day is lost more." Every day is the same as the previous one, without a future. Although many poor people carry mobile phones and use the Internet even in hostels. Since he lost his job he puts ads to do odd jobs, those that saved him some time. Before the crisis were "3% or 4%", recalls the director. And the proportion of Spaniards increases; They are already half. They are men of middle and lower middle class, prepared to work and that they have lost their jobs, "says Rodríguez. But the work, the balsam of Fierabrás, does not come. And poverty grows and becomes chronic. If this acute crisis lasts a long time, the consequences can be irreversible, especially for young people. Now we are at 23%, "says Cabrera. Unemployment is not the only source of this situation: so are low wages, which create poor workers, qualifies. It's something that was happening before the crisis, but the phenomenon has expanded to the services sector. " In addition, the reduction of social policies reduces the possibility of mitigating the effects of economic deterioration on disadvantaged citizens. Lavinia Mingu and her Spanish neighbor in line to collect food in Chamberí know it well. At first, she pushes her baby's stroller and is separated with two girls, she has just been denied the public nursery for the little girl. The shortage of public services is another difficulty to get out of poverty for this woman who lacks subsidies but not courage. In similar situation is his partner, who asks for anonymity and has three children in his charge. He has worked in supermarkets, although for two years he has not found where. The two struggle to keep their houses, but on them hangs the threat of eviction for non-payment. Also on that of another Spanish woman equally thirtyish in this row abundant in shopping trolleys to transport the food home and baby strollers. She has two dependent children and a job as a cleaner three hours a day. I am completely alone and so depressed that sometimes I do not want to go home. " There are also those who avoid giving details in this place, especially those who have just stepped on it for the first time and are unable to overcome the feeling of shame. However, in this crisis, as in the previous ones, the family mattress is the strongest protection. Grandparents who welcome children and grandchildren at home, who also try to cover the needs of others with their own income. As the mother of Gregorio, a ferrallista "unemployed for three years and without charging for one." I had my car, I went to the gym. He had a normal life, like any human being. To lose my job was a radical cut. " Organize the access and see how the bags are lined with pans while their owners seek shade. Before opening, there are already more than 40. The religious offer 600 daily rations, twice as much as a year ago. Spaniards and impoverished immigrants flock to emergency care services, such as the distribution of food, dining rooms or punctual aid for the payment of an invoice. They are key to try to avoid the final fall by the slide that ends in the great exclusion, a decline driven by the loss of housing. But the profile of the poor has changed with respect to previous crises. The university degree has ceased to be a great shield and in a country of mortgages, citizens try to maintain housing at all costs. Losing it is the last step in a fall for which many lack network. Aznar proposed to get out of the crisis "to make a more flexible economy" and to reform the welfare state, although on this last point he did not give details. The former president said he trusted in Spain and that the country go ahead, although, he clarified, "not without a great sacrifice." The former chief executive also lamented the loss of his country's reputation in the world and called for "recovering the strong international position of Spain." I'm enjoying it much more than with an orgasm, this enjoyment lasts longer, a lot, "Galan told an Italian radio station today. If they have understood, and I think so, the result will not be what Berlusconi expected, "he said today during an event in Rome. Friday, July 13, 2012, p. 30 Moscow, July 12. If they decide to do this, knowing that the text is unacceptable to us, we will not allow it to be approved, said Russian Deputy Foreign Minister Gennady Gatilov. On the whole, the draft resolution is not Balanced, it only foresees obligations for the Syrian government and practically nothing is said about the obligations of the opposition, he added. He said the proposal would mean an exacerbation of the political atmosphere around Syria, in statements to the Interfax agency. The Western powers give the Damascus regime 10 days, after the text is approved, to withdraw its troops and the heavy artillery of the rebellious cities. The first Syrian ambassador to defect, Nawaf Fares, confirmed that he joined the opposition, which he called the Syrian people's revolution forces. He called on the army to join the revolution and defend the country and its citizens. Aim your weapons against the criminals of this regime. He added that he will put him at the disposal of justice for his statements. Syrian television claimed that terrorist groups were guilty of the massacre. Also three members of the Army died during the fighting, he said. Later regime militiamen arrived from surrounding towns to kill the inhabitants in their homes, he said. In addition, the prime minister "will make all the necessary efforts to get the same commitment from other Romanian institutions." Ponta bowed to the two presidents, so that the crisis of distrust between Bucharest and the European institutions is thus seemingly on track. Incarcerated, but not resolved: not only because Brussels is waiting for the prime minister to comply with the given word, but because the Romanian political quagmire can still worsen. Ponta arrived in Brussels relatively comforted with regard to the legality of the dismissal of Basescu, after two months of political bitterness whose virulence has surprised the European capital. The government modified by decree last week the rule that requires more than 50% of popular participation for the consultation to be valid, which this Tuesday rejected the highest court. There will be a great political crisis: the president will return to his office, with the Parliament against, the Government against and the public opinion against. The situation takes away my sleep. " The Commission should help to reduce passions in Bucharest. Bad for Romania's expectations of becoming a partner like others. The negotiations of a new law, which must regulate who is obliged to go to the army and who has not, have unleashed a political storm, which keeps the coalition executive hanging by a thread. Kadima, the center-right party that jumped on the government car with the promise that it would be able to force the ultra-religious to enlist in the army, now fears defrauding its voters. Mofaz has said that if the new law is not on the table next Sunday, it will go to the opposition. The law in question should expand compulsory military service for students of Talmudic schools and should also regulate whether Palestinians with Israeli passports do some kind of substitute social service. The constitutional court that declared the previous law illegal, considering it discriminatory, has ruled that August 1 is the deadline to approve a new legislative text. The composition of the Army is a crucial issue in Israel, where the armed forces form the backbone of a country that claims to be permanently at war and that has maintained a military occupation of the Palestinians for 45 years. Military service is mandatory -three years for men and two for women- and once finished, Israelis go into reserve until well into their 40s. Since 1948, the date of creation of the State of Israel, the haredim - fearful of God- who dedicate their lives to the study of biblical texts, are exempt from doing the military. Since then, the growth of the Haredim, who have an average of almost seven children, has skyrocketed. Today, 11% of the Israeli population is around. The vast majority does not go to the Army and does not work either, while enjoying important state subsidies. The Haredim, partners also of the current Government, have threatened to take the streets if they are forced to do the military. They consider themselves an Army of students, whose prayers they consider crucial for the survival of the country. The division deepens as the intra-Israeli conflict deepens. Later regime militiamen arrived from surrounding towns to kill the inhabitants in their homes, he said. The search for the victims continued last night. About 150 corpses were taken to the village mosque. Among the victims are several members of a family that was from another location and had sought refuge there. Numerous people in the village died in the military offensive and many more lost their lives by shooting and summary executions, the activists added. Syrian television said three members of the security forces were killed in clashes in Tremseh and accused "armed terrorist groups" of committing a massacre at the site. If the reports are accurate, the killing would be the worst in the rebellion against the Syrian government. Friday, July 13, 2012, p. 29 Kabul, July 12. I repeat my call to all Afghans. The Taliban resistance conditions the peace negotiations to the withdrawal of foreign forces from the Central Asian nation. You can open a political office, but you have to lay down your arms. And if people vote for him, very well, he will take over the country, Karzai continued. On several occasions, the Afghan president has called the Taliban for peace negotiations, but they refuse to discuss with the representative of a government they consider illegitimate, after having been endorsed and supported by the invading forces. And talks that were to take place in Qatar in 2012 officially failed. Meanwhile, the Taliban denied the filming of an Afghan accused of adultery, after the Karzai regime accused them this week of being behind the event. Two other people were injured. France, one of the occupying countries, announced that with the withdrawal of 650 soldiers will reduce its quota to 2 thousand 950 by the end of next August. Friday, July 13, 2012, p. 31 Brazzaville. Friday, July 13, 2012, p. 30 Phnom Penh, July 12. The United States and several allies considered that the launching of the rocket on April 13 was a ballistic missile test, but the North Korean government affirmed that it was an exercise to try to place a satellite in orbit, which finally failed. They expressed deep concern for the well-being of the North Korean people and the grave human rights situation in North Korea. He warned that his country will never give up its sovereign right to explore and use outer space and to develop nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. In addition, domestic demand has decreased, due to macroeconomic control measures, particularly in the real estate sector. Retail sales, the main indicator of domestic consumption, have moderated. Industrial production has also slowed down. It has grown by 9.5% annually, one tenth less than the previous month. Beijing cut interest rates last week for the second time in a month. Since December, the reserve requirements of banks have decreased three times. However, it has not launched a stimulus plan similar to the four trillion yuan it adopted during the global financial crisis in 2008. The easing of inflationary pressure will allow the authorities to act more decisively to accelerate the activity if necessary. Inflation reached a record of 6.5% in July of last year. Laiyun has warned that not everything is won and that Beijing must "make more efforts to continue strong growth, strengthen and continuously improve macroeconomic regulation and try the maximum to reach a fast and healthy economic growth ". When Lula came to power in 2003, there was a qualitative leap in bilateral relations. One of the main results is a strong increase in trade. Of the 800 million dollars exchanged in 2003, it went to 5 billion in 2011. In an indirect language, Brazilian strategists hint at the underlying reasons for this alliance. Venezuela is the world's first oil reserve, the third largest for bauxite, the fourth for gold, the sixth for natural gas and the tenth iron reserve. Since 2009, Canadian companies have exploited uranium deposits in that region, something that is not seen with good eyes by Caracas and Brasilia. The strategic alliance woven under the government of Lula seeks to give greater economic, demographic and political density to one of the areas of greater geostrategic importance of the continent. Turbulent times are approaching. Then politics overflowed. The combination of this omnipresence of politics with a long economic expansion and the creation of 17 regional administrations was explosive: it is enough to add the high positions and autonomous parliamentarians and the growth of public employees and organizations linked to politics. This framework is comfortable for the national and regional directorates -clave- of the parties, puts at your disposal many resources with which to control their organizations and the process of political decision making. It is clear that the country's institutional design is failing and is one of the keys to the crisis. After the malfunctioning of institutions there is a root: the parties. The country has been buffeted by politics, and politics have been squeezed because the parties have avoided setting standards for their internal functioning. The design of the Transition policy responded to the fear of instability and the priority of consolidating the new parties. Prolonging a policy dominated by these uses for decades has produced its metastasis. The evolution of the great parties is common. So much rigidity causes dysfunctions. The internal alternatives to the directions can only come from redoubts of territorial power in the hands of rivals of the direction. The congresses of some parties remember the wars of medieval mercenary bands. In Britain, the conferences are annual. After the malfunctioning of the institutions they beat the politics woven into the parties and the politicians selected by them. The experience of other countries says that the best way to prevent this systemic failure of the policy is to have laws that oblige the parties to guarantee competition among their leaders. Internal competition is what forces a German minister to resign for having copied a doctoral thesis, because he knows that internal rivals will come to exploit his loss of credibility. This is healthy, renews policy and forces politicians to develop skills to gain their own support and define proposals, without having to get close to the management. With internal competition to the presumed corrupt, it would be more difficult for them to survive, and ambitious party comrades would control the shadows in the management of public and internal positions. In Spain, the competition in the parties, in democratic terms, has been crushed, which has produced what we are experiencing. That this "deregulated" policy, woven without norms or counterweights spread to all institutions could only end in this bad way. In this metastasis of politics lies the exhausting restlessness that Spanish society is dragging. Spain faces something deeper than raising or lowering taxes or benefits, it requires a radical reform of its policy and institutions, that is, simple rules of operation. What remained of the Zapaterismo has just evaporated with remarkable speed and methodical assistance from the new socialist leadership, as in an illusionist game. Only a few thick drops of moisture remain condensed at the outlet of an air cooling system. The zapaterismo is gone but we do not know exactly where or why it came. The same society that almost instinctively makes a clean slate of the years of shoemaking is one that can not either really show its own civic abilities. It came almost by chance with the elections after the Atocha attack, but it seemed to be made to measure. Thus he tried to operate on the margin of the already difficult fair playentre center-left and center-right. In short, a direct consequence of a purchasing power that seemed to overturn the treasure cave of a country that is not rich in resources or possesses that deposit that is typical of societies whose wealth is of permanence and continuity over time. The zapaterismo was an invention that briefly occupied a vacuum and that in no small measure reassured the lack of solidity characteristic of an upstart world. In its most decorative aspects, it could be good for a society that believed to live in an inexhaustible abundance. There were those who feared a systemic nature of shoemaking. But mainly, until the fall on the road between Damascus and Brussels, was the slide to go sliding without realizing the crisis that was denied. Later we have found that the collective practice of indifference or of looking the other way to avoid difficult decisions ends up diminishing the will of a nation. Zapatero won his first elections needing the parliamentary sustenance of a difficult sum heterogeneity. And without a clear electoral mandate ended up advocating transformations in consensus that marked the centrality of Spanish politics from the return to democracy. Both the formulation of these gestures and the reaction of many affected social sectors represented an embezzlement of collective energies that the Popular Party, in the opposition, took too long to resume and redefine in terms of the new political landscape. The less gaseous elements of zapaterismo survived this way, without the opposition of the center-right assuming the alternative of profiling a discursive presence. The short dribble devoured the possibilities, if anything, of a macrostrategy. While Zapatero was self-congratulatory in the language of gestures, the opposition did little to renew the language of ideas. If the thesis was true, now it is much less so due to the processes of fragmentation of public opinion and the volatility of collective moods. Emotionalism is hegemonic. It permeates all politics, including international politics, the realm of realism. Paradoxically, Zapaterismo had its elements of pioneering emotionalism, but it is saying goodbye without anyone on the platform waving a handkerchief and then wiping away a tear. The international credit rating agency said that the rest of the ratings and prospects of these financial institutions remained unchanged. He indicated that the ratings of the six universal banks are limited by the sovereign rating of Mexico, as a result of its long exposure of assets to the sovereign. We do not foresee that the exposure to the sovereign will change in the future, "he added. Thursday, July 12, 2012, p. 24 Brussels, July 11. We welcome the announcement of these new austerity measures. This is an important step to ensure that Spain achieves its fiscal objectives this year, he added. However, he refused to evaluate the measures, stating that the Commission has not had time to evaluate them yet. But when he mentioned his plans to repeal the health law, the reaction was immediate. He was also booed when he said that although Obama promised to create jobs, "he will not do it, he can not and his record of the last four years proves it." Better received were his initiatives to boost small and medium enterprises. Analysts praised, in any case, the value of Romney. But that does not mean that this applause will result in votes in November next, "African-American analyst Jonathan Capehart said. Since the 1930s, no Republican candidate has managed to win the support of an electorate that abandoned them almost a century ago. In the elections of 2008, Obama destroyed 96% of the African-American vote. The last Republican candidate to get more than 30% support among the African-American electorate was Richard Nixon. Romney acknowledged that his party certainly does not have a perfect record when it comes to race relations. Despite this, he promised that if elected, he will be president of all and collaborate with black leaders to reduce unemployment in the nation. The Republican dismissed the statements as "disconcerting" and "scandalous". A total of 244 representatives voted in favor of the withdrawal of the reform, including five Democrats. The vote is symbolic, since the Democrats will block the measure in the Senate. Obama warned, however, in a statement issued shortly after the first US ambassador to Burma in 22 years took office, that this progress was still insufficient and that those who "sabotage the reform process" could be subject to sanctions. his country. The reduction in sanctions "will allow US companies to conduct business responsibly in Burma. As it was about two months ago, Obama avoided giving general approval to the changes in the Asian country. He stressed that "the political and economic reforms in Burma are still incomplete." The United States had withdrawn its ambassador in 1990, after the elections won by the opposition but whose results the military junta refused to recognize, and the repression of the student demonstrations that caused thousands of deaths two years before. Laos is the country that has received more bombs per inhabitant in the world, when the Vietnam War spread to its territory between 1964 and 1973. And the bombs that did not explode continue to cause victims in the territory. Both countries agreed to "improve and facilitate" the search for the remains of missing US soldiers in combat and face the "challenge" of the ammunition that did not explode, according to a common statement. The controversy surrounding the construction of the Xayaburi hydroelectric plant, a $ 3.8 billion budget project, is also on the agenda of the discussions. Clinton called last year for a moratorium on the construction of reservoirs in the Mekong, a river on which 60 million people rely for transportation, food and economy. Thursday, July 12, 2012, p. 31 New York, July 11. Obama also defended his actions in relation to Havana. We have shown flexibility in remittances and in nullifying parts of the travel ban for family members, and I think that was the right thing to do. My hope is that the Cuban government will begin to recognize that its system is no longer functioning. " Hezbollah, of course, being a delegate of Iran, potentially has access to weapons that could be used against us. The president needs to focus on what Chavez is doing, what the Castros are doing. Santiago • Groups of Chilean students, workers and social organizations took to the streets today to commemorate the 41st anniversary of the nationalization of copper and demand "the renationalization" of the country's main wealth, according to its leaders. The police used jets of water and gases to prevent the advance of the demonstrators, who totaled around half a thousand and who replied with stones and other elements. Allende described as "second independence" the nationalization of copper, which has been called over time "the salary of Chile", "the master beam of development" and other similar denominations. The nationalization allowed the exploitation of copper by private parties only in the small and medium mining, but during the dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet the big companies could return thanks to a reform that allowed the concession of the deposits, maintaining their state property. In this context, the demands for the "renationalisation" of copper have arisen, of which almost one third of the known world reserves are in Chile. Before that happens, we have to make sure that Chile's greatest wealth, which is its people, can be developed through knowledge. " Early in the morning, groups of villagers demonstrating for the right to housing in the center of Santiago also demanded "a new nationalization of copper." Thursday, July 12, 2012, p. 29 Moscow, July 11. Medvedev said that both countries have to bear the brunt of the global economic crisis and controversies in international relations. Therefore, he said, the two sides should strengthen economic relations and humanitarian cooperation and explore ways to take advantage of each one's potential. We have had periods with different relationships, which today are more pragmatic... however, everything we accumulated in the past years is now part of our common wealth, he added. Last year, bilateral trade amounted to a modest figure of 224 million dollars, and could be resented by Repsol's decision to abandon its activity in deep waters of Cuba, not having found oil. Thursday, July 12, 2012, p. 30 Buenos Aires, July 11. The group will demand the capital government and the national government for not complying with the delivery of lands that they promised. The national State sent Scioli a billion pesos to try to resolve the situation, but it is not enough. In this case there were criticisms, since the occupation of buildings always occurs due to serious demands and serious problems. In the south, in spite of the increase decreed by the government of Santa Cruz, the police continue demanding unemployment increases with a minimum of 9 thousand pesos, more than 2,000 dollars. The Argentine government reiterated its previous call to all arms-producing countries to stop supplying the parties in conflict and avoid their responsibility in the tragedy that the Syrian people are experiencing. That is the second action of unconstitutionality presented by the defense lawyers of Lugo. The measures will be approved at the next council of ministers that will be held this Friday and will take effect immediately. The president was escorted out of the back door of the Congress, to avoid meeting with protesters who gathered at the doors of the building when they heard the news. He argued that raising it would cause a decrease in consumption. However, yesterday, pressed by its European partners to whom it has requested a bank rescue of up to 100 billion euros, it was forced to change its mind. A measure that will mean an extra income of more than 6 billion euros. But that was not the only announcement. In addition, this year will be abolished the Christmas bonus for officials, senior government officials, autonomous communities and municipalities. And they will also have fewer days off. The measure will mean saving 5 billion euros. Likewise, the number of councilors of the Town Councils will be reduced by 30%. There will also be a cut in spending items of ministries of 600 mde in the remainder of 2012 to reduce subsidies, current expenses and transfers. And parties, unions and business organizations will receive 20% less than the 2013 Budget. Regarding unemployment benefits, the government reduces the amount of unemployment benefits by 10 points from the sixth month as unemployed, to encourage the search of work. The delay in the retirement age will also accelerate and the treatment of early retirement will be toughened, and aid to people with dependent relatives will be reduced. Taxes will rise for luxury vehicles, those of tobacco, and the deduction for purchase of habitual residence will be eliminated as of 2013. In a joint statement, the two trade union centrals call "civil society" to reject what they consider a "new attack" "To the rights of the unemployed, public sector workers and pensioners. The unions ratify the strategy of "sustained mobilization against the cuts" already decided months ago and that warn that "it will know in autumn a firmer and more forceful expression". On March 29, the Spanish unions called for a general strike against the labor reform, which was followed up with a disparate follow-up, with greater impact on the industry and less impact on services, commerce and the public sector. He also announced that the new unemployed will see their benefit reduced from the sixth month, although the maximum period of 24 months of this assistance will be maintained, and that public officials and senior officials will not receive the extra Christmas pay in 2012., tens of thousands of people demonstrated today in the center of Madrid to the Ministry of Industry, in support of Spanish mining and against the cuts to the sector, a peaceful protest that ended later with some clashes with the police and 76 wounded mild After more than two hours of tour, the demonstrators arrived at the headquarters of the Ministry of Industry, where a large part of the incidents took place. Faced with this situation, the agents deployed to dissolve the miners using batons and firing rubber balls. Although for the moment there has been no official pronouncement of the Executive, government sources pointed out that the government has no intention of reversing its plans to cut aid to this sector. They argue that the cuts are determined by a European decision, which requires an orderly closure plan for coal mining aid for 2018. According to available figures, the coal mining industry in Spain is not profitable, production It has been gradually declining and the country imported some 16 million tons of coal in 2011. Thursday, July 12, 2012, p. 23 Madrid, July 11. The plan does not foresee any measure against the financial entities or against the construction companies, indicated as the main responsible for the crisis. The whole opposition received with displeasure and indignation the new adjustment plan of the government, which called for calling a referendum or failing to call elections. Since he took office last December, Rajoy has failed to fulfill most of his electoral promises in the fight against the crisis. He also announced the increase in working hours for officials, who will also see their working conditions reduced with the reduction of free days, which are used for personal matters. There will also be a sharp reduction in the collection of unemployment benefits, a right won by workers who, with their tax contributions, guaranteed minimal coverage in the event of becoming unemployed. Now, as of the sixth month this benefit will suffer a reduction of 60 to 50 percent. Rajoy justified this measure by saying that the benefit encourages the job search of those who are unemployed. This is how Rajoy explained: spending on the dependency system will be rationalized, reviewing the scale and benefits. He also warned that he plans to accelerate the application of the sustainability factor; that is, the delay in the retirement age will be accelerated and the treatment of early retirement will be tougher. Rajoy also intends to dismantle the apparatus of state workers as constituted, with the reduction of 30 percent of the councilors elected by vote and in terms of the population segments. He warned that a liberalization process will be carried out and, where appropriate, privatization of the services associated with rail, port and airport transport. In addition, a regulatory package will be approved to advance in the liberalization of professional services and in the clarification of the regulations for the energy sector, which will be accompanied by a new energy taxation scheme. We are going to make a fair austerity plan that fosters economic growth and gives confidence. A serious plan against cuts without rhyme or reason. There are different alternatives to obtain income, fairer and less harmful. His government has lacked the truth, how much breach of word!, the credibility escapes to him in spurts. Vulnera a contract with their constituents. I did not vote for him, nor did you vote for me, but he made a commitment in the campaign. And if he does not comply, he has the obligation to go out and say it. So ask the people, submit these measures to a referendum, because this is an intervened democracy, a state of exception. Thursday, July 12, 2012, p. 29 Moscow, July 11. After toughening up the legislation on rallies and demonstrations, as well as the one related to non-governmental organizations that receive funding from abroad, the Duma deputies were busy on Wednesday of the Russian Internet segment. The Russian version of the digital encyclopedia Wikipedia closed access on Tuesday for 24 hours, in protest of amendments that, in its view, could create a total censorship outside of justice in Russia. The Russian Internet community does not share its optimism and will continue with the protests. The government modified by decree last week the rule that calls for more than 50% of popular participation for the consultation to be valid, which this Tuesday rejected the highest court. There will be a great political crisis: the president will return to his office, with the Parliament against, the Government against and the public opinion against. The situation takes away my sleep. " Basescu has been president for eight years and is used to having all the power. He was captain of the navy and thinks that he is the boss who always has to be obeyed ". The community tempo allows predicting that the hypothetical recommendations will not arrive before the referendum that by constitutional obligation must be held before 30 days of the president's parliamentary dismissal. The measure is pending ratification in a referendum scheduled for next July 29. Germany has also raised its voice in recent days. He promised during the election campaign that he would be a normal president, in opposition to Nicolas Sarkozy's lack of normalcy. He adds: "I feel sorry for my father because he absolutely hates talking about his private life." The atmosphere in the families of the tenant of the Elysée remains very tense, according to the story of the first-born. The loquacious lawyer comments that the head of the State was "stupefied" to know the tweet of his partner against his ex-partner: "I already knew that something could happen, but not such a big blow. The thing is so bad that he and his brothers have decided not to see the journalist anymore. The visible discomfort of the journalist in her new role and her outgoing tone is judged today as the biggest political error of the complicated beginning of the mandate of the socialist president, who has solved without a scratch many international and national appointments. Her eldest son tells that Hollande has asked his sons not to feed the booklet anymore, and in return he has promised to explain and clarify the role of the first lady. Elysium sources have dropped that Hollande could speak for the first time of the controversy in the televised interview that will grant on Saturday, July 14, national holiday. Although in socialist circles there is speculation even with a possible separation of the presidential couple, the conclusion of Hollande son suggests that Trierweiler will continue with his man. Either he is a journalist or he has an office in the Elysium... And above all, "he adds," nothing of a second tweet! ". Negotiations on the project of the Western countries and an alternative draft submitted by Russia, but which does not mention the possibility of sanctions, will begin tomorrow, diplomats said. In Aleppo, the country's second city, there were loud explosions and two soldiers were killed when rebels attacked a military checkpoint. In the diplomatic field Moscow does not give its arm to twist. Russian support for the Syrian regime "whatever the mask" used is what allows Damascus "to continue the violence," he added. Dzirkaln said that by doing this Russia does not violate "any of its international obligations". The spokesman also assured that Washington considers that the defections of Syrian officials in the past days are the "tip of the iceberg" that indicates a collapse of the regime. In the latter country he met with the president, Bachar el Asad, who revealed the name of the person chosen to represent the regime in negotiations with the opposition. Tehran is a traditional ally of Damascus, and to date it has remained outside the Annan negotiations. The Syrian conflict has lasted more than 16 months, and opponents estimate that it has claimed the lives of 17,000 people. Annan agreed to a peace process with the Syrian president, which he timidly fulfilled in its early stages, but which then fell into a stalemate and has not gained traction. Opponents demand free and democratic elections, and a change of regime. The presidential statement seemed to calm the Court, furious to find itself in the midst of a complex power struggle between the military establishment, which dominated Egyptian political life in the last 60 years, and the new Islamist president. On Monday, the Court rejected the presidential decree of the eve that ordered to reestablish the Parliament, and on Tuesday "ordered that its previous decision be applied". The Egyptian People's Assembly met on Tuesday morning, in a clear challenge to the army and to justice. This decree, called "Complementary constitutional declaration", adopted by the military on June 17, considerably weakens the function of president. According to other analysts, the new president's decision to re-establish the new parliament demonstrates his lack of respect for justice. Thursday, July 12, 2012, p. 28 New York, July 11. Negotiations on the project of the Western countries and an alternative draft presented by Russia on Tuesday will begin to be discussed on Thursday, diplomats said. It also supports the Annan peace plan for the parties in Syria to implement the initiative. But, from the outset, the Western powers have disqualified any incorporation of Iran to the negotiations on Syria. Nawaf Fares, with close ties to Syrian security, would be the first high-ranking diplomat to get away from the government. The talks ended in discord when one of the leaders of the opposition group said Moscow's policies help prolong the bloodshed in Syria. They are requirements not very different from those contained in the rescue programs hitherto known. Like those applied in peripheral economies, they are not exactly conducive to the short-term recovery of economic growth and employment. In the absence of a significant recovery in domestic demand or that of our main trading partners, there will also be no immediate improvements in the reorganization of public finances. Our Treasury does not know with certainty those conditions in which it will be financed from now on; the experience also obliges us not to consider as final the moderate favorable reaction of the markets to the Government's announcements. Another difference with the programs required of these three countries is the associated with the stricter specific conditionality imposed on the banking sector Spanish, consistent with the request of the line of credit destined to the recapitalization of the banks. The sectoral intervention leaves few doubts. This troika should be consulted whenever any type of decision is made about supervised financial companies. That strict control over the banking system is understandable and may even be worth it. Whoever makes available an amount of up to 100,000 million euros, under conditions of attractive interest and maturity, is legitimated to intervene fully in the operation of the banking system. At least in those groups of entities that will need public funds. Very likely, if the application of the detailed calendar in that document is fulfilled without interference of any kind, the whole of the Spanish banking system will be better capitalized than the European average. Regardless of other details of that MoU, it also leaves no doubt about the link between banking conditionality and macroeconomic conditionality. Only from naïveté could it be assumed that the provision of this line of credit would ignore the narrow marking of the objectives of reorganizing public finances and the intensification of the structural reforms that Brussels considers necessary. Some of the latter with a degree of detail, such as the one displayed in point 31 of this document, which seems more like a general rescue plan than a sectoral one. At this point, we should not mind the qualification of the European intervention on our economy if it translates into a rapid recovery of its growth and employment. To the decisions shaping the change of direction in the economic policy initiated in May 2010, in addition to the quick agreement to amend the Constitution, there are others that were not part of the initial will of the Spanish rulers. It is also not clear that they are adequate solutions to the nature of the imbalances of our economy, fundamentally located in the excessive indebtedness of the private sector. Excessive debt of companies and families, in its vast majority with Spanish banks that, in turn, maintain high liabilities against other financial companies from the rest of the world. Priority must be, therefore, the reduction of this excessive private leverage, in order to stop feeding public indebtedness. That is why direct support with European funds for the recapitalization of most Spanish banks is a good solution. Much more if indeed the willing credit ends up in the bank balance sheets, instead of swelling the public debt. And, in addition, the conditions in terms of interest rates and maturity are as favorable as those that are presumed. Normalizing the operation of banking intermediation, the allocation of credit to viable investment projects, is as necessary as isolating the potential polluter of the banking sector on the rest of the economy, especially on public finances. And now we are much closer to achieving it. Less evident is that the adjustment decisions that have just been adopted facilitate the other normalization, that of real activity, business investment and the reduction of high unemployment. Of course, those reforms must be welcomed in the direction of greater rationalization and better functioning of the allocation mechanisms. But the essential of those 65,000 million euros will contribute to further depress activity in the short term. Regardless of each of the actions announced yesterday, the vast majority of them will inhibit spending decisions of families and companies. Nothing is clear that these new doses of austerity generate the expected favorable effects on the financial markets. The evidence tells us that budgetary austerity is not expansive when the other policies they do not alleviate their immediate depressive effects. We also know the essential importance that expectations of economic growth play in the scrutiny of the stock and bond markets. With greater or lesser diligence, the Spanish authorities have adopted decisions that were not on their agendas. It is assumed that they have done so assuming that they constitute a necessary condition to receive sectoral or generic aid. The first delivery of the bank will be those 30,000 million euros. Otherwise, we would be in the worst possible scenario: with policies of an intervened country, but without the advantage of the relatively low financing costs of the latter. The always powerful Karaí Guazú, as it was called in Guaraní. And Paraguay retains its same feudal roots since the time of Doctor Francia. At the beginning of the 20th century, 79 people owned half of the land, while illiteracy covered 80% of the population. This situation has changed little until now. Paraguay has had high rates of annual growth in recent times, but the obsolete economic structures, and above all agrarian, continue to cause the large indigenous and peasant masses to lead a marginal life. Without being able to solve any of these structural problems, the confidence in President Lugo had dropped to 37% at the time of his overthrow. Lugo backed the police action, and all those dead went to give his account, tried summarily, and dismissed without opportunity for defense. He submitted himself first to the Senate's ruling, which dismissed him, and then rejected that ruling when it was too late. Sergio Ramírez was vice president of Nicaragua and is a writer. As a complement, to dominate the infrastructure of pipelines and main sea lanes. The plan would also allow Russia and China to be surrounded by military bases, as they did in fact. This required the development of several wars, open or covert, with the deployment of important forces and military means, as well as subversive actions to eliminate all the governments and popular forces of that region that opposed some degree of resistance to imperialist domination. Despite this, the supposed military invincibility of the Zionist army was challenged by the Lebanese Hezbollah patriotic resistance, which has defeated it twice; and the Palestinians have not rested one day in their resistance. Obama, it is evident, has been a faithful follower of Bush's foreign policy. Through Damascus we reach Tehran, full of hydrocarbons and a serious obstacle to Yankee domination plans in the area. And these transform reality. This range of measures represents the greatest adjustment of democracy and radically change the economic and administrative scenario of the country in the coming years. To these are added the 27,000 million that included the budgets and the measures adopted by the Government at the end of December. It is also necessary to consider the more than 18,000 million in decrease of expenses and increases of income set in motion by the autonomous communities. For purchases already made, but not yet paid, it will be the date of issue of the invoice that you set if it is affected by the increase in the tax. The Budgets of 2012 have been left in a dead letter in less than two weeks after the battery of measures advanced by Rajoy this morning. Among the measures approved there is a package of measures that affects the public function. Rajoy has announced that he will abolish the extraordinary Christmas pay for officials this year. The president has asked that it also be applied to senators and deputies. The measure will mean a saving of nearly 5,000 million euros. Officials may recover part of this payment starting in 2015, but not in cash, but through a contribution to the pension fund. It remains to be determined if this measure of suspending extra pay will also apply in the next two years. Government It will also reduce the moscosos, the days of free disposal, even though the finance minister said last Monday that they would not touch each other. In addition, the Executive launches a trap to the unions to reduce the number of released union. Another of the most controversial measures consists of equating the situation of temporary disability with the rest of the workers. This measure serves both to reduce staff costs and to combat the absenteeism of public employees. The president has also specified that there will be a new cut in spending items of the ministries of 600 million euros in the remainder of 2012 to reduce subsidies, current expenses and transfers. In addition, it has advanced that the 2013 Budget will have a 20% reduction in the subsidy for political parties, unions and business organizations that will be added to what was cut in this chapter this year. The Government also gives a strong shake to social benefits. In addition, it will eliminate a large number of hiring bonuses, except those related to the new contract for entrepreneurs or the labor insertion of the disabled. The president has also advanced that he plans to accelerate the application of sustainability factor. That is, the delay in the retirement age will be accelerated and the treatment of early retirement will be tougher. This measure will imply an extra income of more than 6,000 million euros. The last rise of the tax, approved by the previous socialist government in 2010, meant an extra income of 5,500 million. Tickets to cultural shows are also subject to this reduced rate. It remains to be seen when the measure comes into force and if there will finally be a reform in the structure of the tax: that is to say pass articles taxed with the reduced rate to the general rate. The rise in indirect taxes will be accompanied, as explained by the president, with a reduction in social contributions of two points until 2014: one point in 2013 and another in 2014. This measure is a relief for the labor costs of employers your expenses will be reduced. Taxes linked to the environment will also be raised - "whoever pollutes pays," said Rajoy - and other indirect taxes such as tobacco. The president advanced a new measure on the Corporation tax to modify the fractional payment, although in the general budgets presented at the end of March several tax reforms were already introduced. This deduction in the income tax is a burden for the public coffers of the State of about 2,500 million. But as the measure does not have a retroactive nature, it does not affect those who benefit from it only to new buyers, it will not have a great impact on public accounts. Rajoy has made progress in the coming days to present the rationalization and sustainability reform of the local Administration. In the 2012-2015 financial stability plan submitted by the Government to Brussels, it estimates that the "rationalization of the number of local entities and improper competencies" would mean a savings of close to another 10,500 million euros. In addition, the president has said that the role of the municipal auditor and officials with national rating will be strengthened. The Executive will also proceed to accelerate the elimination of local public companies. The president has also alluded to the effort that must be made by the autonomous communities. The communities that benefit from this measure will have to assume new conditions of fiscal consolidation for the communities. Rajoy has also stated that "a process of liberalization and, where appropriate, privatization of services associated with rail, port and airport transport will be carried out." Government sources have explained that this measure to be carried out under the expected conditions could generate an extra income of 30,000 million euros. Finally, the president has alluded to a regulatory package to advance in the liberalization of professional services and in the clarification of the regulations for the energy sector that will be accompanied by a new energy taxation scheme. The German state has managed to place 4.153 million euros in bonds, before an offer of 6.391 million by investors. According to the official note of the Financial Agency, the low interest rate is due to the fact that "in a market that is still very tense, quality is the decisive factor". On Monday, Germany sold six-month debt at negative interest rates, which means investors paid the German country for lending money. Wednesday, July 11, 2012J. Just a month ago Romney had an intention to vote 46%, three percentage points behind Obama. While 51% of pro-Obama voters say they will vote "enthusiastically" for the president, only 38% of Romney supporters confess that they will maintain their support against all odds. At last he returns to focus on the needs of the middle class. Obama continued yesterday his courtship of the electorate in Iowa. According to the law approved in Texas, added Holder, "many of those who do not have identification would have to travel great distances to get them, and some would have trouble paying for the documents they might need to obtain them". Under this Texas law, Holder emphasized, a citizen can present as acceptable identification to vote a gun license, but not a student credential. The woman is attracted to the price and the design, she does not care about the origin. Very wrapped saleswomen occupy the street in the commercial heart of the city turned into a motley showcase and display their garments over huge pockets full of merchandise. The clothes that Flores sells are not branded, pass through Chinese or national. It is the Creole marketing strategy of these skillful artisans before the increasing competition of the Chinese garments that arrive cheaper. Chinese footwear is 70% cheaper and Peruvian 40%, compared to domestic manufacturing. Bolivia has abundant raw materials and trained craftsmen, but it can not compete internationally with anything that is not extracted from the land or planted. The national industrial production suffers two lashes: the abundance of cheap foreign products, mainly Chinese, and a contraband of gigantic proportions that further diminishes the possibilities of Bolivia to be competitive. China has a large-scale production, highly mechanized, a cheap labor force, scant labor protections and an undervalued currency in relation to the dollar. Faced with this combination of factors, even poor countries like Bolivia, with strict labor laws, have problems competing. As things stand, the country's trade deficit widens further, particularly with China. Last year he bought 937 million dollars from that country and sold it for 330 million dollars. Bolivia buys China from motorcycles, televisions and cell phones to herbicides and sells minerals and wood. Today exports minerals and leather to China and this country returns cheap synthetic fiber shoes. Foreign competition brought the local textile industry to the brink of extinction and large factories gave way to small family workshops. The artisans make with Chinese or Peruvian cloth, even folk costumes. Now, the government wants to boost the national textile industry, the "own brand". But the textileros are skeptical. The diplomat, who was last week in Paraguay, said that a suspension would entail high economic implications for the direct impact of the decision on other institutions of the inter-American system. The Permanent Council decided to meet "at the end of this week or the beginning of the next" to evaluate what to do. Wednesday, July 11, 2012, p. 25 Washington, July 10. This, he said, would cause divisions and unnecessary suffering to the people of that South American country. At the end of the meeting there was no consensus, so it was decided to postpone the adoption of measures. In front of countries that advocated sanctions, most of the representatives asked for time for their governments to analyze the report and take a decision in a next session of the regional body. But the United States said it was premature, since the report must first be reviewed and discussed. He expressed that he did not receive a response from two South American nations, which he did not specify, which he invited to accompany him. I do not think it's anything that happened in Paraguay or that it's perfectly fine. Insulza stressed that Paraguayexiste a situation of political, social and economic normality that should be preserved. Avoiding a suspension would avoid increasing political divisions and unnecessary suffering for the people, he said. Saguier declared himself satisfied with the meeting and called for a decision to be made as soon as possible. Wednesday, July 11, 2012, p. 25 La Paz, July 10. The nationalization agreement ends a week of conflicts promoted by those who demanded the expulsion of the Canadian company from the Mallku Khota mine. A belligerent group took seven hostages, including technicians from the foreign company and a policeman. Four of the seven hostages escaped their captors on Friday while the last three were released last Sunday, after government efforts with leaders in the area. Both countries are considered strategic partners for the Caribbean island. Cuba and China signed several economic and technological cooperation agreements during Castro's visit. Media of the Asian giant also considered that the Cuban leader traveled to learn about the reforms carried out in recent decades by the Chinese communist regime. Also in the 1980s, Vietnam promoted a program of decisive market adjustments for its economic takeoff. Hanoi and Havana have intensified their bilateral relations in recent times. Vietnam exports rice to Cuba. Bilateral trade reached 274 million dollars last year, up after the 250 million dollars in 2010. The Caribbean island has begun in the last two years a marked program of reforms to "update" its economic model with market elements. The adjustments seek to overcome the chronic economic crisis afflicting the Antillean nation since the 90s. Wednesday, July 11, 2012, p. 26 Bogotá, July 10. The mayor states that despite his imprisonment in 1985, the events for which he was convicted are considered a political crime and are part of a general amnesty that the M-19 received when he demobilized in 1990. Petro had already been unsuccessfully sued by Parada. The first time to prevent his presidential candidacy in the elections of 2010 and the following year to veto his candidacy in the elections for the mayor of Bogota. Petro took office on the first of January for a period of four years. He leads the Progressive movement and in 1991 participated in the constituent assembly, which drafted the current constitution. In addition, he has served as a parliamentarian on several occasions. After a peace process it was presented as a political movement in the presidential elections of 1990, but its candidate, Carlos Pizarro, was killed in the middle of the campaign. A witness, involved and currently a refugee in Venezuela, decided to make the details known, after realizing that he would also be executed once his commission was completed. This man would act as an element of distraction while others would be responsible for carrying out the attacks. On the way they stopped at the esplanade of the headquarters of the Air Force, after which they continued towards Gran Vía. The British Prime Minister and the President of France Afp. Wednesday, July 11, 2012, p. 28 London, July 10. Both had disagreements, but tried to agree on the press conference after their meeting and lunch in Downing Street. Hollande was received with an honor guard by the Coldstream Guards, the oldest regiment of the British army. Validation of the Romanian President Pl. Wednesday July 11, 2012, p. 28 Bucharest. Sources of the presidential administration confirmed the transfer of powers, carried out behind closed doors and without statements to the press. Basescu was accused of systematically violating the constitution. Spain refuses to release an ETA member Dpa. Wednesday, July 11, 2012, p. 28 Madrid. Mursi responded with his own decree in which he ordered that the legislative chamber, of 508 members, meet to hold a session. The verdict of June 14, which dissolved the Parliament, should apply, "according to a court statement. The riot police kept their distance. The news of the verdict of the supreme court was received with slogans of "illegitimate!" By thousands of Morsi supporters gathered in the square. In a war of attrition that could go on for years, the Islamists - oppressed by Mubarak and his military predecessors - seek to get the generals out of politics and reform a system that is full of Mubarak-era officials. Wednesday, July 11, 2012, p. 27 Tehran, July 10. The United States tightened its tone Tuesday against Assad. I do not consider that someone serious can argue that Iran has had a positive impact on the events in Syria. Annan said today in Tehran that Iran could play a positive role in resolving the Syrian crisis and that it should be part of the solution. On Monday, he and Assad met in Damascus and reached an agreement on a focus on the conflict and that will present it to the Syrian opposition. Iran has opposed any form of foreign intervention in Syria, its close ally, but called on the Syrian government to listen to the demands of its people and carry out reforms. Annan warned today that if the crisis in Syria is not resolved, the conflict could reach unimaginable proportions for the region. On Monday, he also held an interview that he described as constructive with Syrian President Bashar Assad, who suggested ending the conflict step by step beginning with districts that have suffered the worst confrontations. The Syrian army continued to bombard Rastan and Homs today. The Syrian crisis has lasted 16 months, in which an estimated 17,129 people have died. Speculation in North Korea about leader company Dpa. Wednesday, July 11, 2012, p. 27 Seoul. It is speculated that Park, 25 years old, assumed a very important role within the regime. Meanwhile, in neighboring South Korea report that it is the wife or even a lover. He thus made a radical change to his traditional jurisprudence on the redemption of penalties for work, in order to prevent the release of bloodthirsty ETA condemned by the Francoist Criminal Code of 1973. The decision of Strasbourg is a serious legal setback for the Supreme. To the opposition of that time, today Government, in no way oblivious to the social pressure exerted then on the courts, corresponds to execute the sentence. It can delay its fulfillment, exhaust, as it claims, a last resort -which could damage the rights of this prey- and leave open the possibility of successive shameful condemnations to the State in another thirty cases. It is a balance that the European Union can not support in economic terms, since it threatens the continuity of the common currency and puts the entire world economy at risk. But it is a balance that, moreover, can not be allowed in political terms. The project of the united Europe, the project of the supranational Europe, is an unprecedented experiment developed patiently during six decades. The European Union has nothing to do with any of those Two unions, it's true. In the end, the only thing that is being affirmed from one side and from the other is the resurgence of a nationalism that does not disgust disqualifications that border on racism. That is to say, politics among Europeans who think that the decision-making process of the Union contains sufficient guarantees to reconcile the different particular interests with the general interest of Europe. If the countries most affected by the debt crisis do European policy and do not settle for being spectators of what others decide, the Finnish government would say, then the countries safe from the current financial turbulence will break the deck. It would be one of those frequent bravado in all negotiations, but a bravado that revealed that, at least for some partners, European policy is meaningless because the decision-making process of the Union is dead. Actually, it was also decisive for another reason. On June 29, in the Council that could still end in ridicule, European policy and the decision-making process established by the Union resurfaced as an alternative to the directory and the procedural trace that the directorate has printed on the European integration project. For the four judges with persistently progressive attitudes, the Congress, having full competence in matters of interstate commerce and general welfare, can institute a practically universal health care system. The reactions of the media and the general public have been greatly exaggerated. They also hope that a sensible and feasible budget for the next decade will absorb "only about a third of the cost of tax cuts that, overwhelmingly favorable to the rich, Mitt Romney has proposed for that same period." The referee counts a strike or a bad ball taking into account whether or not the throw exceeds the plate. This would determine if a law is constitutional or not. Millions of Americans, including this author, believe that the court itself committed an illegality with that decision, not to mention the scandalous interference it implied in the democratic process. By five votes to four, the conservative majority dictated that political campaigns could receive an unlimited number of dollars without the need to identify the donor, and also that it was legitimate to provide that money to provide freedom of expression to multiple audiences. Legions of highly qualified lawyers and lobbyists in the United States will protect the interests of numerous pharmacists and insurers who want to have "benefits". There will be protests against the use of taxpayer money to make various methods of birth control available to adolescents and adults, and there will also be some who complain that giving information about that control offends the sensitivities of various religious groups. Let us also hope that the whole of the American population has affordable health care within 10 or 20 years. Gabriel Jackson is an American historian. Politicians try to overcome the stereotype, although not always. But the hectic end of the mandate of the omnipotent president put the relationship with London red hot. And in those François Hollande arrived. Hollande fit all this "ambiance" with his usual calm. Not in vain his old comrades called him Monsieur Tentetieso: no matter how much you give him, he does not fall. He limited himself to saying that the EU is not a supermarket that one arrives to take what he wants. And yesterday the first bilateral meeting arrived. But the French president, who in a month and a half has revealed himself to be a master of diplomacy when he was totally inexperienced, also came out on his shoulders this time. I admire humor, and especially British humor. I'm happy that I put the red carpet. If I had to get angry with all the leaders who did not receive me, I would not talk to the whole world. " So we must create the Europe at two speeds, and that each one takes its rhythm ". Oh, by the way, Trierweiler stayed at the Elysee. This is the integral message: "As I know that you are going to like the idea of ​​living a trip to the past I tell you about it. Go to google and search with the text: eleventodelsiglo... But the text like this all together. The first result is to sign up. The decade of the 20, gangsters. " They are yet to disclose the sales figures of the N9. Jolla said he would focus on the design, development and sales of the new advanced phones based on MeeGo software and will present its first model later this year, along with private international investors and partners. Analysts said the new company would have trouble entering a highly competitive advanced phone market, which is dominated by Google and Apple. The agreement will allow Spain to provide a "first disbursement of 30 billion euros at the end of the month, which will be mobilized as a contingency, for urgent needs in Spanish banking," he said. The agreement will provide Spain with a "first disbursement of 30 billion euros by the end of the month, which will be mobilized as a contingency, in the case of urgent needs in the Spanish financial sector," said the Luxembourg Prime Minister. The Finnish Commissioner also explained that there will be conditions both for the bank individually and for the sector as a whole and that in parallel "Spain will have to comply fully" with the requirements under the excessive deficit procedure. This was the second month in a row that Romney raised more money, which underscores the challenge for Obama ahead of the November elections. The bad news for the president comes at a time when the officials of his campaign have expressed their concern in public because they are on track to lose the competition to achieve the highest collection. Obama is fighting on two fronts to maintain the presidency: on the one hand, he faces funding from Romney, who pays campaign operations. In fact, rich donors have been instrumental in helping Romney overcome Obama. In his fiscal proposal for the period 2013, Obama has included an allocation of 6 thousand 420 million dollars, and activists described as "shocking repudiation of almost thirty years of progress against the global AIDS pandemic" that reduction. Iowa • Corn and soybean prices rose on Monday after the US government reported that a widespread drought in the center of the country is affecting this year's crops. Indiana and Illinois have been particularly affected. The price of corn rose 31 cents to 7.74 per bushel in Monday's operations. The cultivation of soybeans is also under pressure and worries that they will raise their prices to a new record. On Monday morning, prices rose to $ 16.74 per bushel and closed at $ 16.65. Only 40% of soybean crops are in good or excellent condition, compared to 45% a week ago. Corn is pollinating in many areas of the agricultural belt and extreme heat during this process can damage the formation of ears and grains, reducing the amount of corn that farmers will harvest. Soybeans are slow to develop and the most important time for the plant is usually in early August, when pods begin to develop. Tuesday, July 10, 2012, p. 29 Washington, July 9. Republican Mitt Romney's campaign team raised $ 106.1 million in June, a new historic milestone in the process for the November US presidential election. Romney and the Republican National Committee now have 106 million dollars in cash to fight for the presidency against the current president and Democratic candidate Barack Obama. The Obama team has not yet announced the total collected in June, but it is possible that it will be the second consecutive month in the one that Romney takes advantage him in the matter of funds obtained for the campaign. In May, the Republican contender raised more than $ 76 million against $ 60 million from the president. June data indicate that Romney received more than 536,000 donations of less than $ 250. Obama is lagging behind Romney in the independent political action committees, which can raise and spend unlimited funds to support or criticize the candidates, although they can not legally fund the campaigns of the parties directly. It is believed that wealthy conservatives provide huge sums of money to these independent committees to support Romney's agenda. That year, the international economic and financial scenario has changed and several more countries should be added to that list, "said independent analyst Angel Flores. That's what I mean, we have to be strong and agile to respond to the needs of the markets, "he said. In his first press conference as a "candidate of the fatherland" for the presidential elections, Chávez acknowledged that "I am no longer 40. When I got out of prison I was a runaway horse". Lula, convalescing from cancer of the larynx, has not traveled to Venezuela for the international meeting. The popular classes were never treated with such respect, affection and dignity. These conquests must be preserved and consolidated. Your victory will be our victory, "said Lula. In addition, the Latin American countries, Lula said, are still "marked by poverty and inequality." To remedy this, the trade unionist believes that the governments of the continent should bet on "more economic growth, social policies and structural reforms." In the opening of the social summit with employers and unions, Hollande said that austerity would be an "aggression" and that the option of reducing debt as a way to strengthen the country's sovereignty is an election destined to guarantee the future of the French nation. In addition, the president said that France needs to implement reforms that make possible the evolution of the social model, in order to achieve better guarantees for its future sustainability. He added that the fight against unemployment, the deficit and the recovery of the competitiveness of the French economy are the three "challenges" facing the country. Hollande stated that "the return to high growth is an obligation if we want to recover the level of employment. During the past week the Executive announced increases in taxes to collect in this year 7,200 million euros. Tuesday, July 10, 2012, p. 28 Madrid, July 9. The armed organization warned that the option of solving the conflict also has enemies, such as the governments of Spain and France, which in addition to rejecting the proposed dialogue have maintained the strategy of paralyzing and hindering the process. The armed group demanded concrete steps in the situation of the prisoners, arguing that they want to make the process run in prisons against the feeling and vindication of Basque society. Tuesday, July 10, 2012, p. 28 Moscow, July 9. Of course it is more difficult and delicate to negotiate a political settlement than to use force and external interference, but it is the only thing that can guarantee a stable and long-term solution in the region, the Russian leader stressed. Vladimir Putin lamented that some countries in the West often take unilateral actions by ignoring the norms of international law. He affirmed: In order to preserve their usual domain, some actors of international politics try to take advantage of geopolitics by all means. It is seen in the so-called humanitarian operations, the export of democracy from bombs and missiles and in the interference in internal conflicts. Measuring his words a lot, the president has affirmed that the three challenges facing the country are employment, competitiveness and deficit. On everything, he has suggested, because they can be even more expensive if the markets decide that this is the case. And the debt does not come alone, but the recession lurks. Before more than 300 representatives of the Government, the employer's association and the unions, Hollande has confirmed another bad news: the gala economy was completely stagnant in the first semester of the year. And everyone knows, he added, that only "the return of high growth" will create jobs at the necessary pace. The future, however, does not allow for hope in that sense. The beautiful and punished Reims is the icon that embodies the wounds and affections, visible and underground, that move between the two banks of the Rhine. Quoting De Gaulle - "we do not pass a page but we open a door" - the president He invited the chancellor to "open another door and further strengthen the friendship" between the two countries. France is ready to give sovereignty to Brussels if what Hollande has baptized as "solidarity integration" is achieved, that is, if at each step in the union it responds with more solidarity. Merkel began by recalling the "deep wounds left in the memory of the French two devastating world wars." And he focused his speech on the need to delve into Europeanism to get out of the crisis. Merkel seemed sincerely happy to certify the demise of the uses and customs of the Merkozy axis. Our luck is that we are united. " The mayor of the town said that it could not be confirmed if it was a political act or a simple prank, and the prefecture reported that in the place of desecration were found many bottles of beer and other alcoholic beverages. The Constitutional said in a statement that its resolutions are "final and unappealable by force of law", and compliance is mandatory "for all State authorities and for all." In addition, he defended his independence by ensuring that he will continue to act to supervise the constitutionality of the laws and prevent "aggression or violation" against the constitutional texts. In the middle of the commotion, this last one decided yesterday to postpone until today a view to analyze if the Constitutional one is competent to annul the legislative elections. Tuesday, July 10, 2012, p. 27 Cairo, July 9. The high Egyptian constitutional court today invalidated the decision of President Mohamed Mursi to restore parliament, which the president will now have to fight a dispute with the justice and the military leadership. The judgments and the set of decisions of the high constitutional court are final. They can not be appealed and are binding for all State institutions, he said in a statement. The court invalidated the legislative elections last January due to a vice of form in the electoral law that governed the elections. The declaration of the supreme court was announced shortly after the speaker of parliament, Saad Katatni, announced that the assembly would resume its sessions on Tuesday, in compliance with the decree promulgated by the president on Sunday. The Islamists are historical rivals of the military, who dominate the political life since the fall of the monarchy, in 1952. The decree on Sunday also provides for the organization of early elections for the chamber, 60 days after the approval by referendum of the new Constitution of the country and the adoption of a new law to govern the parliament. According to some analysts, Mursi's move was more of a coup than effect of a real decision to restore the two legislative chambers, dominated by Islamist parties. State television showed Mursi sitting next to Tantawi this morning during a military parade and ceremony for the promotion of cadets at the army's technical school. The Muslim Brotherhood then accused the military of having orchestrated the dissolution to retain the legislative power, and affirmed that the parliament He retained his authority. maintains a relationship with a woman in the United Kingdom. The revelations take place on the same day that the special envoy Kofi Annan announced an agreement with the president to end the violence. Lamis expresses his love and admiration to the president and he gives presents. For Salehi, a "bad step" in the conflict in Syria "can lead to a catastrophe" and cause serious problems throughout the region. In command of both groups, he sent the children to the front. If they disobeyed, they were punished. The girls suffered the additional damage of being turned into servants and sex slaves of the militiamen. Therefore, this end does not appear in the judgment as an aggravating circumstance, "said Judge President Adrian Fulford. In an additional note, it has indicated that it does not reflect the damage suffered due to sexual violence. She would have preferred a penalty of 15 years of imprisonment. The Court has also criticized the former prosecutor for failing to verify the work of the intermediaries used to access the witnesses. This negligence could facilitate the modification of their statements, which came to invalidate them in several cases. Last March, the Court already found Lubanga guilty, arrested since 2006, in a historic sentence. He condemned the abuse that involved removing children from their families and homes, the loss of their school education, the terror they were subjected to and the psychological and physical damage caused. The importance of China grew in 2011 due to its high growth rate, large investments in infrastructure and high demand for commodities, the main Brazilian export. China's strong demand for commodities has also favored Brazil's trade relations with other countries, since by raising its prices, it generates higher returns for the country and allows it to maintain a healthy trade balance. On the other hand, China has a small participation in investments made in Brazil. Trade in numbers China's importance in Brazilian trade has increased. China raised its share of total trade from 2% in 2000 to more than 14% in 2011. If Chinese growth deteriorates, the biggest negative impact for Brazil would come from the slowdown in global credit markets, which would make it difficult for local corporations and banks collect money abroad. Suu Kyi, in first session of parliament Afp. Tuesday, July 10, 2012, p. 30 Rangoon. I will try to do the best for my country, said the leader of the opposition before entering parliament for the first ordinary period. The chamber is dominated by the military and its allies, but the civil government that succeeded the military junta consolidated its power with the announcement of the departure of several conservatives who occupied key positions. The 10 members of Asean have agreed on a code of conduct to avoid conflicts due to territorial maritime disputes, although the agreement has yet to be accepted by China to be viable. Tension has escalated in the region in recent months. Manila and Hanoi accuse China of aggressive behavior. A new sign of the sensitivity of the conflict occurred last Sunday in the Vietnamese capital, where more than 200 people took to the streets to protest against Chinese territorial ambitions. It is the second mobilization that occurs for the same reason so far this month. Protests are rare in Vietnam, whose authoritarian regime rarely allows them. Beijing reacted with anger in June when Hanoi adopted a law that places the Spratly Islands under its sovereignty. The same month, Beijing claimed that it had elevated the administrative status of this archipelago and that of the Xisha from county to prefecture. His statement reinforces the usual position of Beijing, which wants to settle any territorial differences bilaterally. Asean hopes to reach an agreement with China on the behavior pact by the end of the year. By the way, against what happens in the Federal District, where it is cause for cancellation, not for nothing is the vanguard entity in the country. This shows that this party is an expert in these matters and that its philosophy is that the end justifies the means. However, other Mexicans, in those same conditions of precariousness, sought to confront them through the enormous sacrifices involved in emigrating to a strange country. In other words, it is, in short, a question of deepening the neoliberal project that is wreaking havoc in the world. The workers will continue forced, by the needs of survival, to go abroad. However, I think there is a new spirit of resistance in the country that makes us think that a new destination for Mexico is not so remote. In short, that the desired development is achieved. Then migration will be optional, in full exercise of their freedom and their human rights. But for now, unfortunately, forced migration will continue. Javier Flores All the visible matter, of which the stars and ourselves are made, is formed by atoms whose basic structure is a nucleus surrounded by a cloud of electrons. Originally it was thought that atoms were indivisible; however, it is now known that this is not the case. The constituent elements of the atomic nucleus, for example, are formed in turn by smaller elements. There are two basic types: fermions and bosons. During the twentieth century, the existence of a great variety of particles was demonstrated, among them the aforementioned quarks, neutrinos and leptons. A very important aspect is how they interact or, in other words, how these fermions work. The bosons would be the mediators in the forces that operate at the atomic level and in the universe as a whole. Some examples: the gluons are the bosons that keep tightly bound to the quarks inside the atomic nucleus; without them they would disintegrate and nothing of what we know would exist, including us. They are the cause of the so-called strong nuclear interactions, one of the four forces present in the universe. The particles that have electrical charge interact by exchanging photons, which are the intermediaries of the electromagnetic force. The standard model is a theoretical formulation that attempts to describe which are the fundamental particles and the interactions between them. From the behavior of a few known elements, it is possible to deduce theoretically what are the missing particles and mediators in the model, which would allow to fully explain the structure and behavior of the atoms... and of the universe. In this way, many of the fermions and bosons I have mentioned have first arisen as ideas in the minds of the most brilliant physicists, but they must face a very difficult test: the experimental confirmation of their existence. One of the big gaps in the standard model has been how to explain that the particles acquire mass. There are some more massive than others, and even some, like photons, that lack it. Greater mass means greater inertia. Those of zero mass, like the photon, move at the speed of light. All the calculations within the standard model agreed with this theory. However, the maximum test was missing: to demonstrate it experimentally. About its characteristics I can not stop now for reasons of space. The news was made known by the experts with the precautions of the case, because it requires more analysis to be completely sure of the finding. Often the question arises about the importance of a discovery as relevant as this may be. In addition to the practical utility that will surely derive from the complex instrumentation used in fields such as medicine, energy and others, in my opinion it is justified by simply to satisfy the need to know. Find answers to questions that have occupied for centuries the attention of humanity, including: how did it start? Each word is pregnant with emotion and mourning. They were pronounced before the impassive Bosnian Serb Ratko Mladic, who is accused of war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide between 1992 and the end of 1995. Only in that area there were 150 dead. There are thousands of remains waiting for their names and surnames stored in plastic bags in Visoko. An unburied dead man is a disappeared person, a dead man without a mourning, a hope for his relatives who still imagine him alive. Judgments can not be issued for each murderer, each rapist. This is achieved by sitting the main leaders in the dock, to those who seemed impunity and immune. If people perceive that there is more security, more security is generated automatically. " The problem of Bosnia is not only about justice, which remains in each individual case forgotten, but about the political structure, the future. Original sin is in the West. In legal terms, it is called complicity. Undoubtedly this crisis will help this objective, which is causing as a collateral effect the birth, finally, of the taxpayer's conscience. Let's hope that this trend intensifies. In the private sphere, confidence in the financial system has weakened as a result of the lack of transparency in financial reform, in the commercialization of financial products and in the corporate governance of companies. This need prompted the generalized issue of preferred shares. The credit institutions have made these last two years, and continue to do so at the present time, real efforts to solve this delicate situation, mainly through their conversion into deposits or other simpler titles. The vast majority has valued the preferred at 100% of their nominal value, when in secondary markets they quoted with discounts of 50% on average. And it is that the placement of Bankia keeps a disturbing parallel with what happened 18 years ago with the capital increase of Banesto. In 1993, Banesto's financial situation was extremely delicate and, in order to boost its own resources, a macro capital increase was authorized in July of that year. The answer is not simple but it seems that in the difficult game of balancing interests, there is a bias in our financial system that favors systemic entities, such as Banesto and Bankia, to the detriment of small savers. And to a certain extent it is understandable because the Bank of Spain has to avoid at all costs the insolvency risk of a systemic entity, and the best way to do this is to capitalize the entity in difficulties through a capital increase. Far from being convenient a peaceful coexistence between supervisors, it is advisable that there is a healthy tension between them, because they defend competing interests. Finally, and in the search for that greater confidence in our economy, we should deepen the transparency of the corporate governance of Spanish companies and banks. There seems to be no other alternative. The current government has enshrined transparency as the axis of its reforms. Hopefully, it will be able to put it into practice and, above all, the markets will recognize it. In both soccer and politics, the country had become the embodiment of an unpleasant mixture of arrogance and denial. But in both cases, she deceived herself. Thus, the German dogma was left off the negotiating table, and the agreement reached in the early hours of the morning turned out exactly the opposite of what the chancellor wanted. Of the fiscal pact there were only spoils, even before later that same day the German Parliament approved it. But in terms of solving the eurozone's financial crisis, the agreement reached in Brussels does not represent any progress, because it has never managed to transcend logic narrow based on crisis management. The agreement does not offer strategies to overcome the crisis in southern Europe, so the danger that looms over the eurozone remains as valid as before. However, at the political level, the agreement amounts to a small revolution, because it has modified the balance of powers within the eurozone. Although Germany is strong, it is not so strong that it can get away with it and isolate itself completely from the other important European actors: decisions can be taken contrary to what Germany wants. The German defeat everywhere generated evident satisfaction, barely masked behind affected expressions of solidarity. It remains to be seen how much political damage will have been caused to southern Europe by Germany's rescuing policy for the eurozone, with its mix of austerity, large-scale unemployment and economic depression. If Merkel had wanted the agreement reached in Brussels, this would mark the beginning of a radical revision of the Eurozone's crisis policy and would be a demonstration of political ability. But the defeat of Germany, however celebrated it may be, brings with it many reasons for concern. First of all, not everything that Germany proposes is wrong: it is still urgent to introduce structural reforms to increase the competitiveness of the countries in crisis and achieve fiscal consolidation in the medium term. But it is equally important to reduce economic imbalances and coordinate European policies to stimulate growth. The opposition is "selling Germany to foreigners" and once again there is a dichotomy between "good" productive capital and "bad" speculative capital. In the opinion pages of some German newspapers, there is an anti-capitalist resurgence with other forms, which amounts to a renunciation of Europe, if not the West itself. While this would be contrary to Germany's own interests, political action in practice is not always rational. In both cases, they are political-mental blocks that threaten the European project equally. Both parties must decide if they really want Europe, that is, if they want complete economic and political integration. Economically, they must choose between a transfer union with joint responsibility or the return to national currencies. Politically, the choice will be between granting power to a common government and parliament or regaining full sovereignty. Of something we can be sure: just as you can not be a little pregnant, this hybrid is now unsustainable. Just as in European football the measure of excellence is still given by the Spaniards, what Europe speaks is, at most, a macaronic English. That from the point of view of protecting the European project, is the best thing that can happen to us. Its main protagonists are not doing their homework. The nationalist left, which gave the band the final push for their final declaration and continues to maintain that this end is irreversible, has not taken any steps since October 20. There is a paralysis, as the radical minority has been imposed on the majority of prisoners, which reinforces the most immobile positions in the Government of Rajoy. However, he has barely taken steps to consolidate that end. But he fears even more the attacks of the elites of some associations of victims of terrorism and of the media right, opposed to making the penitentiary policy more flexible, and swollen by the immobilism of the pro-independence left and the prisoners. On the one hand, they fear to make the political game to the left nationalist before the proximity of the Basque elections. This confusion will be clarified after the celebration of the Basque elections. The problem began when international cyberintruses placed a deceptive online advertisement to take control of more than 570,000 infected computers worldwide. Many people who use computers They do not fully understand the complexity of their machines, besides that some do not trust the government. Others recalled the uproar that Y2K brought in 2000, due to the numerical transition of computers. In the end, there were very few problems. Some, like Comcast, have already reported the situation. The company sent messages and included information on its website. In addition to individual user computers, some 50 companies included in the list of Fortune 500 top companies are still infected, Grasso added. Other Internet providers decided to simply wait for calls to their assistance phones. By Monday, if there is no Internet connection, customer support systems will be the only solution. According to the source, the agreement did not involve money. The informant spoke on condition of anonymity because he was not authorized to speak publicly on the subject. He stated that the arrangement includes a joint sales program and patent license exchange. Yahoo sued Facebook in March claiming that this company had violated its patents on advertising, privacy control and social networks. Facebook filed its own lawsuit against Yahoo in April. In May, Facebook launched its first public offering of shares. Yahoo appointed a new CEO. For Mainelli, the proliferation of products in the market can create confusion among consumers, which could encourage more than one to opt for Apple, the leading brand in the market. A few weeks ago, the current president of the government, the conservative Mariano Rajoy, denied that Spanish banks would need a rescue. However, both leaders lied. And neither the Spanish bank was solvent in 2008, nor was going to get rid of asking for a rescue in 2012. Some entities that, according to various calculations need to increase their capital by a maximum of 62 billion euros. In the year 2008 when the crisis arrived in Spain, the people in charge of the then socialist government assured that the problems of banking were liquidity, not solvency. And the Executive, confident, was limited to put in place two measures to face the crisis: a fund of acquisition of assets of high quality and a program of public guarantees to facilitate the financing of the bank in the market for a maximum amount of 100 billion euros. Time showed that the financial sector had a large volume of toxic assets. That was the phrase with which real estate agencies and banks encouraged their customers to buy homes at the end of the 1990s. Many of them, Spaniards and foreigners, did it. Getting a loan was very easy, and financial institutions even gave 100% of the amount of the house, at a low interest rate and without the need for a down payment. As the banks and savings banks did not have enough money they went to the credit markets abroad inflating that real estate bubble. The crisis arrived, unemployment increased until reaching 24% of the active population rate, citizens could not cope with their mortgages and the Spanish financial system stopped fulfilling its payment commitments. This has caused that, according to various reports, Spanish banks need between 51 and 62 billion euros of capital. The European Union will be responsible for financing them aware of the risk of contagion that there would be in case of non-payment. With soft loans and at an interest close to 3%. And if Spain does not comply, Brussels will close the tap. In June, the non-agricultural payroll in that country was placed at 80 thousand places, lower than the 100 thousand places estimated by analysts. The creation of jobs in non-agricultural sectors was lower than expected. In as much, the private payroll was located in 84 thousand jobs, while that of manufactures in 11 thousand places. According to analysts, this increases the expectations of the application of an additional monetary stimulus by the Federal Reserve. The exchange rate closed at 13.60 pesos per dollar in Banamex. At the end of the day the peso regained some ground against the dollar to the optimism that generated in the market the next meeting of finance ministers of the Eurozone on Monday and would revolve around the rescue of banks in Spain. The work argued that China's economy slowed substantially in April, which exacerbated concerns about a possible forced landing. They considered that there will be a slowdown in the second quarter, followed by a bit of recovery in the second half of the year, in the context of the gradual but unstoppable structural slowdown in China's economy. The strategy, which Romney's campaign described as "unfounded personal attack," follows recent reports that raised doubts about Romney's personal wealth, which could exceed $ 250 million. In addition to it is foreseen that in the next 30 days the governor Jerry Brown, endorses it. Activists praised the rule, which seeks to avoid the deportation of undocumented immigrants with minor crimes, especially in the Secure Communities program, which allows the cooperation of local police and federal immigration agents. The initiative in California "reestablishes the public trust necessary for law enforcement agents to protect and serve the communities under their care," he said. He argued that "when immigrant families and communities do not trust the local police, the crimes remain unreported, the victims suffer, and public safety for all is endangered." Apparently, the head of US diplomacy referred to the possibility that the Syrian rebels launch an attack on state institutions - a court and a means of communication have been among the latest targets - and not an external intervention. He added that the recognition of international mediator Kofi Annan that his peace plan is failing "should be a wake-up call for the whole world." He said that last month was the deadliest for the Syrian people in the 16 months of rebellion against President Al-Assad. The 121 deputies of the other formations voted against the investiture of the government. Monday, July 9, 2012, p. 25 Reims France, July 8. Hollande received the federal chancellor under an intermittent rain, a hundred meters from the cathedral, where they went on foot. Europe faces a challenge that it must overcome. The economic and political union as conceived 20 years ago is still not strong enough. We must finish it at the political level. It's a big job, but Europe is capable, Merkel emphasized. According to the federal chancellor, the eurozone can emerge stronger from this crisis if it stays together. For his part, the French president considered that the Franco-German alliance can help to face the current challenges, among them the defense of the euro and energy policy. We share a common currency that must be defended with powerful rules and instruments, with coordinated policies, said Hollande. The French Ministry of the Interior firmly condemned this and started an investigation to find those responsible for what it described as unbearable degradation. According to authorities, no element allows to determine even if it is a premeditated action or an inconsequential act of irresponsible people. In fact, the governing council, chaired by Field Marshal Hussein Tantawi, held an emergency meeting to discuss "the implications of this decision." The general assembly of the Constitutional Court also had a meeting to discuss the issue. At the close of this edition, the military had not yet issued a statement. The decree of the new president takes away the legislative powers from the ruling military junta, which had assumed them after the dissolution of the Parliament. But Liberal and independent deputies said they will not join, to protest what they consider a violation of the law and the ruling of the court by Morsi. In this regard, the Egyptian dissident Mohammed el Baradei criticized the measure of the president. Morsi, a 60-year-old Islamist belonging to the Muslim Brotherhood, is the first Egyptian civilian president freely elected. The reactions of the experts to the decree of the new president were varied. The state television website quoted another expert on constitutional law, Mohammed al Dhahabi, who said the decree was "a legal catastrophe and a violation of legal principles." Faisal Krekshi, general secretary of the alliance said that the results are based on the reports of partisan representatives assigned to the vote counting centers. The attackers launched "sophisticated attacks" against Christian villages on Saturday morning, said Mustafa Salisu, spokesman for the special force of police and soldiers established in the area by the authorities to contain religious violence. He added that a special force responded to the attack for several hours and that it lost two policemen in the confrontation. Salisu said that 14 civilians were killed in the attacks and that the special group killed 21 aggressors. The authorities declined to mention suspects, but on other occasions similar attacks have been attributed to Muslim leaders. Instead, Abdullahi accused Christian farmers of attacking Muslim settlements and stealing their cows. Nigeria, a nation with numerous ethnic groups and more than 160 million inhabitants, is roughly divided between the predominantly Christian south and the north where Muslims predominate. Jos is in the "middle belt", where both regions converge. Monday, July 9, 2012, p. 23 Tokyo, July 8. In return, donors called for clear commitments from Afghans, which include holding transparent elections in 2014, respect for human rights - in particular for women - and fighting corruption in institutions. In addition, progress on commitments made by both parties will be reviewed on a regular basis and each year there will be a ministerial conference. The security of Afghanistan can not be measured only by the absence of war. Afghan President Hamid Karzai, who requested about $ 4 billion a year in assistance for the next few years, admitted that his government has to do more to fight corruption. He also warned that his country continues to be seriously threatened by extremism and terrorism. The Atlantic alliance reported that six of its soldiers were killed by the explosion of an artifact on a highway in eastern Afghanistan, after an attack by insurgents in the south of the territory caused the death of another foreign soldier. In other violent actions, three explosions hit three vehicles in Kandahar -where the Taliban have great influence-, leaving the balance of 18 dead, including children. Another 10 people were killed in the province of Helmand in clashes between militants and Afghan forces, which in both cities lost at least five agents and one soldier, local authorities reported. On Tuesday, the Pakistani government approved the reopening of the roads, blocked since last November as a result of an air strike by the coalition, which left 24 Pakistani soldiers dead. Monday, July 9, 2012, p. 23 Damascus, July 8. The 300 observers deployed by the United Nations to monitor the truce suspended operations in mid-June, because the violence has not been reduced. He added: They are part of the conflict. They offer protection and political backing to these gangs to destabilize Syria. During the interview, Assad said that the issue of his resignation should be in the hands of the Syrian people. Vietnam and Cuba maintain close political and economic ties for several decades. Fidel Castro, the father of the Cuban revolution, retired from power since 2006 for health reasons, visited Hanoi for the last time in 2003. The Cuban leader will have the opportunity to "study the economic development model of Vietnam," said a Vietnamese diplomat.. One of them provides an aid to Cuba "for economic and technological cooperation." It is also an important partner in the electronics sector. However, in 2010 bilateral exchanges were limited to 269 million dollars, according to Cuban figures. A diplomatic source said that no agreement is expected during Castro's visit to Hanoi. And they established commercial and even sentimental relations with the Spaniards. Coetzee with guards waiting for the barbarians, who never arrive. Thus, empires understand each other. If the kings are crazy, why should not their representatives be? Before separating, the couple swear eternal love. She finds out late and badly, she does not believe it and waits for her fiancé 35 years. Released in Moscow in 1978, it remained in theaters for 25 years, surviving Perestroika, and today it is still staged constantly. The title refers to two ships of the Company. After decades of the end of communism, it begins to be staged in other parts of the world and acquires the patina of a classic. About this tragic passion, History rushed mercilessly. New Spain vanishes in a war that will give rise to Mexico. The Russians extract everything they can and leave California before 1840. By the east it is riding, still far, the United States. The Czarist company is imposed on the Indians. The settlers add to that peonage a game of Aleutas who were brought from the Aleutian Islands and among all are dedicated to decimate otters and other furry beasts to supply the demand for fine skins in Europe. That time, which precedes the gold fever, is known as the fever of the skins, and caused the extermination of the otters who had their paradise on the Russian River. There are stamps that show countless piles of hair that are shipped to Moscow. But the British are making a historic mistake again. Non-membership of the single currency has put London in a difficult position. It has other cards to play, for example in the negotiation on the budgetary framework for 2014-2021. Cameron may have some reason in the idea of ​​recovering some powers ceded to Brussels. European integration does not always have to move in one direction. But his statements about the possible closure of British borders to citizens of countries in crisis in the EU are worrisome. The prime minister has not clarified whether the eventual referendum, which may be dragged down by events, would openly refer to membership of the EU, or only on adherence to new developments in integration. After tax increases and welfare cuts in December and the budget - and post-budget: university fees and health co-payments - a new wave of austerity measures is looming. You have to tighten the nuts more. This is due to the mediocre result harvested at the moment in the fight against the deficit. And the need to fulfill to the millimeter the commitments to clean up public finances. More pressing need because it has become an inexcusable condition to access the multimillion-dollar European bailout of Spanish banks. That is why the European Union has started a turn towards a growth agenda that completes the insufficiencies of budgetary orthodoxy. But its effects - hopefully not limited - will come later. And, meanwhile, Spain must continue to fulfill its duties. The austerity also limits, to the south, with equity and a dose - although it is minimal - of this is usually a requirement of one's own efficiency. It must be said without blunders: Although necessary, the adjustment policy is unfair. And the new wave is likely to increase that injustice. The first is that it punishes a social majority that is not the cause of the rigor has become essential. It is not true that we are all guilty of what happened. At least, not to the same extent. If the cancer of this crisis is excessive indebtedness, we must remember that it is the bubble that provokes it. So it is unfair that they pay for the righteous, for sinners, even if they do not come out unscathed: they lower the prices of their portfolios and fortunes. It is also unfair that the lion's share of the crisis bill is paid by ordinary citizenship in the form of austerity in public investment spending, for another reason. Because the bulk of Spanish indebtedness does not correspond to the public sector, but to the private one, although some spectacular public waste tends to hide it. It happens, however, that the containment of the debt and the reduction of the flow that feeds it is a basic requirement to maintain the confidence of the creditors, above all external, and to avoid their flight and the collapse of the financing of all. Especially since the sovereign public debt was contaminated by the banking crisis. Investors fear they fear that, with more or less Europe, their sanitation will ultimately fall on the State. That is why the majority of citizens will not be guilty of the disaster, but paradoxically, they have to become responsible for avoiding it. It is to be feared that there is no other way out of the well and overcome the recession than distributing, among all, the bill of austerity. And also asymmetrically, especially among non-causative, non-guilty. If a wise person does not show the contrary, this is true not only because of the well-known custom of those who have less to pay more for the crisis. But also because of the current structure of taxation, which attributes the greater collection capacity to income from work and the middle classes, something not reversible in one night. Because of the urgency imposed by a rampant recession that collapses revenues. For the kidnapping that the total freedom of capital circulation implies for the recovery. And for the sociocultural hegemony of the ruling minority. Now, it's one thing to act like brothers and another to be cousins. To take charge of the ultimate responsibility, of an unavoidable austerity even if it is unjust, the citizenry should be able to claim some conditions that at least soften the inequality and make it less indigestible. And better an authentic crusade against tax fraud. 2.- Contribution of the bank and the large rents. You can activate an income limitation agreement, via moderation of dividends. Although in absolute terms the collection generated by these measures is modest, its symbology is not. 3.- Definition of the most vulnerable social segments and their shielding. Solemn decision - by explicit parliamentary agreement - on who make up the most vulnerable sectors, close to the risk of social exclusion. And armoring these against the measures of austerity and therefore against its cumulative effect. Public austerity must be, in general terms, a temporary contract, valid for a limited period, especially as regards social benefits sacrificed. Losses of purchasing power and others must be recovered at the end. The periodization and the expectation that a calendar of redemption gives rationalizes and softens the sacrifice. Nothing worse for the morality of society than a horizon of hopelessness, for which the future of each one will be worse and that of the following generations, dismal. A long-term operation like this requires a general agreement of complicity, of an authentic social conspiracy that goes beyond the political pact. Within that plot, the government should act as if it lacked an absolute majority. And the opposition would exercise as much responsibility as if it were in government. Everyone else should be involved. It may not be done, but it would be worse. Simple procedures in which neither the Government nor the opposition really discussed Europe, but in which the ritual confrontation was reproduced. The Spanish Parliament, which already suffers a serious loss of prestige due to its inability to connect with the concerns and demands of citizens, such as the investigation of the banking crisis, faces a key moment. It will not be enough for you to read the conclusions of the summit and give four strokes to try to value your own intervention, as has happened too often. Even less if it falls from rondón new cuts that should have been the subject of a debate on the state of the nation. There are plenty of occurrences, and this time the opposition should be able to explain in detail what it matches, what it disagrees with and why. What are the dangers that it glimpses in the European way and what its proposals to avoid them. There are also the obvious ones. The poverty of European debate in Parliament comes from far away. The misery of the discussion on Europe, on the advantages and disadvantages that bring us the ups and downs of its operation, has only accentuated, just when more patent was the need to deepen it. The astonishing ignorance of many Spanish parliamentarians on community mechanisms and the null effort of their parties to provide them with the necessary information to correct this illiteracy should not have been alien to all of this. It is enough to take a look at the press summaries that the parties send to their parliamentarians: a lot of excerpts from talks and rarely articles translated or related extensively with the Union. They need precisions, calendars, objectives. If the president does not explain them, the opposition must question him. Preventing, once again, getting fed up with the pettiness of a debate that should be essential and that is always presented to us as a mere negotiation issue. Its main protagonists are not doing their homework. The nationalist left, which gave the band the final push for their final declaration and continues to maintain that this end is irreversible, has not taken any steps since October 20. There is a paralysis, as the radical minority has been imposed on the majority of prisoners, which reinforces the most immobile positions in the Government of Rajoy. However, he has barely taken steps to consolidate that end. But he fears even more the attacks of the elites of some associations of victims of terrorism and of the media right, opposed to making the penitentiary policy more flexible, and swollen by the immobilism of the pro-independence left and the prisoners. On the one hand, they fear to make the political game to the left nationalist before the proximity of the Basque elections. This confusion will be clarified after the celebration of the Basque elections. The political leaders have turned a deaf ear because they feared that their close links with the management of the bank could be evidenced. The judges now have the matter in their hands. If there are criminal liabilities they must be exposed. But this research should not distract from the broader question about what went wrong throughout the financial system. Only a public investigation can show that Spain is capable of facing it to save the rest of the system. The political class has reason to be concerned with an investigation that may irritate voters. But avoiding mea culpa can generate an even worse reaction. In the case of Bankia, hundreds of thousands of clients acquired shares whose value has plummeted since the IPO. In case Madrid opened an investigation, yours could be a good example for the rest of Europe. Maintaining these intimate relationships between banks and politicians is incompatible with the Eurozone's ambition to have a banking union. For analyze this relationship, study these winds. No matter how massive the black hole is, at relatively small distances in galactic terms, it is as if it did not exist, he said. There has to be a process that combines the sound of my voice with the receiver through the distance, or the size of the black hole with the whole galaxy. We want to know what element unites them and we believe that they are the winds that come out of the galactic core, "he said. With these instruments, the university observes the nuclei of active galaxies, especially their emission of photons in X-rays. In some of them, in that central region a great emission of light is generated, which may be greater than that of the whole. It is a smaller region than the Solar System, but emits more light than the entire galaxy, "he explained. The only way to explain this phenomenon is if you consider that there is a material that reaches the black hole, and just before falling to it, converts its mass into energy and it looks like photons. In a very efficient process, 10 percent of the matter is converted into energy. Krongold observes the radiation in X-rays to investigate how the black hole material, which is very hot, ionized and therefore does not interact easily with optical or ultraviolet radiation. That material changes the radiation, absorbs it, and seeing that process we can know how it is around the hole. " In this process the formation of wind is observed. Although it pulls it gravitationally, the material is ejected by the pressure of the radiation, "he said. While matter falls into the black hole, photons are produced, which interact with the surface layers of the accretion disk and produce the wind, which leaves the nucleus. It is the intermediate element that relates the size of the black hole to the size of the entire galaxy, "he concluded. In total, sales of mobile computers will grow from 347 million dollars in 2012 to more than 809 million in 2017. The services and infrastructure necessary to make the use of new models attractive are usually better established in mature markets, "he added. The previous measure was in line with what was predicted by the market, which was generated after knowing a series of economic data that showed that even Germany, which had been resisting the effects of the crisis. Meanwhile, the Bank of England "injected" yesterday 50 billion pounds to the economy of the country through its expansion program and kept the interest rate at a level of 0.5%. Friday, July 6, 2012, p. 33 Frankfurt, July 5. In less than an hour, on Thursday, the central banks of Europe and China eased their monetary policy, signaling a growing level of alarm regarding the world economy, despite the fact that suggestions for coordinated action were dismissed. However, it moved away from more aggressive measures, such as a resumption of its program of purchases of government bonds or an injection of more long-term liquidity for banks. The Bank of England announced that it maintains its guideline rate at a historical floor of 0.5 percent and that it will inject 50 billion pounds sterling into the country's economy to help it out of recession. The reduction of 25 basic points was in line with the expected by the market and occurs after knowing a series of economic data that showed that even Germany, the largest European economy, which had been resisting the effects of the crisis, is beginning to feel the impact. We see a weakening of growth in the entire euro zone, including countries that had not suffered before, he explained, thus justifying the historic cut in interest rates to 0.75 percent decided today by the governing council of the entity in Frankfurt. It is the first time that the rate has fallen below one percent since the introduction of the euro in 1999. Asked if conditions are as bad as at the end of 2008, when the global financial system faltered, Draghi responded: Definitely not. German economists call to oppose the banking union Reuters. Friday, July 6, 2012, p. 33 Berlin. We are deeply concerned about the steps towards banking union, which means a collective responsibility for the debts of banks in the euro system, they said. In its latest report on protectionism, the agency said that since November 2008, 2 thousand 430 state protectionist measures have been launched in the world. He recalled that in 2009 approximately 60 percent of all protectionist measures were taken by the G-20 countries. In 2011 that percentage had increased to 75 percent and so far this year, it reached 79 percent. That governments resort to discrimination against foreign commercial interests during global economic recessions is well known. Argentina and Russia are also highlighted by the implementation of a large number of measures. It adds that of the 2 thousand 430 state measures adopted since November 2008, one thousand 340 almost certainly worsened foreign commercial interests. Another 538 probably harmed foreign commercial interests and 553 were liberalization measures or improved transparency. Together, the G-20 countries have implemented 877 measures that almost certainly are discriminatory and 136 measures of probable discrimination since November 2008. Of the total, 272 were trade defense measures, which implies that 73 percent of all the protectionist measures implemented throughout the world during the time of crisis were not anti-dumping, countervailing duties or safeguard actions. The president undertakes a tour of the key state in elections Friday, July 6, 2012J. Of the importance of Ohio, speak the number of times that Obama has traveled to that state. This year alone, the president has visited him a total of seven times. On its first day, Obama's goal has been to close ranks with the working class and the middle class to demand from China "fair trade competition." Meanwhile, the Republican candidate has managed to raise a record of more than 100 million dollars in June, revealed yesterday a person in charge of his party. The US government has already warned Cuba that it plans to carry out reconnaissance operations starting this summer, with a first evaluation with a ship of the route through which the cable could pass. At present, the military base, where some 6,000 soldiers and civilians live, is a strategic center in the Caribbean to manage migratory crises or disasters such as the 2010 earthquake in Haiti. In their cells, which have been reformed over the years, 169 prisoners remain confined waiting for their freedom to be decided or for them to be tried in military commissions within the base, a process criticized for lack of procedural guarantees by international rights bodies. humans. The American president, Barack Obama, when assuming power in January 2009 promised the closure of that prison, which has not been executed. Although not yet formally nominated as a representative of the Republican Party, according to Ann Romney, her husband has on the table the names of "many people" with whom he could form an electoral tandem and admitted that she keeps her favorites. According to the American media, Ayotte is one of the women who sound like possible number two of Romney, due to the youth and professional career of this former general prosecutor of 44 years. However, as a counterpoint to the northern origin of Romney, the names of some Republican governors of the south of the country, in states with voters of a more conservative tradition and a greater percentage of the Hispanic population, are also being considered. The wife of the Republican leader explained that Romney's candidacy needs a number two "trusted" and "competent" for the position, but also "help overcome other responsibilities" in a country "with deep problems at the moment". He also noted that the image they try to project from her husband "is completely wrong... They do not know him at all." In contrast, he considered that "Mitt is giving the answers to change this country" and "is the only one that can bring hope to this country. The truth is that he is the only one who brings hope to America. " On the other hand, Romney raised 100 million dollars in June for his electoral campaign, a record for 2012, the publication Politico reported today. The figure constitutes a record for fundraising activities this year, but it is far from the $ 150 million raised by Democrat Barack Obama in September 2008, the largest volume of funds raised by a political campaign in a single month. The Democratic campaign did not publish the June figures yet, but both the president and his collaborators have launched repeated calls to donors and highlighted the likelihood that they will attract less funds than their rivals. Until now, no outgoing US head of state raised less money than his challenger in a presidential campaign. Fundraising is essential in the United States to develop electoral campaigns that cost hundreds of millions of dollars, which are essentially invested in advertising on television. Friday, July 6, 2012, p. 29 Beijing, July 5. The amounts of the credit and the loan were not disclosed by the governments. Bilateral trade increased from 590 million in 2005 to 1.9 billion dollars a year. Chinese companies sell buses and other means of transportation to the island, as well as domestic appliances. The tour of seven years ago focused on the knowledge of the trade opening reforms practiced by the Asian country. Although it was not officially said, Raúl Castro's four-day visit has the apparent purpose of expanding the Cuban president's knowledge of Chinese economic reforms. The Cuban leader praised the traditional friendship between the two peoples and the ruling parties of the countries. He stressed that Havana attaches great importance to the Chinese experience in economic development. Friday, July 6, 2012, p. 29 Santiago, July 5. At the end of the mobilization in which some 2 thousand people participated, there were at least twenty detainees. What was replaced was the original proposal of the government, which starts from zero, that is, the initial amount is 191 thousand pesos. The indication to raise the figure to 193 thousand, which had already made the ruling during the first discussion before the Chamber of Deputies, when the proposal was rejected, must be replaced. The official senator Carlos Larraín ironizó that to arrive at the 200 thousand pesos does not cost much. In the event that we improve the basic remuneration by 5 thousand pesos a month, it implies transfers within the system for 24 million dollars, said Larraín. The British media claim that the government has delayed its announcement for several months for fear of a tough campaign against. Seven thousand layoffs have already been announced and another eleven thousand will follow them in the next two years, while the government is studying a plan to make it easier for reservists to have more free time in their jobs and join Army operations. Therefore, the reform will mean the disappearance of 17 divisions, among which are four historic battalions and a fifth that reduces Scotland's activities. The reform announced by the government has also caused discomfort and frustration among senior army officers. Friday, July 6, 2012, p. 27 Moscow, July 5. If their leaders do not request new registration they will have to pay a high fine or go to jail for up to three years, while the operation of the organization is suspended for six months. Are they also foreign agents? Thus, it will send one of every 10 employees to its homes, it will eliminate 20% of the managerial positions and it will reduce less than half the number of provinces -from 110 to 50-. But, above all, the State will be put on a diet and the foundations will be laid so that it does not regain weight. The methodology -according to the reading of the 12 folios disclosed after the Council of Ministers- has been to calculate the ideal weight of each of the administrations, taking into account the expenditure and the services it provides, in order to later eliminate the fat by the urgency procedure. The clearest example is the reduction, before the end of the year, of 60 provinces. If one takes into account that the current technical government will finish its mandate in the spring of 2013, the new Executive who leaves the polls should start to govern with a very tight corset. So much so that the decree law establishes the review of each contract for the rendering of services, of each rental of official buildings and the repeal, where appropriate, of those that it considers abusive. Another important pit is the one that the regions will take. The decree law provided for the reduction of transfers, 700 million euros in 2012 and 1,000 million in 2013. The cut to each of them will be decided on the basis of "the virtuosity and the excess of spending of each one of them". As for the municipalities, they will stop receiving 500 million in 2012 and 2,000 million in 2013. Public health care is left out of the cuts, after the filtering of the first draft - which foresaw the closure of a good number of small hospitals - will cause a great controversy. Yes the Government has special interest in cutting visible expenses in official cars, up to 50%, because they somehow represent the privileges of the ruling class in times of crisis. Although, in case some party thinks to embitter the summer, already warned: "I do not accept vetoes". This is no longer tolerable, "added the Secretary of State. The consequence of this approach could hardly be another. It is clear that unarmed observers can not monitor a ceasefire that does not exist. " The Italian military industry continues to provide Syria with high-tech equipment. The protests against the Syrian regime broke out in March 2011. It helps us to criticize, not only one or the other group, but to understand their interests, actions and thoughts. Only by understanding this conflict can we expect it to be resolved. " This was followed by the advance of groups of Islamic extremists who intend to establish sharia in the territory. Aloyseyni, beyond the political and security issue, wanted to draw attention to the health situation in the north. Haidar Elhajd, another of the protesters, said that the objective of the march is to protest against the "inaction of the Government and the passivity of the international community." Although details of the amount have barely been disclosed, Cuban authorities indicated that at least part of the loan will be used to modernize the country's sanitation facilities. The elections could culminate with a renewal of historical leadership due to his advanced age. The reactors, in fact, melted, filtering radiation that forced 150 thousand people to leave their homes. The report, issued hours after a reactor began to provide electricity to the national grid for the first time in two months, considered "unforgivable the ignorance and arrogance of any person or organization that deals with nuclear energy. We have found a lack of knowledge of world trends and a disregard for public safety. " Friday, July 6, 2012, p. 30 Tokyo, July 5. They betrayed the nation's right to be safe in the face of nuclear accidents, the commission's report said, adding that the damage caused by the earthquake and the subsequent tsunami of that date can not be ruled out. The accident was the result of collusion between the government, the regulators and Tepco, and the lack of authority of those parties, according to a summary in English of the Japanese report of 641 pages. Kivoshi Kurokawa, who headed the commission of inquiry, highlighted in the report: "what must be admitted with great pain is that it was a disaster 'made in Japan'. The panel demanded strict controls on all reactors according to the guidelines set in 2006 and said that the 21 oldest plants in Japan - whose construction was approved before the guidelines were drawn up in 1981 - are similarly at risk from an earthquake such as Fukushima.. Ohi's unit four will go into operation later this month, after the government approved the resumption to avoid power shortages. The company plans to increase reactor output to 40 percent by Friday and to top capacity by next Monday. As changes were made in economic policy and in the country's relationship with the world economy, external debt decreased in relation to output. However, there have been some moments when it has been necessary to resort to hiring of an urgent nature. As happened in 1995, in the context of the so-called tequila effect, or, to use the national lexicon, after the error of December. However, it is clear that most of the public debt has been internal debt for years. In May 2012, of the total gross debt of the public sector, domestic debt represents 71%. The external debt must be paid and its service is covered in some currency. While the internal debt is settled with other documents and securities denominated in pesos. However, the facts are different. Consider in this regard that in February of this year, non-residents held almost 30% of the total government securities outstanding. The figures vary constantly and at a certain point the sales of these papers imply that some of the non-residents withdraw their capital and for that they demand currencies, preferably US dollars. The interest can be remitted to the countries of origin of the financial depositors, also demanding dollars. Both due to the withdrawal of capital and the remittance of interest, the difference between the internal and external debt disappears. In addition, domestic debt is placed offering much higher yields than the US treasury debt. The increase in domestic public debt in the same period is remarkable. From December 31, 2007 to May 31, 2012, the nominal growth of the net internal debt of the public sector was 1.7 billion pesos. It can be pointed out that in relative terms the figure does not imply a bigger problem. However there are two elements that must be considered and that show a serious problem linked to this growth. The increase in internal indebtedness is not explained by the realization of investments by the State. A public body such as Pemex has not made significant investments in recent times. The refinery that was decided years ago to build, in 2008, has not started to date. The progress of the executive project is not even known. The macroeconomic figures on the formation of capital on behalf of the State do not indicate increases. Even the implementation of public-private projects for the most diverse activities is defended at all costs as a way to follow the investment in the country. The second problem is that a large part of the increase in public internal debt is explained by the payment of interest, commissions and expenses due to its administration. The figures, as shown in the attached graph, are relevant. In 2009, interest and commission payments on the federal government's internal debt are greater than the increase in debt. In 2010 and 2011 they exceed 50% each year. In 2008, the decrease in this figure is explained by a net hiring much higher than the average in the period from 2003 to 2011. Therefore, domestic public debt is increasing without this implying increases in the formation of capital by the government. An important part of the new debt is explained by the payment of interest and the rest due to the financing of current government activities. It is undoubtedly an improper use of public debt that does not encourage the growth of the country's economy. After the decline of democracy in Hungary, it is Romania that is taking unacceptable steps backwards. The EU must do something to avoid a nonsense. Ponta proposes to start today in Parliament the process of removal of the president provided for in the Constitution, with the convocation of a referendum in less than 30 days. It would suffice, according to another change imposed by him and his allies, a simple majority of voters, and not the census as so far. The prime minister also has a cloudy profile. Dissolve it and call a more related one. Romania must respond with more democracy, and not with regressions, to criticism that it is not ready to join the EU. In that article, by far the most superficial text I ever wrote, I scolded American diplomats for not taking advantage of the immense soft digital power that a company like Amazon could offer. It would be enough for Washington to sponsor Kindle diplomacy and "discreetly finance the purchase of texts that it considers most influential and more likely to foster critical thinking." The idea is to dedicate them to a selection of more than 800 libraries, public reading spaces and cultural centers, frequented by more than 6 million young people, which the State Department maintains throughout the world. The reasons behind this initiative seem solid, at least in theory. The government of the United States supplies its cultural dependencies with books, teaching materials and periodicals of all kinds; Producing them digitally would save money and speed up the procedure. One can easily imagine an operation in which users of a cultural center in Argentina could borrow electronic books belonging to a similar center located in Spain. On the other hand, problematic and censored books can be read without cluttering the shelves and without attracting the attention of local government censors. US diplomats believe that the program could serve to highlight the image of the United States as a technological leader. Unfortunately, reality is much more complicated. As far as I am concerned, it no longer seems to me that an association between American diplomacy and Amazon unequivocally supposes a good idea. In fact, he was completely wrong-not to mention dangerously naive-three years ago. What I could not foresee then was how difficult it would be for American technology companies to maintain a veneer of independence when they cooperated with the US government. But whether or not it is the purpose of the United States to promote regime changes really does not matter here. In most cases, the policy consists of 90% of perceptions and 10% of reality. In the era of Flame and Stuxnet, viruses developed by the North American government and that take advantage of vulnerabilities of the North American software, the mentioned ones are not trivial preoccupations. Tools previously considered benign and irrelevant could now be seen as subversive. That is the true paradox of the North American "Internet freedom agenda": the more Washington does to promote it, the worse things go. Once sheltered by the US government, in the geopolitical vacuum of Silicon Valley these tools no longer exist. In other words, their functions, aptitudes and effects depend on who is watching and why. That does not mean embracing defeatism or that it is not the business of diplomats to experiment with the latest technology. But yes they must do it with the full knowledge that their good intentions can be misinterpreted and occasionally backfiring. Often, your search for innovation may not be worth it, especially if it carries the risk of making things worse in the long run. An instrument dreamed by dissidents remains just that: a dream. His latest book published in Spain is The Disappointment of the Internet. The myths of freedom in the network. However, three out of ten argue that the decision of the Supreme Court will make them "less likely" to vote for Obama and one in five says they can change their minds until November. On the other hand, Obama is urging his donors to contribute more money to his campaign, given the significant volume of funds made by independent groups favorable to Romney. That urgency was reflected in a phone call Obama made to several donors on Friday aboard the presidential plane, when he returned from visiting the areas affected by a devastating fire in the state of Colorado. Obama warned in that call with several donors who supported him in 2008 that, "if things continue as they have been until now," he will be the first president in modern history to elect a reelection that is outnumbered by his rival. The Republican campaign foresees to have collected in June more than 100 million dollars, while the Democrat has not divulged its calculations. The absence of electricity forced many people to endure suffocating houses and rotten food over the weekend with temperatures around 38 degrees Celsius. The authorities of the electric companies said that they may continue without service for several more days. Since Friday, severe weather conditions have been blamed for at least 22 deaths, mostly from falling trees on houses and vehicles. To alleviate traffic congestion in Baltimore and Washington, federal and state authorities gave many workers the option to stay at home. The governor of Maryland also offered the same possibility to state workers. Meanwhile, in South Dakota a military cargo plane crashed while fighting a forest fire; one of the six crew members of the aircraft died. He accused the high school students who have confronted the police of "delinquents" and warned that he will punish those responsible and "will not allow" more protests. The Minister of Education was removed from the scene in an ambulance as a protection measure, while the Interior Minister was wounded in an arm in the middle of the fray. Students from the normal schools of the country are unemployed and schools are closed, protesting reforms to the curriculum of the teaching career, promoted by the Ministry of Education. The Minister of Education said at the press conference that she was held by alleged students who insulted her and tried to attack her. Protesters used sticks and stones to confront riot police, who dispersed the youths with tear gas and jets of water under pressure. According to the dissenters, the reforms tend to privatize the career of teacher, so the most affected will be families with limited resources, especially students from the impoverished rural area of ​​the country. The mission will today complete its task of gathering reports from different political sectors on the process that produced the change of government. Insulza plans to present a report next Monday to the permanent council. In that sense, he refused to anticipate "any conclusion of our visit because it must be elaborated in a document, but I can say that the political situation in Paraguay is not serious but it is delicate". In his meeting with Insulza, Franco defended the validity of Paraguayan democracy. The Paraguayan chancellor told reporters that Insulza "asked questions about the events that took place since the impeachment of the former president Lugo up to the current situation. " Malave said that the file on which the prosecution is based is "absolutely hollow" because it does not specify "what information was handled, or who was under guard, or what danger caused." However, he pointed out that the file "has never alluded to the health of the president, Hugo Chávez." Since a tumor was detected in June 2011, Chávez has not revealed what type of cancer he has or the extent of his illness that has happened three times in the operating room and has undergone chemo and radiotherapy in Cuba. The lawyer considered that Abreu is a "new political prisoner of this regime" and is being "a victim of the management of justice with a political whim" that, in his view, exists in Venezuela. From the first hour, the police gather on the terrace of a cafeteria in Omonia, one of the most degraded neighborhoods in the center of Athens. Throughout the day they will enter five homes in search of undocumented immigrants and counterfeit products. To make time and combat the heat, which squeezes from early, the police chat with a "frappé" based on soluble coffee. One of them opens one envelope of sugar after another and puts them in his mouth: "Sugar is my drug," he says. His situation is very difficult, "jokes another agent. But in truth, the situation of the police in Greece is not easy. Officials not only have extra workload due to the social tension that austerity measures have caused in the Mediterranean country, but also because of the increase in illegal immigration. Although between the three countries do not reach the minimum necessary to block the initiative, the Finnish Government maintains in a report on the European Council sent to Parliament that the purchase of bonds requires the unanimity of all partners. Another of the partners who have consistently shown against this mutualization of risks has been Germany. Thus, he also threatened to block the second rescue of Greece and suspended its approval until the last moments. Along with this, he has also made some striking proposals such as Spain guaranteeing its debt issues with State assets or real estate assets. These changes must be ratified in the parliaments of some countries, such as Germany, said the spokesman. With these new casualties, the number of Syrian generals who have fled to Turkey rises to fourteen. Turkey hosts more than 35 thousand Syrian refugees and deserters from the Syrian army in camps located in several provinces bordering Syria. Since the destruction of one of its warplanes by Syria, on June 22, the tension has intensified between the two neighboring countries, once allies. Later, Turkey has reinforced its border and has given a show of strength by deploying its F-16 fighters after Syrian helicopters flew near the border between the two countries. In Syria, at least one hundred people died today in several regions. In addition, he noted that there are unconfirmed reports that indicate that fifteen other people perished in the town of Duma, located on the outskirts of Damascus. Opposition sources claim that more than 16,500 people have violently lost their lives in the country since the uprising against the regime of Bashar al-Assad began in March 2011. The government "has blindly bombed civilian areas and carried out targeted killings," as acts of torture, arbitrary arrests and attacks on hospitals, according to Pillay. This coalition, the main formation of the opposition abroad, participates in the meeting. Syrian President Bashar al-Assad today ratified three laws that provide for severe punishment for those responsible for "terrorist" acts that seek to change the nature of the regime. Tuesday, July 3, 2012, p. 23 Bamako, July 2. Islamists who control Timbuktu, in northern Mali, continued today to destroy several mausoleums of Muslim saints. According to rebels Tuaregs, placed mines around the city of Gao to avoid a possible attack. After having destroyed last weekend seven of the 16 mausoleums of Muslim saints, members of Ansar Dine broke the entrance door of one of the three largest mosques in the city. In addition, many people try to flee, but the Islamists prevent them from leaving the city, he added. The United States condemned on Monday the destruction of historic sites and called on all parties to stop the violence. That is intolerance, he considered this association in a statement published Sunday night. Tuesday, July 3, 2012, p. 24 Dubai, July 2. Agha-Mohammadi said that 100 of the 290 members of parliament signed the bill on Sunday. However, no details were given on how Iran will verify the fate of each ship that transits the Persian Gulf under the watchful eye of the US Navy. This Sunday began an embargo of the European Union against imports of Iranian Kurdish. If the project is approved, it would have to have the approval of the revolutionary council, made up of Muslim clerics and lawyers chosen by the supreme leader, which can veto any law. Saudi Arabia, one of the world's leading oil exporters, has already taken preventive measures against the possibility of a closure of the strait. What Sunday began as a peaceful demonstration on Monday degenerated into violent clashes with the police. The authorities of Shifang have published an announcement on their website on Tuesday in which they claim that construction has been temporarily halted while equipment is being sent to educate citizens about the project. The notice states that moving forward without achieving public understanding and support poses a threat to social stability. But at the same time they have threatened to "punish harshly" those who continue the mobilizations. The authorities assure that the ringleaders will be punished, especially those who do not surrender to the police within three days. The demonstrations turned violent on Monday, when thousands of residents attacked the headquarters of the local government, damaged police cars and clashed with riot police, according to the Hong Kong press. The anger grew among the neighbors when photos and videos of the police started circulating on the Internet using tear gas and beating people with sticks. The authorities have denied that a person has died, contrary to what some Internet users say. The photos that have circulated widely in forums and mircoblogs show the streets with clouds of tear gas and injured people. In them, you can also see people walking with banners asking for the stoppage of the project and the protection of the environment. In others, protesters are seen throwing bottles of plastic water at the security forces. The factory would process a heavy metal and the neighbors fear it will contaminate the city. Shifang is located about 50 kilometers from Chengdu, capital of Sichuan, and has 220,000 inhabitants. Its initial objective was that the facility, destined to refine copper molybdenum, was completed by 2015. Pollution has become one of the main causes of protests in China. In August of last year, thousands of people forced the closure of a chemical plant in the port city of Dalian. In that case, however, the protests were mostly peaceful. Authorities often respond by vetoing information, but citizens flock to the Internet and microblogs such as Weibo to organize, and disseminate the news so quickly that censors can not stop it. Shifang is the most requested topic on Weibo this Tuesday with more than 10 million searches. Even as a historical justification for the greatest violence. A process that includes the presence of a telos, apparently distant, but motor of longing. It is not about relativism, but about a recognition of the multiplicity implicit in the interrogation about a presence to come, that of the production of a European future. It is a contradiction, which is implicit in the relationship between an instrumental reason - which seeks unity as a consequence of stable progress, displacing politics - and an idea that welcomes different stories. That is why the disintegrating tendencies contained in the concept of Europe emerge more strongly in the face of regional imbalances that economic discourse does not resolve, despite its promises of homogenization, making political discourse difficult. Even as a tendency it contains a possible threat: that of procuring, as a final objective, a smooth and homogeneous space where differences have been abolished under the imperative of a just order. Michel Foucault defined the concept of heterotopia from that Borges text, where a certain Chinese encyclopedia was cited, which included a classification of animals impossible to think of their disparity. And, possibly, it is that idea of ​​heterotopia that constitutes the only possible space of a European identity, only thinkable from the culture. And the exchange of ideas and creative processes, is what can be built -in fact it has already begun in part- the invisible fabric that serves to reconcile so many different singularities, those that make up a thought without space, without specific locations in geography. It is, above all, a landscape where values ​​are confronted, where the citizenship is debated and involved. And where it is not exempt from the strangeness contained in a meeting that only configures an identity in its distinction with what is not Europe. There, the Venetian painter symbolized Europe as a Minerva, armed intelligence capable of guiding itself. Zelaya was dismissed by the military. Part of the problem in Honduras was that the Constitution does not contemplate recusal. In Paraguay, it's too easy. The express challenge marks a dangerous precedent in a region where democracy is still consolidating and where presidents often face the unpopularity and absence of a majority in parliament. And if they want their protests to be more convincing, then they should be more consistent. The center-left governments have been quick to condemn the threats of the right against presidents-elect, but not those that come from their side against democratic procedures. The Nicaraguan Daniel Ortega rigged a municipal election in 2008. But both are welcome in the regional forums. Until the governments of South America commit themselves impartially against the abuses of democratic processes, their pious protests will sound hypocritical. The tablets come with a $ 25 coupon to download content from Google Play. The latest version is faster and introduces new features, such as "voice search", said Google. It is also expected that Google will present a seven-inch tablet during the event. The details of the new product were published on Wednesday on the company's website, with models ranging from 199 to 249 dollars. At the entrance of the Council this morning, the chancellor has already advanced some details that qualify the sense of defeat of the German postulates. Regarding the creation of a European banking supervisory body, Merkel noted that "first there must be unanimous agreement by the Council that an authority of this type be created." Since the agreement was announced, the media is already talking bluntly of the success of negotiators from Spain and Italy in the pulse for aid to banks. The two Mediterranean partners, played in Germany, yesterday played together a European final that will face them on Sunday in football. This afternoon you will have the opportunity to exhibit it in a press conference called for one. Then you can tell the German deputies that in the afternoon they will vote in the Bundestag on the European Fiscal Pact and the permanent stability mechanism. Although results will be specified in detail at the beginning of July, the battle over the story of the summit is now in full swing. The German media free it each in its own way. Then they changed the headline, which at noon was "The night Merkel lost". Below, the influential newspaper explains that "Italy and Spain pay a small price" for future aid. The reporter interprets that "Europe has changed its strategy to fight against the debt crisis". The second one assures that today's agreement will exempt from the external controls those countries that will resort to aid in the future. And that will have to meet conditions. For Merkel it is crucial that Germans do not feel that their money will be transferred to the partner countries without any control. The Berlin daily asks if "Merkel has given up her positions" and clarifies that she denies it. But she adds, with exclamation marks, that "Merkel has made concessions!" The ambition of the Government of Dublin to regain economic sovereignty in the bond market, after almost two years, now seems less unattainable after the agreement. Kenny insisted that the agreement has opened an opportunity to "redesign" the Irish debt. The last time Ireland issued bonds in the market to finance itself was in September 2010, as investors later fled the public debt market fearing that the magnitude of the banking crisis would bankrupt the country. The program is to start short-term Treasury bond sales in the third quarter and return to the long-term debt markets by the end of the year. The total return of Ireland to the international market would occur by the middle of next year. That would be the previous step to the issuance of joint debt. French President Francois Hollande, arriving at his first summit, said he expected an agreement on emergency measures to help euro zone nations whose credit cost reached unsustainable levels. Italy and Spain would have to ask for assistance, something they do not want to do, and would be subject to fiscal policy conditions and international monitoring. But it could be that they are not required more austerity measures and reforms than they have already undertaken, the sources said. Spain and Italy are calling for emergency measures to lower the escalation of their credit cost before being forced to exit the bond market altogether. Merkel insists that reforms to give EU authorities the power over national budgetary and economic policies must come before any shared responsibility. Friday, June 29, 2012, p. 30 New York, June 28. The court ruling left the most important legislation of this administration and defeated the largest republican offensive and conservative sectors. Other parts of the reform, which depended to a large extent on this mandate, force insurers not to reject any applicant based on pre-existing health conditions. It also allows young people to enjoy health insurance for their families up to the age of 26 and prohibits limits on what they will pay to cover the costs of medical services. The law, and therefore the ruling of the Supreme Court, literally have an impact on the entire population of the country. The reform aims to reduce increasingly high costs and grant health insurance to at least 30 million more people. The culmination of that campaign was that 26 state governments, under republican control, promoted the legal demand that today was decided by the supreme court of justice in the country. They accused that the law imposed an unconstitutional regulation on the population and was an example of great government, since Washington imposed his will and, therefore, nullified the individual freedom of citizens. In addition, they considered it another tax and some characterized it as a socialist measure. Obama declared that today's ruling was a victory for people throughout this country, whose lives will be safer by this law and the Supreme Court's ruling. He recalled that in the past the so-called individual mandate enjoyed bipartisan support, including that of his Republican opponent in this election, Mitt Romney. But Romney reiterated his opposition and disagreement with the ruling. He stated: "What the Supreme Court did not do on its last day in session, I will do it on my first day. I will act to cancel Obamacare. " The Republicans made it clear that this battle will continue in the electoral context. Symbolic Amago However, while the Senate has a Democratic majority, that threat will be symbolic, since no one expects the upper house to approve an annulment of the law presented by the representatives in the middle of an election year. Ultra-conservative activists rejected the ruling. They pointed out that the four conservative judges who voted against expressed that they had rejected the law completely, and vowed to continue the fight against the measure. For the White House and Democratic leaders the ruling was a key triumph in the middle of this election season. They proclaimed that the nationwide debate over two years had already concluded, with the decision of the Supreme Court. However, they face a public opinion that has not yet managed to convince on this issue. The compulsory nature of medical insurance, a measure that aims to reduce the cost of insurance throughout the country, includes a penalty that will be applied in the form of a tax. Just this clause was the one used by the Republicans as a weapon. Hundreds of supporters and detractors of the law gathered on the steps of the Supreme Court to await the announcement. It is a victory for the elderly, for women and for young people, "he said. Romney, who the day before was very critical of the health reform, insisted on his reproaches a day later: "The norm was bad yesterday and is still today." The former governor of Massachusetts relied on the argument offered by the Court to uphold the constitutionality of the rule - that the sanction for not having insurance should be considered a tax - to justify his criticism of the reform. Romney also warned that the creation of jobs would be slowed down, would hurt the health coverage for people without resources and would add "trillions to the deficit and our public debt." With this electoral wink the republican candidate was dismissed and it seems that his invocation has taken effect. Since the ruling of the Supreme Court was heard, the Romney campaign has raised two million dollars, according to one of the spokespersons. In his message, the candidate used to ask for "$ 10 to curb the policies of the Democrats." The politician of Cuban origin, one of the possible candidates for the vice presidency of the country, has shown his interest so that the sanitary law cope the center of the electoral debate in the months that remain until November. Those who are not willing to wait that long are the Republican leaders in the Capitol. In the middle of the final vote, and in protest, a handful of Democratic congressmen left the plenary session of the lower house. The problem of drugs and arms trafficked across the border poses a real threat to our security, "he lamented. Also, the presidents of Unasur will also meet to address the specific situation of Paraguay. The government of Federico Franco already anticipated that "it will not accept" the decision to be excluded, because it is a decision that "was taken without any legal support". This was reported by Argentine government sources yesterday afternoon, although from the Brazilian Foreign Ministry they already expressed that this "will be very difficult, before reincorporating Paraguay". He Article 229 of the Paraguayan Constitution states that presidents "may not be reelected in any case." Despite this, Lugo says that being removed by Congress, the situation is different. Within the framework of a common citizen, I have all my political rights to exercise and within those rights, there are always possibilities of electoral candidacies, "said Lugo aFolha. Lugo was dismissed a week ago in rapid processing by the Senate of his country, accused of poor performance of his duties, which led to widespread regional condemnation. He was replaced in office by Vice President Federico Franco. Friday, June 29, 2012, p. 33 Asunción, June 28. Paraguay denounced having verified the Venezuelan direct interference during the political crisis that culminated with the removal of Lugo. Meanwhile, for the third day the protests of peasants and workers sectors against the new Paraguayan government and in repudiation of Lugo's dismissal continued. One of the leaders of the landless peasants, Eulalio López, was arrested by the police. The request was presented by the association of judges Medel, considering that the sentence to Garzón was disproportionate. The final decision of the government in this type of cases usually takes at least a year. Garzón, considered a referent of the so-called universal justice in cases such as that of former Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet, was found guilty of trespass-the crime of knowingly dictating an unjust decision-for his investigation of a corruption scheme in public administration. The magistrate has already appealed the sentence to the Constitutional Court. The government usually grants several pardons throughout the year. The measure does not eliminate the criminal record of the person forgiven. Garzón's assumption of this request is presented as a legal requirement for processing. Later, upon leaving the summit, he announced that he would quickly submit to the approval of the French Parliament the European fiscal balance pact, which during the campaign had refused to ratify if it was not accompanied by measures in favor of growth. The strategy of Hollande before the summit has been very good, because there are no winners or losers, triumphant and humiliated. Spain and Italy can sell to their public opinions a satisfactory agreement for their interests. Merkel may have disappointed her more stale public, but by opening her hand with debts she wins the sympathy of many. In any case, Hollande also achieves the goal of putting order in the construction of European architecture: the political union that Merkel wants will be the last floor of the house. The last consideration to flickering is of a moral nature. And then Rajoy's response was a disdain "even Mr. Hollande knows data from Spanish banks that I do not have". A little humility and thanks, Mr. Rajoy, will come in handy from now on. And referring - though without citing them - to his fellow negotiators who had opposed the direct recapitalization of the bank, the Italian prime minister added: "The important thing is mental unblocking." The agreement provides for the direct recapitalization of Spanish banks and for the EU rescue fund to intervene automatically when the cost of financing a "virtuous nation" - one that has fulfilled its commitments but is slow to see the results - exceeds a certain limit. The web editions of the Italian media reflect the success of Mario Monti. Of course, always in the background. Below, yes, put in the mouth of his prime minister: "Satisfactory measures." And it continues with the fashion of the day - mixing football and politics - to add: "Indigestible dinner for the Germans". The Italian media, in general, leave Rajoy in third place. The pair of photos chosen to hold the holder are one of the French president next to the Italian prime minister, both smiling, and one second in which you see Merkel and Monti talking, very serious both. And he attributes to the prime minister an explanation about the negotiation: "Italy has won - getting the anti-spread shield - but you will not have to use it." Professor of engineering, Mursi was arrested three days after the popular revolt against Mubarak was unleashed on January 25, 2011. After being declared president, he resigned his membership of the organization. In his election campaign, he strove to convince Christians and liberals, worried about having an Islamist as president. And is that secular Egyptians and leftists fear that Mursi, 60, seek to establish a religious state, in which the rights of the liberals and minorities are depleted. Mursi was not the first choice of the Muslim Brotherhood for the candidacy for the presidency. But he was disqualified for legal reasons. Mursi planned his campaign around a platform under the slogan "Project Renaissance", with the aim of finding solutions to the chronic problems of unemployment, poverty, housing shortage and poor economic situation in the country. Two of his four children were born in California and have American citizenship. He returned to Egypt in 1985, the year he was arrested by the Mubarak regime for protesting against government policies. In this way the controversy of where the investiture of the new leader will be ended would end. According to a temporary Constitution dictated by the military rulers, the new president is obliged to swear before the court. Islamists and activists who oppose the military accuse the generals of holding on to power, as broad authority is guaranteed through the temporary Constitution. The military, which took over after the fall of Mubarak, repeatedly pledged to hand over power to the president-elect until June 30. According to the information, anti-missile defense systems were installed in the provinces of Hatay and Gaziantep. A Turkish official said troop movements in the region were normal and not directly related to the incident, although the bilateral relationship was tense as a result. In this framework, the Syrian president told Iranian state television that a solution imposed on Syria from abroad is unacceptable because only Syrians can solve the crisis in their country. The president added that he does not foresee a military action against his country as it happened in Libya. The group said it would accept negotiations to guarantee a peaceful transfer of power "with those who have not stained their hands with the blood of the people. Yesterday an explosion in the parking lot of the Palace of Justice left three wounded, in a day in which the repression of the regime left 70 dead in all the country, according to the opponents report. Forces of the regime bombed and stormed tanks in several areas of the capital. The agreement, which is expected to be signed this Friday, has been very controversial, as many South Koreans feel great resentment against Japan for its brutal invasion of the Korean peninsula between 1910 and 1945. The revelation that the Seoul government approved the agreement, without prior notice to the population, last Tuesday has further offended the South Koreans and has caused calls for it to be canceled. Until now, the two countries had to often exchange information across the United States. Seoul has decided to suspend the latter for being too sensitive, as it would allow Japanese troops to enter the territory of South Korea. Other groups have assured that the alliance is a de facto pardon of the atrocities committed by Japan during the war. Karimov, who was Uzbekistan's top Communist leader in Soviet times, governs the fate of Uzbekistan since independence in 1991. The Uzbek leader said he was "seriously concerned" about an increase in "terrorist, extremist activities" and "trafficking". of narcotics "that" will overflow the borders of Afghanistan "after the withdrawal of international troops. The Uzbek leader was skeptical about this possibility. Among the topics, there was no shortage of speeches about generalities and much rhetoric about the food problem, the environment, employment and the recovery of economic growth, inequality and poverty. The issue of Spain was the uncertainty surrounding its growing financial tension and the rescue of its banking system, in exchange for doing what Germany recommended: fiscal consolidation and structural reforms of an orthodox nature. Such was the attack and its threats, which prevented distinguishing between the representative of a State and that of Repsol. This means identifying and, even worse, confusing the interests of a State and its population with those of a multinational company. They manifest the basic confrontation between two positions that are expressed worldwide, but that are also in conflict within each of the countries, in this case the issue of oil. In Mexico, this market fundamentalism has been applied for 30 years; and not from 2000 to date; It was created and established in the governments of the eighties and nineties. Likewise, we should not confuse political liberalism with economic liberalism. Sacrifice and punishment are not necessarily a precondition, nor the way, for economic growth and well-being. Also, it is not true, as it is said, that a different economic option means returning to the past of the seventies. Here we received almost 200 heads of state and government, who came to take relevant agreements on the future of the land. Although in the end they have not been relevant. The 193 heads of state and their representatives gathered in Rio reached minimal and irrelevant agreements for the future of the land. The twentieth "celebration" of the Rio Summit arrived at the esoteric decision to eliminate the multilateral fund for sustainable development. Before it was the bipolar world that imposed its vision. Now, the bipolars are the leaders who apply tremendous rolls to their governed, appealing to mother earth, and come to the moments of decision to do something else. Piatto forte: feijoada and churrasco In the middle of next week they will close the 2012 electoral campaigns to give way to a period of reflection, which will culminate with the decision that Mexicans will take about who will govern us for the next six years. That is the numerical photograph of the campaign closing. This circumstance favors Enrique Peña, since in the absence of clarity about the second place, hardly one of them would capitalize the useful vote. Another is that, given the number of undecided, the election is split in three and the victory gravitates around scarce margins. Given the above, it is necessary to keep an eye on the election to Congress. There is the crucial detail, because if it breaks into three, who wins the election, can not do too much. The drop that spilled the glass was a confrontation between farmers and soldiers that left a balance of 17 dead. When in doubt, coffee with... your reservations. It does not matter who makes it or the methods that it uses. The blows in the style of the one that overthrew Salvador Allende fell into disuse, because of the high international cost they have. It is a new type of coup that began to be implemented after the resounding failure of the old style coup against Hugo Chávez on April 12, 2002. When the popular sectors learned to disrupt the classic coup, this new institutional degolpe modality appears. In 13 of the 15 cases in which a Latin American president could not finish his term was because popular pressure forced his resignation. The remarkable thing is that the method of destitution by State agencies is identical in cases where it is done for and against the popular sectors. That is why it does not serve to focus on the forms, but on the processes. He New coup can be repeated in any country in the region, since the ruling classes resumed their offensive and put themselves at the service of a Pentagon eager to destabilize. The Pentagon has a long experience in the application of the "doctrine of shock", which goes through the destruction of entire nations to rebuild them in the service of capital and the hegemonic power. The decline of the United States means that the only viable strategy is domination without hegemony, which only needs military force; that is why the new strategy installs coup violence at the center of the political scene. In the third place, the peasant movement of Paraguay traveled a half century in which we can learn something to face the new scenario. In the 1960s the Agrarian Leagues were created, promoted by the ecclesial communities, an impressive grassroots movement that changed the history of those below. In the mid-1970s they were savagely repressed by the Stroessner regime. So far the usual trajectory under dictatorships: organization-repression-regrouping. In the decade of 1990, in democracy, the movement grows and gains visibility, but it is fragmented. Despite the divisions, the movements were able to make low-intensity democracy ungovernable and defeat the neoliberal model. This scenario created from below upholstered Lugo's path to the presidency in 2008. Division and atomization were deepened. After 2008 a part of the best leaders became officials and settled in the capital, convinced that it is the way to acquire more strength. Today, with some exceptions, the movements suffer their greatest weakness in decades. Half a century of the peasant movement, Paraguay's main anti-system movement, shows that there are no shortcuts that can replace class conflict. That international pressure alone can not change the relationship of forces. That there are several types of defeats. That defeat by repression is not as destructive as institutionalization. Information from Syria suggests that Assad's army is being beaten up by armed rebels, which include both Islamist and nationalist forces. It is believed that at least 6,000 soldiers have been killed or have been killed in fighting since the anti-government rebellion began 17 months ago. There are unconfirmed reports that every week up to a thousand new Syrian fighters are trained by Syrian mercenaries on a base used by Western authorities, in which supposedly security personnel carry out anti-terrorist exercises. Russia can turn the tap on Europe whenever it wants, and this gives it tremendous political power, says a source. This is what matters and that is why they are prepared to let Assad stay for another two years if necessary. They would be perfectly happy with that, and Russia would have a place in the new Syria. Diplomats who still discuss these plans must, of course, be treated with some skepticism. They are willing to tolerate Assad's presence until the end of the crisis rather than insist that his departure is the beginning of the end. Americans feel the same and now Russia believes that stability is more important than Assad himself. It is clear that the Syrian ruler could have continued the extensive reforms left by his father, Hafez Assad, who died in 2000. At that time, according to Syrian officials, the national economy was in a much better state than the economy of Greece is today.. But little by little, the most reasonable voices that influenced Assad's leadership were running out of power. An official close to the president called him during the worst moment of the fighting last year and said that Homs is burning. Assad's reaction was to refuse any personal communication with the official and insisted that he send him exclusively text messages. Assad no longer has personal power over what happens in Syria, says one informant. It's not because I do not want to, but because so many things are happening throughout the country that a single man can not keep up with everything. Assad still has hope, according to army veterans, in a solution like that of Algeria. After the cancellation of democratic elections in Algeria, his army and generals fought without mercy to rebels and Islamist guerrillas throughout the country during the 90s, and perpetrated torture and killing with a balance of 200 thousand dead, to retain power. Oil and gas reserves were more important than civilian deaths. In the same way, today Damascus trusts the western desire to find a Syrian route to obtain fuel and its willingness to tolerate murders. However, the question of whether Assad prevails, regardless of how much he ignores the military control of the terrain, really understands the epic political importance of what happens in his country. How this extraordinary statement, based probably on nonsense said by some intelligence agent, was formulated in Assad's mind remains a mystery. These three results are summarized in one: the civilization of the euro is still alive and kicking. He has combined short-term urgencies with the grand designs of the long term. It has once again overcome the enormous concrete obstacles that suppose building a sovereignty-multi- country without the need for wars, enlarged by the recession, which always propitiates nationalist absorption. As much as they weigh so wise people as the president of the banking employers, Miguel Martin, who bet hours before the "probable" break of the euro. So much clairvoyance and good judgment deserves that the bankers also rescue him in due form. The first hesitations have already occurred. There are too many more companies with a Cassandra vocation in the markets. It will also be necessary to explain to them why each of the three results is key. Hopefully this time the complicity of all the partners will be underlined, instead of the presumed own victories, which always leave badly healed wounds, by presupposing the existence of a defeated alien. The growth agenda promoted by Francois Hollande will complete the "compact fiscal" already rounded before his arrival: now we will walk on two legs, austerity and growth and we will not hobble alone with the first. It gives mollar content, and institutional push, to the banking union project. This does not mean only that the banks "of" each country are European banks "in" each country, or in several. But also that the national central banks practically cease to exist. From there, and even before, a tough negotiation will be opened to 27, and especially among the 17 of the euro. Undoubtedly, the pressures of Spain and Italy have made a dent in the German Chancellor. But it was clear that Angela Merkel had been negotiating for months. Let's not say whether a European guarantee of bank deposits is reached. Although there are still many uncertainties to clear for Europe and for Spain. In the medium and long term, the main Spanish unknown is where we are going to grow. Without a clearer horizon, capital will not return. But the one that is taking place now in Brussels should end in another way. Mariano Rajoy called yesterday the attention on it, when saying that our country is being financed at unbearable costs, and that there are institutions that do not even get loans. The main obstacle is the position of Germany. The most important country of the EU in economic terms, which is being financed at a very low cost, can not expect the recovery of those in recession if the differential is 500 or 1,000 points. It is urgent to stop this unbearable tension, increase liquidity and recapitalize banks without this burdening the sovereign debt. And that must be done before tackling union processes fiscal and even political, undoubtedly important, and whose distant horizon also contributes to the credibility of the solution to the urgent; but in need of long deadlines and substantive debates on the difficult issue of sovereignty. In full fire alarm, the first thing is to turn it off, before going to discuss the design of neighborhood evacuation plans. The central currents of Spanish society also share it, as an indispensable accompaniment to the structural reforms and austerity plans already underway. The refusal to compromise, in particular on the part of Angela Merkel, would have serious consequences. The consequences would reach the main countries of the continent and, therefore, their societies: because the failure of democracies drags us to populism. The French president, François Hollande, said this morning that "there is an agreement on the tax on financial transactions and points in common on the growth strategy". However, the French president acknowledged that "there is still no agreement on stability. The negotiations are open. It is normal, "he said, before reiterating" the need to help countries in difficulty such as Spain and Italy. Very fast measures are needed to sustain these countries, which have already made considerable efforts. " The sources consulted believe it is possible that an agreement can be found, following the ambitious document presented on Tuesday by the Council, which marks the way towards a political union. But above all, an exit is required in the very short term, given the suspicion that the philosophy regarding the design of the European building will not be enough if the markets continue to smell blood. There are signs that something is cooking. The idea of ​​the direct recapitalization of the bank, within the framework of the European banking union, gains strength. That will be one of the central points of the summit, according to community sources and according to several European diplomats. France and Italy support this idea seamlessly. The key to the negotiation is the term: if the summit leaves it for a few months or even a few years, it is unlikely that it will be able to relax the tension in the markets. If so, it would not work for Spain. That would greatly relieve the pressure on Spain and allow us to start thinking about breaking the vicious circle between public debt and bank debt. The other possibility is to do it through European solidarity funds. Rehn gave no clues about "the substance of those short-term measures." Both figures are unsustainable. Both countries require shock treatment and arrive in Brussels harassed by a very different financial and political situation, but in both cases explosive. Germany and France are obliged to present themselves in Brussels with a convincing and solid agreement. Otherwise it is presumed a night of long knives, that of Thursday. This is a strange summit for several reasons. Before that interview, the environment of the French socialist president was totally confident in a Franco-German agreement. Merkel and Hollande have spoken very frequently on the phone and the teams work very smoothly. What has changed is that the method of making decisions is different, more regular and methodical than the previous one ". But before traveling to Paris, Merkel taught her classic profile as a hard negotiator. In a statement before the plenary of the Lower Chamber, the chancellor criticized the proposals to mutualize the European debt and said that they suffer from "a clear imbalance between responsibility and control." The foreign minister believes that there is "too much talk" about "all kinds of ideas" to issue European debt or collectivize guarantees, but "too little" about the need for "common controls and structural reforms," ​​in what appears to be a direct attack on France. The "eurobonds, euroletras or the debt amortization fund" are "incompatible with the German Constitution", he reiterated, besides "economically wrong and counterproductive". In any case, Paris received that phrase with irony. A senior Gallic official replied: "Surely he was referring to his political death, not his clinical death." But the question is the existential crisis of the euro, and that is played here and now: "We will approve short-term measures to get out of the crisis," stressed sources close to Hollande. Then we will see Van Rompuy's proposal to redesign the European building. At dinner on Thursday and throughout Friday will be discussed on Greece and Spain, on how to plug the hole in banking and how to relax the tension in the debt. But it remains to be seen that the mountain can give birth to something more than a mouse. France warns that it will only approve the budget treaty if the political conditions are sufficient: that is, if it obtains the counterparts that Hollande considers indispensable. But "with the same clarity," Merkel has "decidedly" rejected European proposals to "give priority to pooling the debt." According to criticism, "only in second place are we talking about controls". Merkel started at this point warm applause from the center-right benches that make up her government coalition. Merkel wanted to prepare the Germans for "controversial discussions" at the summit that begins Thursday in Brussels: "I have no illusions" about it, he said. The Chancellor believes that there is "too much talk" about "all kinds of ideas" to issue joint European debt or collectivize guarantees, but "too little" about the need for "common controls and structural measures". The "eurobonds, eurobills or the debt repayment fund" proposed in Europe as a solution to the crisis are "incompatible with the German Constitution", as well as "economically wrong and counterproductive". For the umpteenth time, Merkel has warned against "illusory solutions that deny the reality" of the necessary reforms in the countries affected by the debt crisis. So the first thing is to talk about controls "and possibilities of taking measures" against the governments that do not abide by the common budgetary and fiscal rules. To get out of the crisis, Merkel expects a positive effect of the approval of the European fiscal pact and the permanent stability fund. He also referred to the tax on financial transactions that the opposition has demanded to give parliamentary support to the pact. In order for this rate to take effect, it must be approved by a minimum of new European countries. These will tax the sale of financial products. The money received will be used to implement anti-unemployment programs and to promote economic growth. Summit that, as he said again, "will not solve the crisis in one fell swoop", because for that there is no "magic formula". The prime minister was very convincing. Not only when explaining the crucial importance of the summit, but also to bring to Brussels the message of "a Government, a parliament and a country" united. The technical government managed to save the four questions of trust to which it submitted. In the case of the reform of the labor market, with 393 votes in favor, 74 against and 46 abstentions. A result that, like so many other things in Italy, it is necessary to read between the lines. This happened, without going any further, with the much-vaunted package of liberalizing measures that sought to curb the ancestral privileges of certain groups. He remained, practically, in nothing. Mario Monti, whose obsession is Europe, is desperate one day and another also to the mess that remains the Italian policy. The champion of scam and intrigue is still Silvio Berlusconi. The last thing-after verifying that his party without him and without his money is an even bigger mess than before-is the announcement, it is not known whether of jokes or really, of his return to political life. The question is: is Spain among these countries? Regarding the surveys Nationwide, Obama also received good news yesterday. Carney said no one has questioned the failure of the operation, which allowed the illegal entry into Mexico of more than two thousand firearms, but insisted that this does not justify the Republican action. If approved, a long and tortuous legal battle between the Congress and the Executive would be opened in the middle of the electoral year. The study offers geographical, demographic and economic characteristics of the different ethnic and racial groups in the US. The second largest Hispanic group is made up of Puerto Ricans, who account for 9% of the Latino population. The largest Hispanic group without health insurance is Hondurans, compared to 15% of Puerto Ricans. Although he declared some articles of that law unconstitutional, the Supreme Court maintained one of the most controversial: that which allows law enforcement to request the "papers" if there is "reasonable suspicion" that someone is an undocumented immigrant. The joint effort that these entities will begin seeks to enroll some 400,000 Latinos so they can vote in the November elections. It is also about mobilizing more than 700,000 Latinos who are already registered voters to go to the polls, according to the statement. Romney reiterated that if he wins the November 6 presidential election, he will annul Obama's reform and replace it with another plan that he has not yet given details of. The Republican candidate has made attacks on Obama's health reform, one of his campaign emblems, although when he was governor of Massachusetts, he launched a health plan in that state similar to the one he now criticizes. The reform obliges the United States to hire a mandatory private health insurance from 2014, something that according to its supporters will make the system cheaper by expanding the customer base. But precisely because of that clause, known as "individual mandate", the reform runs the risk of being invalidated if the Supreme considers that the Government has exceeded its powers by forcing individuals to hire a certain service. Néstor and Cristina Kirchner had a law firm dedicated to legally executing the debtors. The evidence that a war exists between the government and Peronist syndicalism was notorious. Minutes later he read the receipt of a truck driver's salary to deny the president, who on Tuesday had minimized the effect of this tax on wages. At all times, Moyano went directly to the president, in a day that was preceded by fear of confrontations. They did not come but their workers are here, "he added. He also warned that the more they press unionists "the more we strengthen ourselves. Yesterday's seemed to be the first battle of union between the union and the government, but not the last. True to its history, Peronism occupies the entire political spectrum once again, when it is divided into two well-defined factions: the ruling party and the one that occupies the first place on the opposition front. The general strike called by Moyano had an irregular compliance. Franco presented his government plan to Congress, to which he asked for support for the approval of economic stimulus measures during the 14 months in which he will lead the country. Calm and smiling, the former bishop of San Pedro indicated that "the last word is not said" and that one of his last resources is to "fight" abroad. Both Unasur and Mercosur have democratic clauses to punish the breakdown of institutional order in one of the member countries with a battery of measures such as the closing of borders. Thursday, June 28, 2012, p. 24 Moscow, June 27. This modern military equipment is in addition to the 92 tanks of the same characteristics that Russia delivered to Venezuela between May 2011 and March 2012, according to a previous loan of 2 thousand 200 million granted three years ago. The fight between both leaders is reaching unsuspected levels, after it appeared an information about an alleged plagiarism of the premier, who was concerned about the situation in Spain and the almost one million compatriots living in Spanish territory. The main issues to be addressed will be social, economic and budgetary and, in accordance with the Romanian Constitution, the Government deals with these matters. For this reason, Parliament has approved to attend the meeting. But it is a problem of attributions, not constitutional. Anyway, I will be in Brussels in a meeting with the rest of my Social Democratic counterparts and leaders. Honestly, I only hope for the best solution for Romania. I am at the beginning of my political career, while Basescu is close to his retirement. R. Romania has to show that solidarity works. You can not leave Greece or another country out of the European process. Q. Do you think that the measures that are being put on the table are the right ones to solve the European crisis? R. There is no other solution than a greater union. We can save ourselves with more collaboration and solidarity with the countries attacked by the markets. Q. In Romania there are moments of political tension. Directly: have you plagiarized the doctoral thesis? This issue has emerged after the conflict with the president about who went to the European Council. I started the thesis in 1999 and, since then, I have been a minister twice in several governments, vice president of Parliament and I have been a party leader for two years. I have respected all the rules that existed in Romania. Unfortunately, it is a political attack by the president after announcing my right to attend the Brussels meeting. I assume my responsibility, but I have been accused by a political criterion and, besides, they have not wanted to hear my point of view. A. According to our statute, he lost the status of party member at the time he received the final sentence. I respect the decision of the institutions, but it is a difficult moment for me and the party. His condemnation of irregular party funding during the election campaign exists in other European countries. Probably, the way to finance the campaigns presents a problem in all democracies. Q. Why is Romania still not absorbing European funds efficiently? R. There has been a mistake in establishing the administration. We have encountered a serious situation. It is clear that European funds will be lost, but the administrative system will have to be solved to avoid the same problems as of January 1, 2014. Q. Almost two months after the formation of your Executive, what is the difference between his and the previous one, which lasted almost two months? R. Parliamentary and popular support. With this you can promote efficient measures if the president does not block you all the time in an abusive manner. Three journalists and four security guards died in the attack. More than 15 thousand people have died for more than 15 months. The Damascus regime ensures that the aircraft was in Syrian airspace. Rocket launchers, anti-aircraft artillery pieces and military ambulances were part of the convoy. Erdogan announced after the demolition of the Turkish plane that any displacement of troops or military material heading to the border with Turkey will be considered a threat and a military objective. Turkey is taking precautions after its plane was shot down, "said a senior Turkish official, who declined to say how many soldiers have been deployed. The abundance of anti-aircraft defenses suggests that Turkey is preparing for an approach by helicopters or Syrian aircraft. Erdogan does not consider the explanations of the Syrian Government on the air incident credible. It is not foreseeable that Turkey will embark on a military operation without the support of others Western or Arab countries. The three groups are fighting for control of the city of Gao, 1,200 kilometers northeast of Bamako, since yesterday clashes erupted after a demonstration in protest of the murder of a local politician. For the spokesman of the Tuareg group that on April 6 proclaimed the independence of Azawad, the radical Islamists act in coordination with the Bamako authorities. Doctors Without Borders contends that the Tuareg conflict in northern Mali, which erupted on January 17, has left around 300,000 refugees. The publishing company aims to gain a foothold among the growing middle class in China and gain the trust of the "educated, wealthy and global citizens" who live in the Asian country. The social network has not given explanations on the incidence, but it is believed that the blockade has been ordered by the authorities of the country. The publishing company claims to be aware of the problems of censorship that can be faced in the Asian giant, but makes it clear that it has no intention of becoming an official media outlet. The server will be outside China and the information will be subjected to the same quality controls as the New York newspaper. Khan admits that the Chinese authorities have sometimes blocked certain articles from its electronic edition, but hopes that the government will be "receptive" to the new project in Chinese. All content will have free access. Two thirds will be translations of information published in the New York edition, while the remaining third will be original articles written by Chinese publishers and local independent journalists. In recent years, many Western publishing companies have expanded to China, especially attracted by the growing number of luxury companies operating in the country and advertising. It catalogs friends to the governments that come out of the polls only when they bend to their dictates and do not carry out reforms that affect their interests. This is demonstrated by solid evidence, whose investigation we owe to a pleiad of eminent historians insufficiently known, as the Argentine Gregorio Selser. Suddenly we find social struggles with legitimate demands, used by the right for coup aims against popular leaders. Against the patriotic and Latin American presidents of Honduras and Paraguay the coups triumphed given the political and military strength of the right compared to the weakness of their popular movements not sufficiently articulated, although there are differences between both situations. Zelaya had a team of collaborators qualitatively superior to Lugo and his combativeness, both before and after the coup, stimulated the forging of an exemplary resistance movement. Instead, Lugo opted to make concessions to the Paraguayan right-wing Jurassic, thinking perhaps that this would prevent his overthrow. However, the people keep calling him president and clamor to see him in front of the resistance. Evo was able to win his first term by the copious vote in his favor, as there was much evidence of electoral fraud. The same recipe applies and will apply in our region against any candidate that intends to change, even moderately, the neoliberal model. And if it is not possible to stop his promotion to the presidency, Washington and the oligarchy will not give him a minute of truce as soon as his victory is announced, as he has been doing with the aforementioned leaders. It is an offensive to put an end to the governments that oppose the neoliberal policies and the looting of their resources when the economic collapse of the empire pushes them to conquer them as it may. Among these are some that directly affect the common destiny that unites European citizens. Europe will only emerge victorious from the crisis by strengthening cohesion and solidarity. Gathered on days 5 And last June 6, the European union leaders voted unanimously in favor of a new social contract for Europe. Today, Europe is trapped by the failure of austerity policies. Budget cuts accentuate the recession, which exacerbates the deficit. The deterioration of public finances leads governments, under European pressure, to reinforce austerity policies. The circle is closed, the trap closes. Even beyond the social question, it is the democracy itself that is in danger, while the nationalist rights in Europe are reinforced, a little everywhere. History shows us that when democracy falters, fundamental rights are at risk. Europe must change course radically. To emerge victorious from the crisis means, without doubt, to reinforce economic governance, but without imposing internal devaluations or a broad program of budgetary, social and labor cuts. On the contrary: this new governance must be established in order to meet the challenges of sustainable prosperity. In other words, it must support cooperation and coordination of economic policies and investments to achieve a low carbon economy. The summit of the European Council, scheduled for June 28 and 29, has to adopt strong measures that can be implemented without delay. The European Union has to ban bearish speculative operations. In addition, we believe it is necessary to approve growth aid programs for Greece and the other rescued countries. However, due to the statements of several European leaders, it is not at all clear that the summit of the Council supposes the end of policies as unjust as failed, those of austerity and structural reforms. Those undertaken in labor markets neither promote growth nor sustainable prosperity. The EU also has no future without a fair social model. So we are almost all, although we almost never want to recognize it. To finance the expansion of coverage, the law has imposed on every citizen who is not officially poor a compulsory individual insurance, under the threat of a fine, which is the second pillar of the system and which would take effect in 2014. And insurance companies they would accept to assure any person whatever their health circumstances prior to the insurance. A few minutes after the president signed the reform, on March 23, 2010, Florida challenged the new legislation before the courts; Thunders followed another 25 states and the country was divided into two halves. Equally divided is your Supreme Court and hence the difficulty of telling the case before it is resolved. Technically, judges have to decide whether the individual mandate, the compulsory insurance, is constitutional or not. The strongest argument against the individual mandate is disarmed by its simplicity: the government can not force citizens to buy things. Instead, Obama's lawyers have it a little more uphill, they have had to show that the American health system is dysfunctional: it is the most expensive in the world but still leaves 50 million citizens out. In any case, the second possible solution is for the magistrates of the Court to agree with many of their fellow citizens that the Government is nobody to force them to buy anything and, consequently, annul the individual mandate. The third question depends on the second: if the Court decides that the individual mandate is not constitutional, will it drag down the rest of the law in its fall? The insurance companies defend this, arguing that the extra cost of insuring the most deprived people can only be financed with the compulsory insurance premiums. Obama's lawyers argue that the law is much more than compulsory insurance and that most of its 2,700 pages can survive without it. Republicans aim that this would only increase the government deficit, real Achilles heel of the reinvented American economy. A compromise solution could be to annul the compulsory insurance for citizens and insurers, separating them from the obligation to insure chronic ill people. Personally I think it's a disgrace. But I also keep very much of splashing in the moral complacency of the much-believed European superiority. We all know how to fix things for others. I wish Barack Obama good luck, at noon of his presidency.

A millennium later, Isidoro de Sevilla insisted that contact with menstrual blood would ruin the crops and make dogs go crazy. Even at the dawn of the scientific revolution, people clung to ancient beliefs. To that end, a bill was passed in the Indiana State Legislature. Some people are not so foolish as cheated as premeditated peddlers of deception. The list is headed by those who, without scruples, produce universal curves. The main objective of the sale of these tonics, not infrequently, is that they will re-establish the youthful vigor, "fill the brittle fibers" and invert "the impotence and the seminal weakness". At the dawn of the twentieth century, doctors found a new healthful quality to sell: radioactivity. There is a malicious tradition in which distinguished doctors occasionally send serious medical journals a clinical history that is not totally genuine. Some experiments, for example, are so extravagant that one might think someone is teasing us. Several experimenters followed a much more ethical path, acting themselves as guinea pigs before applying their theories to others. It has also been suggested that the association in ancient times of the smiths with lameness could be due to the custom of deliberately crushing the town smith, so that he could not leave and take his invaluable skills elsewhere. Today, light enters the chamber four minutes after dawn and lasts for seventeen minutes, but calculations that take into account the Earth's precession indicate that five thousand years ago the light would have appeared for the first time exactly when the Sun was coming out. over the horizon. The consequence of this is that some very casual minute, it has 59 or 61 seconds. According to the story, a cocoon of the silk butterfly fell into the empress's tea, and with the hot water it unraveled. Lei Zu discovered that he could unroll the fine thread, which was so long that it covered his entire garden. Silk is still produced by immersing the pupae in boiling water, or by sticking a needle into your body and unwinding the cocoon. Approximately one millennium later, the Indian prose text Shatapatha Brahmana suggested 339 108. Over the following centuries, Indian, Chinese and Persian mathematicians developed more approximations. In the early modern period, the German mathematician Ludolph von Ceulen was so proud of his life's work, that it largely consisted in calculating pi up to the thirty-fifth decimal, which had the number inscribed in his grave. The arrival of modern computers made it possible to calculate pi with an increasing number of decimals. See also 1844, 1888, 2005.c. 1850 a.C. Science of reproduction. Use of acacia and dates The first known recipes for birth control were written in Egypt. They describe pessaries made of cotton soaked in a paste of dates and acacia bark; the acid qualities of these substances could have had some spermicidal effect. Sometimes carob and honey were added. No condoms were used until much later. The first description comes from a treatise on syphilis written by the Italian doctor Gabriele Falloppio, in which he describes condoms made of linen and soaked in a chemical solution as a prophylactic against the disease. They were fixed on the glans by a ribbon. For the first rubber condom, see 1855.c. Counting time with water The simplest water clocks, which consisted of a stone vessel from which water dripped at a constant rate to ships from a hole in the bottom, were used in Egypt and Babylon. Pointing the way A hematite artifact of the Olmec culture of Mesoamerica has been interpreted as an early form of compass, which in this way would be earlier in about two thousand years to the first unequivocal Chinese references to a direction finder that used a magnetized needle. A scrupulous man with a wise heart sits or goes to the wall of a fenced yard. First works of noses The Indian doctor Sushruta described a procedure to reconstruct noses that had been mutilated as a form of punishment. He also proposed, correctly, that the Earth hangs from space. He even suggested that the shape of the Earth was that of a cylinder, with a diameter that was three times its height. The inhabited world was above, surrounded by a circular ocean. The rest of the universe supposedly comprised a series of empty concentric wheels filled with fire, and the celestial bodies such as the Sun and the stars were what could be seen of this fire through holes in the edge of the wheels. According to later legends, this angered his Pythagorean colleagues so much that they took him to sea and drowned him. The forces of love and emulation Death of Empedocles, Greek pre-Socratic philosopher. However, that ruse was disrupted when the volcano expelled one of his bronze sandals. In the following century, in Chinese texts the defenders are described pumping the smoke of burning mustard into the tunnels that had been excavated by an army sitiador.c. That was how they were, hundreds of them, as if a great defeat had happened, all prey to the greatest of the abasements. At this point, the receiver immediately closed his spigot and read the code on his own cane. The historian Polybius relates that this system was used by the Carthaginians to send signals during the first Punic war. A message sent from Paris to Lille would have typically taken about thirty-two minutes. Initially, the French used black and white panels, but later they developed mechanically controlled wooden arms, something similar to the transmission of signals by pennants. Other systems used panels with several holes that could be closed with windows. The number 729 was of great importance for the Pythagoreans, being 3³ x 3³.c. It is said that he took the pulse of a patient while he told the patient's medical history, to see if he was telling the truth. Modern polygraphs also warn of an increase in the speed of the pulse, and additionally measure other indicators such as blood pressure, respiratory rate and skin conductance.c. 350 a.C. Science of reproduction. On the origins of eels Among other observations related to reproduction, Aristotle, who had failed to detect reproductive holes in eels, came to the conclusion that they arose from earthworms. The reputation of the beet as an aphrodisiac is possibly due to the fact that it has a lot of boron, which can influence the production of sex hormones. A few decades later, Eratosthenes calculated the circumference of the Earth with a certain accuracy. However, these thinkers were part of a minority, and virtually all medieval scholars who considered the issue adopted the spherical theory, as did the scholars of the Islamic world. The most well-known story related to Archimedes tells how he solved the problem of determining the volume of an irregularly shaped object. Archimedes was confused, until He took a bath and noticed that the water level rose as he submerged. He realized that he could use this method to measure the volume of any object submerged in water. Your calculation of the circumference of the Earth is famous. He measured the angle of elevation of the Sun at midday on the summer solstice in his native Alexandria. The Sun was 7º 12 'south of the zenith. Thus he deduced that the distance between the two cities would be 1 50 of the circumference of the Earth. This represents 16 percent more than the modern measurement of 40,075 kilometers at the equator, but it remains an astonishingly accurate estimate. He was about to discover the circulation of blood when he realized that the heart is a pump and not the seat of sensation, and distinguished between veins and arteries. In his treatise The Sand Counter, Archimedes calculated that the number of grains of sand that would be needed to fill the entire universe was 8 x 1063. The first was a gigantic "claw" or "shaker", which consisted of an arm similar to that of a crane with a large hook or grapnel at the end. This was falling on the enemy ship and then the arm was raised, which caused the ship to rise in the air. Modern reconstructions of this device have shown that it could have worked. The second weapon involved focusing the sun's rays on an enemy ship, perhaps using a series of polished brass or copper shields, so that the ship would burst into flames. More recent attempts to repeat this feat using materials that Archimedes had arranged have had mixed results. Large numbers In India, some Jain texts used very large numbers. It took several centuries for zero to be used in India, from where it gradually spread to Europe through the Arabs. And yet, neither the Maya nor any other civilization in pre-Columbian America managed to invent the wheel. When the steam emerged from these nozzles, the sphere rotated on the axial rod. Heron's invention was considered nothing more than amusing entertainment, and his technology would not develop further until after 17 centuries. Heron was also responsible for recording, in his Stereométrica, the first known imaginary number: the square root of -63. However, these ideas were rejected as absurd for almost two millennia. C. Despite the constant rain of hot ash and pumice, they continued, until they found themselves trapped on a leeward coast. Two days later his body was found, without any sign. Whoever breathed the gas was immediately incinerated from within. C. The original bottle blondes The Roman hairdressers used pigeon droppings mixed with ashes to discolor the hair of their clients. It consisted of a bronze urn inside which was a complex mechanism with an oscillating pendulum, levers and cranks. Having established that a disaster had occurred, the authorities could then send help in the right direction. Dissecting human corpses went against Roman law, so Galen often came to erroneous inferences about human anatomy by looking inside pigs and dead monkeys. However, his work with the gladiators gave him some glimpses of the human anatomy, and he referred to the wounds he treated by blunting "windows into the body." The teachings of Galen on medicine, anatomy and physiology would dominate the thinking on these matters in Europe and the Islamic world until the beginning of the scientific revolution. A riddle in the grave Death of the Alexandrian mathematician Diophantus. The nimba scientifically tells the measure of his life. God granted him to be a boy for the sixth part of his life, and adding one-twelfth to it, he covered his cheek with fluff. He lit the light of the last connubium seventh part, and five years after his marriage he gave him a son. After reaching the measure of half of his father's life, the cold Parca took him away. A curiosity in relation to the number six Death of the Neoplatonic philosopher Iamblichus. He had been impressed by the number 6, the first perfect number, that is, that is equal to the sum of its factors. He wrote: Six is ​​a perfect number in itself... God created all things in six days because this number is perfect. 610 Science of reproduction. If dogs eat some of that blood, they go mad. According to the legend, the conquering Arab army set fire to the great Library of Alexandria, a repository of much of the knowledge of the ancient world. It was said that there were a sufficient number of books to heat the bathing water for the whole army for six months. However, the library had suffered several fires in the past, and many scholars do not believe the history of the destruction of the year 642,672 Chemistry. It was a flammable mixture that was expelled through a tube or siphon to enemy ships, through the use of pressure pumps. It could burn on the surface of the sea, but it could be extinguished if it was covered with sand. Among his many achievements is the development of alchemy in an experimental science: he understood the functioning of acids and alkalis and discovered that when boiling wine a flammable vapor, alcohol, was released. His inventions include proof-of-print paper, ink that could be read in the dark, and a substance that turned impervious fabrics and kept the iron free of rust. He wrote his alchemical texts in a very esoteric language, incomprehensible to the uninitiated, and it has been suggested that his name gave rise to the English word Gibberish. It included descriptions of dozens of automata and other mechanical devices, some of which dated back to the Greeks, and others of their own invention. It has been said that its wings had to be reasonably effective, because the castle of Stirling rises on a steep rock and if it had not planned a certain distance, maybe eight hundred meters, it would have killed itself. Damian himself attributed his failure to his choice of materials: he should not have used the feathers of hens, he said, because such birds "want the garbage dumps and not the cycles." It is assumed that all these attempts sought to imitate the planning of the birds, because humans do not have the muscles necessary to beat artificial wings. The fruit of this strange plant was a lamb, which was connected by a stem or umbilical cord. Having thus their limited mobility, the lamb ate the grass that grew around the plant, and when that one was totally consumed, both the lamb and the plant died. It is said that the supernova of 1006 was up to three times the size of Venus and had a quarter of the luminosity of the Moon. The Chinese reported that he swore half the size of the Moon and that it was so bright that objects could be seen at night on the ground. The astrologers believed that it did not bode well, and that war and famine were sure to happen. Their remains are still visible: they constitute the Crab nebula. His many innovations include his understanding of the effect of emotions on physiological processes, and tells the story that he took the pulse of a very sick man while pronouncing a series of names of places and people. He realized that the patient's pulse was accelerating when certain names were mentioned, and therefore he deduced that his patient was in love with a certain young person. He immediately recommended marriage as a priest, and shortly after the wedding the man had completely recovered. 1066 Astronomy. It's been a long time since I saw you; but as I see you now, you are much more terrible, because I see you brandishing the ruin of my country. It was the end of Anglo-Saxon England. See also 1835.1550 Technology. As he said, the wheel would rotate incessantly, since one side of it was always heavier than the olio. There is no document indicating that he succeeded in building a model that would work. Now we know that any type of perpetual motion machine is an impossibility, because it would violate one or other of the laws of thermodynamics. 1217 Chemical War. A key moment was when the British threw pots of lime powder into the deck of the French flagship. The French crew, blinded in this way, could not repel the British armed knights who then boarded the ship and massacred all they found. Eustace the Monk was found crouched in the bilge and, after having rejected his offer of a ransom of ten thousand marks, they cut off his head and exhibited it at the end of a spear. The next breakthrough in chemical warfare came a few centuries later, when Leonardo da Vinci suggested that boats use catapults to launch pots of "chalk, fine sulfur or arsenic and verdigris powder" into the enemy galleys. Escoto translated into Latin several works of Aristotle on biology and astronomy from Arabic, in which they had been preserved. The Speculum is largely a summary of the science, natural history, geography and history that was known in Western Europe on this date. Vincent also included some of his own hypotheses, such as the method of communication used by the angels and what would happen to a stone dropped by a hole dug directly through the Earth. 1267 Technology. Subsequently, around Bacon many legends were born, such as the one that he built a bronze head that could not only speak, but answer any question that was posed to him. Galen had come to the conclusion that the formation of "healthy pus" in a wound was part of the healing process, and applied various substances, including manure, to encourage this formation. However, he observed that the extent of infection of a wound often resulted in systematic sepsis and death. In such an eventuality, the subject should eat something refreshing, like lettuce. Alberto Magno did not fall short as far as useful medical advice is concerned. For example, if one was infested with lice, the quickest cure was to smear the skin with the excrement of an elephant.1352 Ophthalmology. This is the first known representation of glasses1383 ​​Epidemiology. The term "quarantine" comes from the Italian quaranta, although the first quarantine registered in Europe, imposed in Ragusa in 1377, prescribed a period of isolation of only thirty days. According to Infessura, the blood was supplied to the pontiff by mouth. It means "equal to Celso," alluding to the Roman author of De Medicina and other encyclopedic works. A pioneer of modern chemistry, he has been considered the father of toxicology and pharmacology, with his observation that "All things are poison and there is nothing that has no poison, only the dose allows something not to be poisonous". The enigmatic expression of the face of the Mona Lisa has long intrigued those who have contemplated this famous face. What this doctor noticed was a xanthelasma: a subcutaneous accumulation of cholesterol, yellowish and well defined, in the bowl of his left eye. Although it is not dangerous or painful by itself, a xanthelasma may indicate elevated levels of cholesterol in the blood. Franco also noticed a lipoma on one of Lisa's hands. Patients are typically tall, have unusually long limbs and thin, long fingers. You can also find more patterns, which add up to 34. He based his prediction on the fact that in 1524 there would be twenty planetary conjunctions, sixteen of them in a "water sign," that is, Pisces. When on February 20 A few drops of rain began to fall, there was a great influx of people towards the ark of Von Iggelheim, and in the tumult that followed the count was stoned to death. Stofffler's reputation was badly damaged when 1524 turned out to be a year of drought, and no one took his new 1528 date too seriously, which he had recalculated. Galen had relied heavily on the dissection of animals, and his teachings had been considered sacrosanct throughout the Middle Ages. But Vesalius was determined to dissect corpses of humans and not of animals, and early in his career, in order to obtain a complete human skeleton, he had stolen the rotten corpse of a criminal who hung from a pillory outside the city of Pod.. On another occasion, while a malefactor's insides were torn when he was still alive, he managed to seize "the heart that was still beating, with the lung and the rest of the viscera." The work of Vesalio aroused considerable hostility. Living beings inhabit those worlds ». For this heresy and others, Bruno was burned at the stake in 1600.1586 Medicine. Among his recommendations was that he could calm the pain of sore eyes by bathing them in urine. In 1593 he was accused of planning to poison the queen, and on June 7, 1594 he was hanged, disembowelled and dismembered.1588 Physiology. However, when during the Commonwealth period of the following century the Puritans forbade people to dance around the phallic pole of the May holidays, it resorted to dancing around apple trees instead.1589 Space travel. It is evident that the bishop was familiar with the heliocentric universe of Copernicus, and as a whole his narrative develops according to the laws of physics, as they were then understood, with a considerable mixture of fantasy. The satellite is inhabited by a variety of intelligent, human-like creatures that live in a kind of utopia. Unfortunately for the thesis of Horst, the passage of time weathered the gold, showing that it was simply a thin sheet of metal tightly adjusted to the normal tooth underneath. This is the first example of a molded dental crown. Gilbert's studies led him to condemn any suggestion that a perpetual motion machine could be powered by magnets. It floats on the surface of the Earth in a place where there is a particularly strong magnetic field but, by rotating the magnet, it can be directed to different locations, both horizontally and vertically. The Laputans see everything through the glass of science and mathematics, and show little interest in human affairs below. That Laputan who shows some interest is considered "the most ignorant and stupid person among them".1610 Astronomy. He goes on to describe the cold, glacial nights, and the terribly hot days that are experienced on the Moon, and the lunar creatures that are adapted to these stringent conditions. Hanging in the sky above them, growing and dwindling, is the Earth, which is several times the size of our terrestrial vision of the Moon. Although Somnium is a meticulous attempt to understand the new "celestial physics," it became a key test in the trial of Kepler's mother for witchcraft. An accusation of witchcraft followed, and the accusation presented a manipulated text of Somnium, in which the narrator's mother learns the secrets of a demon's space travel. Kepler was persevering in the defense of his mother, who was finally declared innocent in 1621. Although my mind was destined for heaven, here lies the shadow of my body.1611 Physiology. In this book he described a source in which the water is pushed up by the expansion of steam, and this has caused some to attribute to De Caus the invention of the steam engine. It has been suggested that the fate of De Caus was not due actually to his "fantasies", but to a beautiful mistress enraged by her jealousy and possessiveness. According to that story, he wrote to Richelieu asking him to find a way to rid her of "this embarrassing lunatic." 1615 Mathematics. This observation did not go further until 1912, when a German meteorologist named Alfred Wegener, having noticed the same resemblance and having gathered abundant additional circumstantial evidence, proposed the theory of continental drift. Most geologists received it with ridicule. However, their efforts to reunite Gondwana have not yet achieved the desired results. "1622 Surgery. Despite this apparent belief in sympathetic magic, Beckher deserves a place in the history of surgery to oversee one of the first proven cases of successful gastrotomy. The patient was a farmer, Andreas Grünheide, who one morning in the summer of 1635 woke up feeling sick, so that in order to provoke vomit the handle of a long knife was inserted into the throat. Unfortunately, he let go and the knife got stuck. To try to unclog it, he turned upside down, but did not succeed. Then he swallowed some beer to lubricate his throat. To further misfortune, then the knife slid down the length of the esophagus to the stomach. Beckher took his patient first of all the medical staff of the faculty and the consensus was that the surgery should be tried. The operation was carried out by Daniel Schwabe on July 9, and the knife was successfully extracted. Restored, Grünheide returned to his farm and six years later married.1626 Cryogenics. As a result, he suffered a cooling and was forced to take shelter in the house of the Count of Arundel, who was nearby. Because I also wanted to try one or two experiments, related to the conservation and hardening of bodies. They suggest that Bacon may have been experimenting on himself, inhaling nitro or opiates in an attempt to alleviate his ill health, but with fatal effects.1631 Medicine. He was the first professor of chemistry in the world, and his interests were inclined towards medical matters. For example, in his Praxis chymiatrica recommends "human brain spirit" as a cure for epilepsy. An alternative cure involved administering a powder prepared from the liver of living green frogs. 1633 Astronomy. The Earth has no limbs and muscles, therefore it does not move ».1634 Anatomy. Harvey was a private physician of King Charles I and is famous in the annals of science as the first to correctly describe the circulation of blood. In the body of Margaret Johnson we found two things that could be described as nipples, one among her secrets and the butt on the edge of it, the other in the middle of her left buttock. The first by its shape resembles a witch's nipple, but in our opinion is nothing but the skin of the buttocks dilated as it would be after the piles or the application of leeches. Finding that what came out weighed considerably less than what came in, he attributed the difference to "insensible transpiration." 1637 Science of reproduction. In defense of her son's legitimacy and her own honor, Magdeleine swore that she had not met another man, but that in a dream her husband had made love to her, and the next morning she knew that she was pregnant. The boy was born nine months later. Expert witnesses in the form of four midwives testified that they had also given birth without having performed the sexual act, and this possibility was guaranteed by four doctors from the University of Montpellier, defenders of the doctrine of parthenogenesis or spontaneous generation. It remains a mystery how Fermat deduced this, comparable to his claim to have proved the truth of his last theorem. 1644 Science of reproduction. Among his many interesting experiments is the one in which he stuffed a dirty shirt into a hole in a barrel that had been filled with grains of wheat. After about twenty-one days, he reported, there was an appreciable change in the smell, and the products of decomposition had seemingly penetrated the husks of the wheat and transformed the grains into mice. In another experiment, Van Helmont planted a willow tree in a pot full of dirt, and for five years he added nothing to the pot that water. Then he extracted the tree and weighed it. At seventy kilograms, he weighed thirty times more than when he had planted it, while the floor weighed practically the same. He concluded that the great increase in weight of wood, bark and leaves had been "produced only by water". The team's co-director suggested that his findings "may have profound implications for the physiological understanding of the mind, spirit and soul." Other scientists expressed skepticism that the pineal gland has another function than the secretion of melatonin, a hormone that controls our biological clock.1650 Physics. He then fixed each hemisphere to an eight horse draft and made the two shots move in opposite directions. The horses were unable to separate the hemispheres.1654 Sexual therapy. For any man who could not provide his wife with "proper benevolence" on the marital bed, Culpeper suggested that he pass water through his wife's wedding ring. A similar cure was popular in France, with the alternative of urinating through the keyhole of the church in which the couple had married. All painting wants to be a blessing at a wedding, and includes other symbols of fecundity and fidelity. Culpeper had some alternative suggestions to stimulate the exhausted appetite. Cyrano de Bergerac published Les états et empires de la lune. In this early science fiction work he describes how the hero, Dyrcona, is transported to the moon by a machine powered by fireworks. As remarkable as it may seem, the subject, one Arthur Coga, survived. Similar experiments that were made later in France proved fatal. Such procedures used to be fatal for both parties1667 Scientific method. He continued to observe the metamorphosis of the fly crests, and warned that if live flies were left in jars sealed with dead animals, they would appear cresas.1669 Chemistry. In one experiment he filled fifty buckets with human urine and left them until it became putrid and "generated worms." Then it heated the liquid until it boiled, and when it was reduced to a paste, it heated the waste until the retort flared red hot. Finally, strange glowing vapors arose, then condensed into a liquid, and then into a white solid, which shone so brightly that Brand could read his night light. He called "phosphorus" to this substance, from the Greek term phosphoros, which means "carrier of light." 1676 Physics. Romer concluded that the speed of light is finite, and that it takes 22 minutes to traverse the diameter of Earth's orbit. This gives a speed of 226,666 km per second, a figure that is certainly of the same order of magnitude as the modern value of 299,792 km per second. Then followed a very long and bitter dispute between the two men and their defenders, which was to extend into the first two decades of the following century. The report he issued in 1713 was in favor of Newton. As a footnote, it is nice to mention that the name tic the two adversaries is conserved in that of two types of cakes. In the annals of meteorology this is not at all a unique case. To mention but a few similar examples: during a thunderstorm in 1881, several tons of hermit crabs and periwinkles fell from the sky in the city of Worcester, while in 1948 a shower of herring landed on a Bournemouth golf course. More recently, In 1987, a downpour of albino frogs fell in Stroud, Gloucestershire. Linnaeus also referred to a specimen of a collection of North American butterflies. Newton believed that these events would be followed by the second coming of Christ and the reign of the saints for a thousand years, among which he told himself. Newton offered some consolation to his contemporaries in relation to the date of the destiny of the world: "It may end later," he wrote, "but I see no reason for it to end sooner." Little is known about his life, but apparently he had a daughter named Millie. To this end they organize meetings, and when they meet, the old woman comes with a nutshell filled with the material of the best kind of measles and asks you what veins you want to be opened. In 1721 he had the eminent surgeon Charles Maitland inoculate his three-year-old daughter against measles. However, since the procedure involved the insertion of pus from a measles victim into a scratch of the skin, Princess Carolina insisted that they first test it with half a dozen Newgate prisoners assigned to the gallows. Seeing that no harm occurred to them, she proceeded to inoculate her daughters. The prisoners escaped being hanged. In fact, the procedure was not innocuous: 1 in 50 of those who were inoculated with measles died of the disease; the others were all capable of extending it to other people. It was necessary for Edward Jenner to develop the vaccine technique, by which people could become immune to measles by inoculating them with bovine smallpox, much less dangerous. His most notable number was "The Flying Boy," which consisted of suspending a Charterhouse schoolboy with silk ropes and electrically charging him by rubbing him with a glass rod until his hands attracted bits of paper and chaff, and sparks could come out. of his nose. Subsequently, his body was taken to Surgeons' Hall to be dissected by the anatomists. To this end, he lined up two hundred of his monks, joining each pair with a wire three meters long. Then he fixed a bottle of Leyden to the first monk, and noted with pleasure how each of the monks howled and writhed in pain simultaneously as the current flowed through him. However, later experiments showed that sometimes the current went out after having passed through a few people. Some suggested that electricity could not pass through an impotent or castrated man, or a frigid woman, but when the experiment was tried on a group of castrati, the subjects reacted violently to the shock. It was these floating animalcules that Johnson blamed for those rare cases of pregnancy in which the woman swears to have remained chaste and virgin. Then the question arose as to why Divine Providence should allow so many of these homunculi to fail in the course of each ejaculation. In response to this difficulty, the philosopher and mathematician Gottfried Leibniz proposed the theory of panspermia, according to which sperm are not wasted, but are carried by the wind until they find something suitable to fertilize. Hence the ambulatory and omnipresent animalcules of Sir John Hill, which posed a pervasive danger to virginal chastity. If there were pregnancies, this would be proof that panspermia was a reality.1752 Anatomy. In addition, if a person accepted to donate the body of a close relative, the institution that received the body was responsible for the expenses of its own burial. See also 1846.1752 Calendar. Great Britain and her empire adopted the Gregorian calendar. Most of them gradually adopted the Gregorian calendar, but it was not until 1752 when Britain abandoned the old Julian calendar, with the consequence that on September 3 to 13, 1752 They never took place. There does not seem to be any evidence that there really was any "disturbance by the calendar." 1754 Mathematics. Having already noticed that every day he slept a quarter of an hour more, he extrapolated and predicted that on November 27, 1754 he would sleep 24 hours straight... and die. And so it happened.1754 Mathematics. He also calculated how much one would end up possessing if he doubled 139 times a quarter of a penny; the result in pounds gave a figure with 39 digits, number that later proceeded to multiply by itself. Apparently, Buxton was unable to concentrate on anything other than numbers. He declared that "the innumerable sounds produced by musical instruments had perplexed him beyond measure." He died in 1772, and a portrait of him can be seen in the church of Elmton.1756 Demography. Next, Symmer conducted a series of experiments using stockings of different colors and materials, but she gave up the tired exercise of putting on and taking off her leg stockings, and did them with her hands. In 2009, David Hunter, a historian of American music, suggested that all of these afflictions could have been the result of lead poisoning. It is notorious that Händel drank large quantities of wine with his gargantuan foods, and since the time of the Romans lead had been routinely used to sweeten sour wine. More than two centuries after Händel's death, the sweet taste of lead almost cost the life of an Australian construction worker. In 1996 this man was admitted to the hospital with stomach pains. It turned out that he had been chewing electric cords to quench his cravings for cigarettes. The "sweet and pleasant taste" that attracted him so much was due to the lead of the cables, which was added to give them more flexibility. The man had chewed on the order of one meter a day over a period of ten years, and the level of lead in his blood was three times the safety limit. Proper treatment restored him to good health... although he never managed to eliminate the nicotine habit.1766 Chemistry. Cavendish, who conducted pioneering experiments in many fields of science, was a deplorably shy man, with a shrill voice and a heavy gait. Lord Brougham said that he "probably uttered fewer words in the course of his life than any man who lived until he was eighty years old, not even the monks of the Trappist." The female servants of Cavendish received all their instructions in written form, and it was said that she had built an additional staircase in her house so as not to have to meet her landlady. His social life was limited to meetings of the Royal Society, of which he was a member, but those who wanted to ask him about his work were talking "as if they were doing it in a vacuum." The skeptics accused him of mounting a complex fraud involving invisible threads. The first manned flight in a balloon filled with hydrogen took place on December 1, 1783.1767 Medicine. French curiosity and purges are the same thing, says a surgeon For centuries there had been confusion among doctors about the differences and similarities of two common sexually transmitted diseases, syphilis and gonorrhea. With the desire to clarify the matter, the distinguished Scottish surgeon John Hunter inoculated himself with "venereal material" taken from a patient suffering from gonorrhea, and during the following months he observed that he developed symptoms of both gonorrhea and syphilis. This led him to conclude that the two were the same disease; in fact, it was more than probable that the patient who took the "venereal material" suffered both diseases. This figure was animated by gears and cables apparently driven by a clockwork mechanism located inside the wooden box, and almost always won I will challenge you to a game of chess... even to Benjamin Franklin. Once he has won the game, he waves his head with an air of triumph, looks around pleasantly at the spectators... Poe thought there had to be a dwarf hidden inside the Turk's trunk. Culebreo », due to his social ambitions, argued that drinking tea had pernicious consequences for society, because it was both debilitating and feminizing. The goal was "weigh the world"; In other words, determine the density of the Earth. Such was the exuberance of the occasion that the cabin burned down completely, and Robertson's violin also fell victim to the flames. Mesmer argued that, in the same way that the Sun and the Moon affect the tides, they also affect the free flow of the "process of life" through the human body. To mimic this effect, he tried to create an "artificial tide" in a patient by first making her drink a potion containing iron, and then fixing magnets to various parts of her body. The patient reported that her symptoms disappeared for a few hours, while she noticed that the "artificial tide" was moving inside her. Mesmer himself believed that his own "animal magnetism" played a greater role in his "cure" than magnets, and in later treatments he did not implant them. Mesmer's technique, which seems to be very effective in cases that we would now call psychosomatic or hysterical, ended up being known as "mesmerism." He renamed it "neuro-hypnotism" and stated that "phenomena are attributable only to a peculiar state of the brain and spinal cord" induced by "having the patient fix his thoughts and eyes on an object, and suppress his breathing". Despite these rationalizations, the public continued to find mesmerism hypnotism both mysterious and alarming. When he has only a few hours to live, Valdemar is put into a trance, and will only move according to the mesmerist's instructions. Diderot, realizing that he was being ridiculed, returned shortly afterwards to France. At such temperatures, Blagden found that a steak was fully cooked in thirteen minutes, while men left the room without adverse effects. In its outline it had separate deposits for oxygen and hydrogen, connected by pumps and tubes to an elongated combustion chamber with an expansion nozzle. However, the first liquid fuel rocket, built by the American physicist Robert Goddard and powered by oil and liquid oxygen, was not launched until 1926. After a flight that lasted 2.5 seconds, Nell landed in a field of cabbages. 1780 Science of the atmosphere. Members of the Connecticut legislative body, fearing that the end of the world was approaching, voted to postpone the session. If not, there is no reason for a postponement. If yes, I prefer that you find me doing my duty. Therefore, I want candles brought. " By midnight, the skies had cleared and the stars could be seen again. The ability to produce the smell is genetically determined. Beet: after eating it, about one in ten people discover that their urine turns red. This condition, known as betacyaninuria, has produced many unnecessary visits to the doctor. Blackberries, which, like beets, have the anthrocyanin pigment, can have the same effect.1782 Aeronautics. For this, wings of enormous dimensions would be necessary and they would have to move at one meter per second. Only a madman would expect such a thing to happen. " Under the dais on which she rested she lit a small fire, and noted with satisfaction that the box ascended to the ceiling. Soon plans for a manned flight were developed on a much larger artifact, but there was some concern that humans could find the high atmosphere harmful to your health. Some were alarmed by this new achievement. Lockhart-Mummery succeeded more than his predecessors: both fighter pilots and astronauts have to be carefully trained to withstand the great gravitational forces without danger.1786 Electricity. He then used brass hooks to hang a row of dried frogs from an iron railing, and noticed that his muscles contracted when the frogs touched the iron, even though no thunder was being produced. Galvani concluded that muscle movement was caused by an electrical fluid that ran from the nerves to the muscles. Following the ideas of his uncle, Aldini made public demonstrations in which electric currents passed through humans and animals, producing shaking, convulsions and spasms of the face and limbs. When the canes touched the mouth and the ear, "the jaw began to shake, the contiguous muscles contorted horribly and the left eye really opened". The most spectacular result took place when a cane was applied to Mr. Foster's rectum, which caused the whole body to convulse so much that "almost an appearance of resuscitation appeared." It was these experiments that gave us the verb «galvanize».1788 Zoology Immunology. Nine years later, when he sent the Society an article reporting his pioneering vaccination experiments, he was told that "he should not risk his reputation by presenting to the academic faculty something that seemed to deviate so much from established knowledge and was also so incredible". What the Society did not anticipate is that in 1979 vaccination had eliminated smallpox throughout the world.1789 Chemistry. The defendant was found guilty and the judges, including Lavoisier himself, handed down a sentence. Afterwards, Stahl's book was delivered to the flames by Madame Lavoisier, dressed in the white robes of a priestess. This happened shortly after the capture of the Bastille. In 1794, during the Terror, Lavoisier himself was put on trial for his role as a tax collector and sent to the guillotine. The mutineers had only supplied the abandoned with food and water for a few days, and Bligh realized that they could only survive by catching fish and collecting rainwater. The idea behind keeping clothes constantly wet was that the cooling effect of the evaporation of seawater would reduce the amount of liquids men would lose by sweating in the warm tropical sun. He maintains that the expansion that began with the Great Outbreak will end up losing its momentum, slowing down and stopping. Then there will be a Great Collapse, when gravity attracts all the matter to a single point. This, in turn, will be followed by another Great Pop, which will signal the birth of a new universe. In his poem, Darwin apostrophizes the stars in this manner: Flowers of heaven! This will culminate in what has been called the thermal death of the universe. Later ideas for security coffins included those suggested by one Pastor Beck at the end of the same decade. In one of these experiments, he wanted to suppress the pain due to the extraction of a tooth by inserting an electrode into the cavity. The effect achieved was the opposite of that expected, and Humboldt was seized with agonizing convulsions.1798 Epidemiology. Shi Doanan believed that human beings died from breathing the smell of dead rats.1798 Neuroscience. Gall assumed that different parts of the brain had different functions, and that the surface of the skull reflects the relative development of these regions. Gall identified 27 "brain organs," each corresponding to protrusions on the cranial surface. For example, the protrusion on the back of the head at the base of the skull was the "organ Amative », related to sexual arousal. However, Gall's theories about the specific functions of the different areas, as well as his claim that the surface of the brain accurately mapped those areas, proved to have no foundation. Laplace, they tell me that you have written this great book about the system of the universe and that you have never mentioned its Creator. " The animal seemed to have the body of a large mole, the tail of a beaver and the beak of a duck. Shaw described the creature in Naturalist's Miscellany, but stated that it was "impossible not to entertain any doubts about the genuine nature of the animal, and to suppose that in its structure some deceptive arts could have been practiced." Other naturalists agreed with him, suspecting that it was just another one of those "monstrous impostures that the devious Chinese had practiced so often at the expense of European adventurers." A dose of carbon monoxide was almost fatal. A week later he inhaled "carbonic acid"; this burned his epiglottis in such a way that he almost drowned. Undaunted, Davy inhaled 4.4 liters of the gas and experienced "a very pleasurable emotion, particularly in the chest and extremities." He also noticed that the objects around him became "dazzling", and that his hearing became more acute. A "brave young lady" was induced to try an inspiration or two, and she became a "temporary maniac," ran out of the house and down the street, and as she ran "jumped on a large dog that was in her way". It was guano, a Quechua term that corresponds to "seabird debris". Guano is rich in both phosphorus and nitrates, which makes it an important material for agriculture and a key ingredient in explosives. It was a sensational success, and Redheffer asked for funding from the city to build a larger version. When engineer Robert Fulton went to inspect it, he noticed irregularities in the sound and movement of the machine. Looking at it more closely, he found a hidden line that connected to the floor above... where an old man was spinning a crank while eating a large slice of bread. Redheffer left the city with a certain amount of haste. See also 1150.1816 Diagnosis. Instead, he rolled up his notebook, placed one end of the tube in the breast in question and the other in his ear. In this way he could hear quite satisfactorily all the internal mechanisms of the lady... and thus the stethoscope was born.1818 Therapeutics. He also recommended it for the treatment of "impotence and seminal weakness," which was one of the weaknesses he said "came from masturbation." However, Solomon did not claim that the Cordial could work on its own, and recommended that patients bathe their testicles in cold water or in a combination of vinegar and alcohol. It turned out that the main ingredient of his Cordial was brandy, with a hint of cardamom and cantharides.1820 Pharmacology. Later it was considered that this corresponded to Napoleon's penis, although those who have seen it compare it to a wrinkled eel or a raisin of an inch or two in length. During a class, he picked up two jars and declared that if the liquids inside them were mixed, the whole conference room would be destroyed in a huge explosion. Then he spun around and stumbled, dropping the two bottles to the ground. The students were speechless, they curled up and then breathed a sigh of relief. A conscientious technician had seen fit to fill the jars with harmless substances before the lesson.1822 Physiology. They called an American military surgeon named William Beaumont, who did not have much hope of saving the wounded man. At various intervals, Beaumont extracted the pieces of food to observe the progress of digestion. In other experiments, he extracted some of St. Martin's gastric juices and put pieces of food in them to see what happened. From all this he made the important discovery that digestion is primarily a chemical process and not a mechanical one. Over the following years, Beaumont conducted more experiments on his subject, who was not always well disposed to it, and published his findings in 1833. There may be some truth in that. The consumption of any fish, he declared, "awakens in both sexes the desire to reproduce" 1828 Etiology. To this end, he dressed in the dirty underwear of men who had died of the disease, slept in his bed, and even ate the "black and bloody vomit" that the victims produce in spectacular quantities. Although Chervin survived the experiment, it was not until many decades later that it was finally demonstrated that yellow fever was not transmitted through human contact, but through mosquitoes.1830 Nutrition. Only animals such as termites can obtain energy from it, with the help of special symbiont microbes from their digestive tract. The sludge analysis had shown that it was rich in nutrients, because due to the lake's low sulfur levels, dead animals and plants decomposed at a reduced rate and slowly released their nutrients back into the water. Beauchamp himself declared that the mud was perfectly pleasant to eat, and he made it eat his friends and family.1835 Arrive and go with the comet. Come back again next year, and I hope to go with him. Mark Twain died the next day. 1835 Astronomy. For example, we will never establish the chemical composition of the stars, he said, because they are too far away for us to even collect samples. After this finding, the other elements in the spectrum of the Sun were gradually discovered. Through the spectral analysis of sunlight, the helium element was discovered for the first time. To what it seemed, Herschel had made several exciting discoveries in relation to life on the Moon. Not only had he classified "thirty-eight species of forest trees and almost twice that number of plants," but also "nine species of mammals and five species of oviparous." What was more exciting was the "flocks of large flying animals" that looked something like human beings. He had the habit, when he was inspired, to write down his calculations on any surface by hand with the chalk fragment he always carried with him. There is little doubt that we have practically reached these final limits. The abdomen, the thorax and the brain will remain forever closed to the intrusion of the sensible and compassionate surgeon. "1839 Anesthesia. It is absurd to continue looking for it... Scalpel and pain are two words in surgery that will always be associated in the patient's conscience. We will have to adjust to this obligatory combination ». In 1844 he had attended a "laughing gas fun" and witnessed how a young man fell against a bench and broke both legs. But the man did not feel pain. The students booed him and left the conference room shouting "Trickster!" Bitter and disgraced, Wells abandoned the profession of dentist and became a traveling salesman. But his interest in anesthesia never left him, and he embarked on numerous experiments on himself, not only with nitrous oxide, but also with ether and chloroform. The cumulative effects had a damaging effect on his personality, and in January 1848 he was arrested after running out into the street and throwing sulfuric acid at two women. In an anguished note to his family he expressed fears for his sanity, saying: "If I live, I will become a maniac." Dase, who suffered from epilepsy, started a career in the entertainment business at the age of fifteen, and even traveled to England to demonstrate his skills. Dase attributed his surprising ability to having spent much of his youth playing the domino.1844 Aeronautics. The first crossing from east to west of the Atlantic by an air vehicle was made by the English aircraft R-34 on a 108-hour flight in July 1919. This was not the last of Poe's camels. He had instructed the orchestra to play a single note while rattling by on its side, to see if it seemed to change its tone. Earlier in his career he had acquired a certain notoriety by crucifying a murderer they had just executed on a cross, to see how the body would hang. He made a mold of the result, and published his findings in the Lancet. While he was working, he poured some concentrated nitric acid on the kitchen table. Grabbing the cloth closest to her hand, she wiped the spilled acid with a cotton apron, which she hung over the kitchen to dry. Soon there was a flash, and the apron disappeared. However, in the end the new planet received the name of Neptune, the Roman god of the sea.1846 Entomology. One day he left a note on the door of the conference room that read: "Professor Thomson will not attend your classes today." Some prankster erased the "c" of "classes", which gave a slight change to the matter. Thomson was not slow at retaliating. In the pre-anesthesia era, his speed with the scalpel and the bone saw were much appreciated, and he encouraged his students who watched him to time him with his pocket watches. On one occasion, he amputated a man's leg in two and a half minutes, although he inadvertently removed the testicles at the same time. The patient subsequently died of hospital gangrene, as did Listón's assistant, who lost his fingers before the Sierra de Listón in the same frantic operation. Inspired by the apparent reaction of medicinal leeches to the changing electrical conditions of the atmosphere, Merryweather decided to use these animals to forecast the weather. The head was a shapeless black mass, from which protruded the charred tongue. The doctor consulted could not suggest any other explanation than that the body of the countess had to have burned spontaneously, and not by the ignition of her dress by a spark plug. They found no difficulty in coming to the conclusion that the body was intentionally burned, after death, in order to hide the murder that had previously been perpetrated. The prisoner was condemned, who later confessed that he had committed the murder by strangulation, as indeed the prominent language could already have suggested. His conjecture was finally checked by computer... in 1976.1853 Parasitology. His suspicions had been aroused by the fact that pork butchers and their families seemed to suffer more than most people from these parasites. However, the "bladder worms" that appeared in the pigs looked like little buttons with hooked fringes, a different aspect from the long, thin tapeworms or solitary tapeworms that infest humans. Some contemporary scientists argued that these "bladder worms" were deformed versions of the human tapeworm, which had ended in the wrong pattern. Three days later the prisoner was duly executed and Küchenmeister, upon opening the man's digestive tract, was delighted to find a crop of young tapeworms. Some years later he repeated this experiment, but this time he fed the prisoner four months before his execution. This time, post-mortem dissection produced a tape measure 150 centimeters long. If they are not disturbed, the solitary can reach a length of fifteen meters.1854 Chemical War. His idea was to fire grenades full of cyanide against Russian ships, but his suggestion was rejected by the English Department of Artillery, which considered it a "way of doing war as bad as it would be to poison the enemy's wells. " In response, Playfair wrote: This objection did not make sense. It is considered a legitimate war mode to fill the grenades with molten metal that is scattered among the enemy and produces the most horrific ways of death. Why a poisonous vapor that would kill men without suffering would be considered an illegitimate means of war is incomprehensible. War is destruction, and the more destructive it can be done with less suffering, the sooner this barbarous method of protecting national rights will end. There is no doubt that over time chemistry will be used to reduce the suffering of combatants, and even of criminals sentenced to death.1855 Science of reproduction. These rubber condoms were made by rolling pieces of raw rubber around a penis-shaped mold, and then immersing the whole in a chemical solution. After its invention in 1920, latex became the material of choice in the manufacture of condoms, being more resistant, thinner and longer lasting than rubber. See also 1850 a.C.1857 Biology. He also claimed that Adam, the prototype of all human beings, had a navel. The purpose of this was the same as that of the fossils, Gosse argued: to provide the appearance of an apparent past. This tale of a cheating God did not please either the scientists or the churches and, as his son recalled, "both atheists and Christians considered it, laughed at it and dismissed it." But the Great Slush produced a benefit. The solar superstorm The most powerful solar storm ever recorded took place between August 28 and September 2, characterized by numerous sunspots and huge solar flares. The largest of these flares occurred immediately before noon on September 1 and was observed by the English astronomer Richard Carrington. Auroras were seen far to the south, even in the Caribbean, and in some places the lights were so bright that people could read at night outside. Others believed they saw the glow of burning cities. In the Rockies, the gold prospectors woke up and began to prepare breakfast, believing it was the sunrise. If a solar storm of this magnitude were to occur today, the consequences would be considerably more serious, as it would damage satellites, eliminate radio communications and produce power blackouts worldwide. Records indicate that this type of event occurs, on average, every five hundred years.1860 Preventive medicine. Linoleum prevents disease Linoleum was invented. One of the reasons for its subsequent popularity was that it was believed to be useful in preventing tuberculosis. Possibly they had not intended to fly so high, because in the very rarefied air the vision of Glaisher began to become blurred, and then he fainted. Croxwell tried to open the gas valve with his hands, but they were so numb from the cold that he could not, so he was forced to use his teeth. There he collected the lingerie and clothes of those who had died of the disease, and arranged for them to be sent to northern cities. It is said that some clothes were intended for President Lincoln himself. Arthur Beverley built a watch that still works today, although it was never wound up. He came to the conclusion that it was designed using a unit he called the pyramid inch, equal to 1,001 British inches and based on the biblical elbow. Piazzi Smyth believed fervently that hidden in these and other measures was a collection of prophecies, among which was a prediction that the world would end in 1881. When this did not happen, it produced a succession of alternative dates. Unfortunately, Piazzi Smyth's dedication to pyramidology overshadowed his achievements real scientists in the fields of spectroscopy and infrared astronomy. He died in 1900, and is buried in the village of Sharow, in Yorkshire, under a pyramid topped by a cross. It consists of a ring of six carbon atoms joined by alternating simple and double bonds, and with a hydrogen atom attached to each carbon atom. The formula for benzene had been known for some years, but its structure was an enigma, and something of a holy grail to organic chemists. However, my study looked out onto a narrow side street and the light did not come in... I was sitting writing my manual, but the work was not progressing; my thoughts were elsewhere. I turned my chair facing the fire and fell asleep. Again the atoms were racing before my eyes. This time the smaller groups remained modestly in the background. One of the snakes had grabbed its own tail and the form whirled mockingly before my eyes. His family had possessions in what is now Guyana, where he embarked on several expeditions to the interior. Although Mendel's laws are firmly established, some statisticians have expressed suspicions regarding their data. Whereas the laws established the probabilities of the number of individuals of each generation who possessed a certain character, Mendel's results invariably recorded exactly that number. The odds against this happening are considerable. Death of Michael Faraday, discoverer of electromagnetic induction. Reynolds was passionately interested in mechanics, especially fluid dynamics, and he realized the importance of mathematics when trying to understand phenomena in that field. But having a practical tendency, he concluded that in some contexts absolute precision was not necessary. While teaching a beginner class the use of the slide rule, he took the simple example of 3 multiplied by 4. He later declared that he was "the only man who had nailed a knife to the queen".1872 Ichthyology. Later it was discovered that the "fish" was a fraud, constituted by the body of a mullet, the tail of an eel and the head of a needle.1872 Pathology. If this were true, they would be abundant enough to form a thick fog, as dense as iron.1874 Science of reproduction. Finding my position near my regiment, I suddenly saw that a young gallant friend was staggering near me, and then falling to the ground. At the same moment, a piercing scream from the house reached my ears! I had scarcely finished mending the wounds of this poor man when the estimable matron came running up to me with the greatest of sorrows, begging me to go see one of his daughters who, she informed me, had been badly wounded a few minutes before. Running to the house, I found that the oldest of the girls had really received a very serious injury. In fact, Capers had pretended that the story was a satire on the many exaggerated tales told in the 1870s about the civil war, and had sent the article anonymously. Before beginning the crossing of a desert, said armor had to be saturated with water. Under the right arm was a suspended pouch made of elastic rubber filled with water and with a small gutta-percha tube that connected it to the top of the cap. Thus, by evaporating the moisture in the armor, it was calculated that almost any degree of cold could be produced. Newhouse set out to walk through the valley of Death in order to prove his invention. The article described what happened next: The next day, an Indian who could only speak a few words in English arrived at the camp in a state of great excitement. He made the men understand that he wanted them to follow him. At a distance About thirty kilometers in the middle of the desert, the Indian pointed to a human figure sitting on a rock. As they approached, they saw that it was Newhouse still in his armor. His beard was covered in frost and an icicle more than thirty centimeters long hung from his nose. In their experiment, they managed to lower the temperature of a bulb thermometer to -13ºC, while the ambient temperature was 18ºC. We have a lot of messenger boys. " However, some still did not see its usefulness. He was referring to a woman who was buried in the belief that she was dead, while she was only in a trance. A few days later, when the tomb was opened to bury another body, "it was found that the clothes that covered the unfortunate woman were in tatters, and that she had even broken her limbs when trying to leave the grave in life." The court sentenced the doctor who had certified the death and the mayor who had authorized the burial to three months in prison for involuntary manslaughter.1878 Zoology Photography. Muybridge arranged a series of twelve cameras spaced along a distance of six meters, parallel to the track on which the horse was going to gallop. Each camera was shot so that it took a photograph to a thousandth of a second by means of a trigger cable that the horse's hooves would start up. The resulting photographs showed that a galloping horse is, indeed, in the air for brief moments, when the four hulls are placed under the horse. Muybridge had been a bookseller until he seriously injured his head in a car accident in 1860, after which he suffered a certain personality change, which made him more excitable and more inventive. In this statistical study, he pointed out a correlation between changes in sunspot activity and terrestrial business cycles. He argued that the activity of sunspots had an effect on terrestrial weather, and that this in turn influenced the yield of crops. Likewise, it determined the price of food and other agricultural resources such as cotton, and thus, of the economy as a whole. Hair was also tested on the beard of two of Edison's aides, and bets were placed on which of them would shine longer before burning. Those who bet on the loser complained that his man's hair had been subjected to a more intense current. Finally, at the end of 1879, Edison and his team found the ideal material: charred paper. And so the first practical electric bulb was born. 1880 Zoology. Although earthworms may seem little suggestive compared to the explanatory capacity of evolution through natural selection, Darwin understood that earthworms play a key role in life on Earth by participating in soil formation. In the course of his Investigations, Darwin conducted some lovely parallel experiments, and came to the conclusion that "the worms have no sense of hearing." He explained it this way: They did not notice at all the penetrating notes of a metal whistle, which was sounded repeatedly near them; nor the deepest and most serious notes of a bassoon. They were indifferent to the screaming, if care was taken that the breath did not reach them. When they were placed on a table near the keys of a piano, which was played as loud as possible, they remained perfectly calm. Although they are indifferent to the undulations in the air that are audible to us, they are very sensitive to vibrations of any solid object. When the pots that contained two earthworms that had been very indifferent to the sound of the piano were placed on this instrument, and the note was keyed in, they both withdrew instantly to their burrows. After a while they left, and when the key of the sun was pressed on the line in key sobreaguda retired again. While in Oxford, Buckland began his own career as an experimental zoophagous. Having learned of the death and burial of the panther from the zoo of Surrey, he obtained the body, cooked it and ate it. He later recalled that, having been buried for two days, "he was not very good." Buckland was also an enthusiastic fish farmer, and in 1867 he was appointed inspector of the Salmon Fisheries. His interest in fish went far beyond salmon, and when he heard that a Bond Street fishmonger had obtained a sturgeon of 2.75 meters, he asked him to leave it overnight to make a mold. He took it home with difficulty, and then began to make it descend the basement stairs with a rope tied around the tail. This sudden and unexpected appearance of the sea monster clad in armor, which opened the door forcefully... instantly created a great agitation. Late development Albert Einstein, when he was three and a half years old, issued his first words, complaining that his milk was too hot. His parents, who believed that his son suffered a serious delay, were delighted. The pressure wave was recorded in barographs all over the Earth, and it jumped back and forth seven times. The ashes coming from the eruption were pushed up to a height of eighty thousand meters, causing total darkness in the region for more than two days, and rushed over an area of ​​eight hundred thousand square kilometers. Twenty-one cubic kilometers of rock were thrown into the air, although most of the island sank under the waters. The seas that surrounded the island were unnavigable for a time due to the thick floating bands of pumice. Krakatoa was not inhabited, and few people died from the eruption itself, but the tsunamis generated by the explosions initially had a height of forty meters, and killed forty thousand people along the coasts of Java and Sumatra. This had been suffered during intercourse by a maid whom Dr. Davis had been called to attend, with the result that his lover's penis, the coachman, was trapped inside her. Luckily, the administration of chloroform to the embarrassed maid had relaxed her enough for the coachman to retire. Osler had a playful sense of humor and, with the pseudonym of Davis, wrote several reports of fantastic medical cases in various magazines.1888 Mathematics. The Senate could also legislate that the water run up the hill... All the senators who spoke on the bill admitted that they ignored the merits of the proposal. The railway was designed by the French engineer Charles Lartigue, who while in northern Africa had received the inspiration to see that the camels carried baskets on each side of the hump. The monorail remained in service until 1924, when it closed due to damage suffered in the civil war. A short section of it has been restored.1889 Biochemistry. There he trained zebras to drag his carriage, and on one occasion he moved to Buckingham Palace. Rothschild was also able to cross zebras with horses, to produce "cebroides". Even Röntgen himself, dedicated as he was to classical physics, was not happy with the implications of his discovery. However, confirmation of the existence of X-rays soon arrived from laboratories around the world. Within the tower, Tsiolkovsky proposed, there would be an elevator that would move the passengers up to a geostationary orbit at an altitude of 35,790 kilometers above the Earth. Tsiolkovsky was a disciple of the mystic Nikolai Fyodorov, who believed that colonizing other planets would bring the perfection, and immortality, of the human race. There are several groups that continue to work to overcome various engineering limitations, and in 2008 a conglomerate of Japanese companies and universities announced that a space elevator could be a reality for the modest amount of 7,500 million dollars.1896 Aeronautics. I do not have the slightest molecule of faith in air navigation other than by balloons. " A child prodigy It is said that at the age of three years, J. Seven minutes after injecting him, Bier punctured Hildebrandt in the thigh with a needle. Then he stuck a scalpel in her thigh. After thirteen minutes, Bier applied the tip of a lit cigarette to Hildebrandt's thigh, without causing any complaint. Excited, Bier set about hitting Hildebrandt's shins with a hammer, squeezed his testicles and then plunged the scalpel into his right thigh to the bone. When the effect of the anesthetic dissipated, after about forty-five minutes, the two went to dinner to celebrate, and drank a lot of wine and smoked several cigars. Diacetylmorphine was promoted primarily as a cough suppressant for which no prescription was needed, and also as an effective cure for morphine addiction. After boiling everything for ten minutes, I passed the mixture through a very thin sieve. However, it would take Marie another four years to isolate a sample of it. It was not just about heating small test tubes on a Bunsen burner. Each day, at dusk, he remembered, "I was bursting with fatigue." Finally, in 1902, he managed to prepare 0.1 grams of pure radio. The quantity of it was increased or reduced according to what the experimenters considered that the system of the individuals could support. Throughout the experiment, men were observed. They were examined three times a day. When health began to wane, there was a brief period of exemption from the poisoned diet. Currently, men are thinner than usual, and all show the effects of the effort. It seems that the human guinea pigs did not suffer any long-term damage: one of them died in 1979 at the advanced age of ninety-four years.1903 Physics. Many other scientists said they also detected such rays, which apparently emitted many substances, including the human body. However, some of the leading physicists of the time, including Lord Kelvin, failed to repeat the experiments and remained skeptical. The desire of the French to recover the honor of France could have played an important role in the "discovery" of the nonexistent rays.1903 Mathematics. But not all those numbers are cousins. Cole returned to his seat, still not having said a word. Some time later, when Cole was asked how long it had taken him to find the factors, he answered concisely: "Three years on Sundays." Mersenne himself had said that eternity would not suffice to determine whether a 15 or 20-digit number was prime. Eager to prove the physical existence of the soul, Dr. MacDougall designed an experiment to weigh it. As his last hour approached, MacDougall placed his subjects, still in his bed, on a huge cross scale to see if there was any movement at the time of death. To rebalance the balance, MacDougall had to put two pieces of a dollar, weighing 21 grams, on the arm of the balance on which the dead man was. However, five other subsequent experiments were inconclusive. This one was located in the bottom of a dry well, and the images of the stars located above were projected in the air about a meter, approximately, on the curbstone of the well. Wood himself was skeptical, and a little maliciously suggested an alternative technique to attract the attention of the Martians. One of the products of these experiments was selenide of hydrogen, a compound with a smell even more unpleasant than that of rotten eggs of its related compound, hydrogen sulfide. The operation was so unpleasant that Pope and his team left the closed atmosphere of the laboratory in search of fresh air from the roof. It was the month of June, and all over Cambridge people were having tea in their gardens. Soon the air was filled with an invisible malignancy, and the elegant enjoyment of the pine sandwiches completely failed. From now on, the experiments were carried out in the most remote parts of the marshes, with the permission of the local farmer. All their behavior suggested that they were missing something really good. "Physics.1909. In the Geiger-Marsden experiment, a beam of alpha particles was fired against a thin sheet of gold leaf. According to the plum pudding model, the alpha particles would have to have passed unaltered through the sheet. However, Geiger and Marsden recorded that a small number of alpha particles was diverted. Rutherford was amazed: It was really the most incredible event that has ever happened to me in my life. It was almost as incredible as if you fired a fifteen-inch grenade into a tissue and bounced and hit one. Rutherford could only conclude that "most of the mass of atoms was concentrated in a tiny core. That's when I had the idea of ​​an atom with a massive and tiny center, which carried a load ». Thus Rutherford conceived the "planetary" model of the atom: in that model, most of an atom is empty space, in which electrons orbit the nucleus. This model was surpassed in turn by the quantum model, less easy to understand, in which the electrons form rather a cloud around the nucleus.1910 Astronomy. This led the French Camille Flammarion, astronomer and science popularizer, to predict that the gas "would permeate the atmosphere and possibly extinguish all life on the planet." With very low temperatures, up to -60ºC, during the night the men trembled so violently that they feared that their bones could break. After having collected three eggs, the men returned to Cape Evans, but were barely alive when they managed to reach the base camp. This is not an egg shop ». Then they let him wait for hours until someone could be disturbed to give him a receipt. And it is that biology had changed. Wilson had based his hunch on Ernst Haeckel's 1866 doctrine that "ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny," that is, the embryonic development of an individual recapitulates the evolutionary development of his species. Woodward explained to the assembled that he and Dawson had found more fragments, and that he had reconstructed the skull and lower jaw. His conclusion was that Eoantbropus dawsonii represented the much-sought-after "missing link," which provided proof of Darwin's conviction that humans had evolved from ape-like ancestors. But it seems that most of the British scientific class left its critical faculties in suspense, and it was not until 1953 when it was conclusively and definitively proved that the Piltdown man was a fraud. It turned out that the remains corresponded to a human skull of medieval date, the lower jaw of an orangutan and some chimpanzee teeth filed, all dyed with potassium dichromate to give the aspect of high age. Several perpetrators of deception have been suggested. Dawson himself is the main candidate; it was shown that his collection of antique objects contained dozens of counterfeits. In the course of his research, Kóllisch synthesized methylenedioxymethamphetamine, which in turn could be converted into methylhydrastinine, a substance with the desired therapeutic effect. Methylenedioxymethamphetamine was largely forgotten until the 1970s. in which several psychotherapists began using the substance to overcome the inhibitions of their patients. Such was the success of this treatment, said Lespinasse, that the man insisted on leaving the hospital soon to make use of his newly restored capacities. And he injected some six hundred men with the liquefied gonads of goats, rams, and deer and boar males. The belief in the rejuvenating effects of such procedures continued for many more years; It was not until 1997 when the German government banned the injection of tissue from lamb fetuses on the buttocks of patients who wanted to regain the vigor of youth.1913 Physics. When the ship docked the next morning, it was found that Diesel's stateroom was empty. The bedspread had been removed, and Diesel's watch hung beside the bed, but he had not slept in it. An inspection of the ship found no sign of Dr. Diesel, but his disembarkation ticket was still in the cabin, so he could not have left the ship. However, he also had an appointment with the British Admiralty. And these submarines were driven by diesel engines. There is no doubt that the German authorities would have been alarmed at the idea of ​​Rudolph Diesel speaking to a potential enemy. But no evidence of a murder has been discovered, and the disappearance remains a mystery.1915 Medicine. A decisive shortage of leeches were once one of the main props of the medical profession, and for centuries leeches had been used to suck the patient's "excess" of blood and, in this way, rebalance the so-called "four humors". But at the beginning of the 20th century they were used much less frequently. Last November, a few months ago, only a few dozen remained in London, and they were second-hand. A whole jacket of nettles With the cotton supplies inaccessible due to the English naval blockade, the Germans began to make their military uniforms from nettles. Service artillery officer, at the time of the murders Bloch was on leave from the army for convalescence, having suffered a fall from an observation post. He then explained that this act had been completely rational: his motive was eugenic, he said, since it was his intention to eliminate those members of the family affected by mental illness. From there, Bloch wrote a series of scientific articles, and corresponded with several renowned mathematicians, and usually put in his letters the date of April 1. Few of their correspondents were aware of their circumstances.1918 Epidemiology. Radithor was composed of distilled water with doses of radium 226 and 228, both highly radioactive. At this time, and for a few more years, it was believed that radioactivity had beneficial effects. His body was so radioactive that he was buried in a casket lined with lead. It contained 0.5 grams of thorium chloride and 0.25 grams of radium bromide per 100 grams, and the manufacturers claimed that it had been developed by one such "Dr. Alfred Curie." Luckily for those who used it, the relatively small amounts of thorium in the toothpaste produced only very low levels of radioactivity. The company explained that its suppositories "returned the tone of sex and gave energy to all the nervous, glandular and circulatory systems," and were particularly "recommended for men who were sexually weak." Suppositories, in which the radius "was in a base of cocoa butter," were also supposedly "splendid for hemorrhoids and rectal sores." This announcement is from 1934.1920 Mathematics. That is, the conceivable minimum effort is made to exercise many times its initial power for indicative purposes. My device is of this type, in the sense that the minimum effort that intercepts will be increased many times in a way that provides us with any form of registration that we want for the purposes of the investigation. Beyond this I do not want to say anything else in relation to its nature. I have been calculating the details for some time; In fact, a contributor to this work died only a couple of days ago. Since I knew exactly what I'm looking for in this job, I think I should be the first to use it if I can do it. The opinions are divided as to whether Edison was just teasing the spiritualists. Ironically, a virulent German and anti-Semitic nationalist, he never accepted Einstein's explanation and denounced relativity as a "Jewish fraud." In 1945, the Allied occupation forces expelled him from his position as professor emeritus at the University of Heidelberg. He died two years later, at the age of eighty-four years.1923 Physics. He was expected to know both theoretical and experimental physics, but the latter was not his forte and was unable to answer questions about the resolving power of a telescope or a microscope, and could not explain the operation of a lead accumulator. In the final part of the experiment he asked them to cut the head of a rat with a knife. Most were reluctant to do so, but in the end they agreed, anticipating the famous "Milgram experiment". Watch him; I may have a knife. "Baird subsequently organized a public demonstration. It was, he said, "an invention in which we should not waste much time dreaming." The Butler law was not revoked until 1967.1926 Evolution. What happened was that someone had injected Chinese ink under the skin of the toads. Then he treated malaria with quinine. This treatment was only abandoned when penicillin began to be used.1927 Genetics. In June, he repeated the experiment with a third chimpanzee female, but no pregnancy symptoms appeared. He also tried to organize the insemination of human females with chimp sperm, but the French authorities did not like this possibility. The following year, Ivanov lost political favor and was exiled to Kazakhstan, where he died in 1932. Ivan Pavlov wrote his obituary. A curd of black tar was placed in a funnel to see how fast it would flow. The experiment is still underway, and on average one drop falls through the funnel every nine years... although no one has actually witnessed when it happens. The conclusion is that this tar has a viscosity approximately 230,000 million times higher than that of water. 1927 Zoology. A rat dies, a man breaks, a horse spreads ». But tiny animals face other dangers that humans do not have, he said; for example, surface tension. This barely weighs half a kilogram. A wet mouse has to carry approximately its own weight in water. Szent-Gyòrgyi duly answered with a new name, «godnosa». Exasperated, the publisher named the compound himself, calling it "hexuronic acid," in reference to its six carbon atoms. Now the chemical is known as "ascorbic acid" or, more familiarly, "vitamin C". One of the experiments carried out using the cyclotron involved directing "neutron rays" to a rat confined in a small cylinder. The experimenters had no idea how large a dose had to be in order to achieve a desirable effect, so they arbitrarily limited the exposure to two minutes. When the cylinder was opened, it was found that the rat was dead. All involved saw in this a serious warning of the dangers of nuclear radiation, and as a result, both scientists and technicians were meticulous in their precautions while operating the cyclotron. In 2006, Pluto was demoted to the category of "dwarf planet".1930 Biology. Despite its apparent Complacency, Moynihan had been a pioneer in the techniques of aseptic surgery, which involved washing thoroughly and wearing a cap, gown and rubber gloves. It was even mandatory to wear specialized footwear, which caused the jokes of some. To this end he built a sensitive antenna mounted on a rotating platform, and with it identified three sources of interference: nearby thunderstorms, distant thundering and a faint hiss of mysterious origin. He followed this source for months, and noticed that it varied in intensity over a period of 23 hours and 56 minutes, the duration of the sidereal day. Jansky asked Bell for more funding, to be able to continue investigating, but Bell rejected it, on the basis that these distant emissions would not negatively affect transatlantic transmissions. As it was said, the experiment was not successful.1932 Medicine. Nearly four hundred African-American sharecroppers with syphilis were identified, and their symptoms were followed up over the following decades. Despite the fact that cures were available, the subjects were not informed, which were not treated. As a result, many of the subjects died, and many of their wives and children were infected. The study was not abandoned until 1972, after a leak to the press. Realizing that this could form the basis of an atomic bomb, he obtained a patent, which in 1936 he assigned to the British Admiralty, to keep the idea secret. Szilard and Fermi understood that uranium had the potential to undergo a chain reaction and they set out to check it. We watched them for a while and then we turned everything off and went home. "Szilard fully realized the implications. This request never reached the president.1934 Medicine. Child prodigy, Cornish had obtained his doctorate at the age of only twenty-two years, and had been interested in several scientific projects, such as designing a method to read newspapers under water or resuscitate dead people. To achieve the latter, in 1933 he tried to revive three men several hours after they had suffered fatal heart attacks. His technique involved placing them on a "trampoline" and moving them quickly up and down, to try to restart circulation, while at the same time they were supplied with oxygen through a mask. His efforts were not successful, so to perfect his Cornish technique he decided to experiment with fox terriers. His subjects, all of whom were called Lazarus, were asphyxiated with ether and nitrogen, and after a few minutes the attempt to revive them began. The dead dog was placed on the trampoline and a drip was inserted into a leg vein, through which was supplied saline solution saturated with oxygen, adrenaline and anticoagulants. While Cornish "blew gusts" into the dog's mouth, his assistant vigorously rubbed the dog's body as he made it go up and down on the trampoline. After a while, the flume level stopped falling and began to rise in slow pulsations. His heart began to beat, at first weakly, then like a jackhammer, then normally. Eager to speed up recovery, Dr. Cornish injected some glucose solution. The Cornish experiments proved too controversial for Berkeley, and he was forced to continue his work in his own home. In 1947 he obtained the approval of a man who was condemned to death to act as a guinea pig in a post-execution resurrection effort. In his memoirs he recalls how in his youth his scientific career was almost sacrificed to the altar of chess, a game that inspired him with "the morbid desire to outbid my adversaries." As his obsession dominated him, at the local chess club he excelled at playing simultaneously with four opponents, and he even played without looking at the board. He arrived at the conclusion that things could not continue this way: The almost constant fatigue and cerebral congestion enervated me. If money is not lost in the game of chess, time and brain are lost, which are infinitely more valuable. And our will is depolarized, which runs through stray channels. Abandoning his usual style of play, which involved "romantic and audacious attacks," he decided to "abide by the rules of the most cautious prudence." Following this pattern, he managed to beat each and every one of his opponents in the course of a week, and so "the pride imp smiled satisfied." Roedla also found that "a decapitated female will easily accept a male, beheaded or not... The couple stays together for about four hours".1935 Neurosurgery. Moniz continued with the development of an instrument that would have the same effect by extracting segments of white brain matter, although the results of subsequent operations were variable. As a result, many people with mental disorders, or with mentally ill relatives, clamored for this "miracle cure." Freeman developed in the 1940s a technique that did not require major surgery with the brain open, and that could be done in a matter of minutes. It involved inserting a punch through the back of the eye socket and using it to cut the connections between the frontal lobes. This involved inserting a punch in the front of the brain through the eye socket1935 Biochemistry. He had heard, he said, that the members of the Abyssinian tribes were in the habit of castrating all the Italian soldiers they captured. He found diplomatic silence.1936 Alternative energies. In one such test, he predicted that tides could be used in the future to generate power on a large scale. Sulfanilamide was already available in the form of pills or powders, but to make it more acceptable for children, Massengill used diethylene glycol as a liquid medium, and sold the new product as "Elixir of sulfanilamide." At this time, there was no legal obligation for new drugs to undergo toxicological testing, and it was not long before it became clear that the new drugs were deadly. All we have left now is to take care of your little grave. Even her memory mingles with grief, because we can see her small body fluttering from side to side and hearing her little voice scream in pain; I think I'm going crazy. " In all, 107 people with kidney failure died, many of whom were children. Diethylene glycol has continued to kill people in other countries, where unscrupulous drug manufacturers have used it as a cheap alternative to pharmaceutical glycerin or propylene glycol. Only in one incident in Bangladesh, in the early 1990s, did more than 300 children die. In 1985 it was discovered that millions of bottles of Austrian wine contained up to 0.1 percent of diethylene glycol, which had been added deliberately to sweeten the wine. Some said that the fish had hair to maintain body heat in the cold northern waters, while others attributed the fact to a spill of hair tonic in the Arkansas River. For example, he claimed to have detected vegetation on the Moon, and suggested that the changes in the appearance of the Eratosthenes lunar crater were due to "lunar insects." On the other hand, in relation to the airplane, which had just been invented, he was very skeptical. Another popular fantasy, he wrote, "is to suppose that flying machines can be used to drop dynamite on the enemy in time of war." The boy also invented the term gugolplex for a considerably larger number: 1 followed by a jug of zeros.1939 Physiology. A tube connected the rectum with a collecting chamber, while the device was held in place under the subject's clothing by means of a belt.1939 Physiology. B. S. Haldane who will dedicate himself to improve the escape methods of disabled submarines. This was nothing compared to the two hundred million methamphetamine pills that were given to American soldiers during the war, to combat fatigue. During the war and well into the 1950s, about half a million industrial workers in Japan received methamphetamine routinely to increase their productivity, with disastrous consequences for their health.1940 Physics. Frisch remembered that he and his colleagues tried to see if they could decipher it as an anagram, taking some liberty with spelling. However, Tandy's experience turned out to be useful when some notebooks containing encrypted messages were retrieved from a submarine. To preserve them for code-breakers, Tandy dried them by placing the sheets between absorbent paper, in the same way that in his previous profession he had dried specimens of seaweed.1942 Hematology. On one occasion, while waiting for guests to dine, his wife told him to change his grimy tie before they arrived. Hilben went to her bedroom to change, but did not return. When they searched for him, they found him sleeping in his bed. While the wounded were taken to the hospital, many complained of dry cough and shortness of breath. Mustard gas was never used during the Second World War, but both sides had reserve stocks, just in case. In this case, the plan was a serious backlash: the accidental release of mustard gas in Bari produced 628 deaths of Allied soldiers and merchant seamen. However, there was a positive result. Dr. Cornelius Rhoads, an American Army doctor who treated some of the victims, noticed that his white blood cell count dropped a lot after exposure to the gas. Rhoads wondered if mustard gas, or other sulfur mustards, could be useful in the treatment of leukemia or lymphomas, cancers characterized by the production of an excessive number of white blood cells. These were the first trials in which cancers were treated by chemotherapy and not by surgery.1944 Physics. If he came to the conclusion that this was the case, he had to kill Heisenberg immediately. Berg was not convinced, and Heisenberg survived the war to continue his brilliant career until his death in 1976. As for Berg, after the war he never kept a suitable job, and lived at the expense of relatives and friends. When asked what he did for a living, he put a finger to his lips. In total, about three thousand V-2 were launched against allied targets, and caused the death of some seven thousand two hundred and fifty people. However, many more slave workers died in the manufacture of the rockets at the Mittel bau-Dora plant. Some died by shooting or were hanged, while many died of exhaustion, hunger or disease. Oppenheimer wrung his hands and exclaimed, "I have blood on my hands." It was not he who threw the bomb. This type of whining makes me sick. " Oppenheimer continued to press for international control of atomic energy, which led to him being considered "soft with the reds", and in 1954 his security clearance was revoked. 1945 Physics. She found the life of isolation in Los Alamos boring, so she became distracted by learning to break locks and open safes. Then, one day something caught his attention when he saw someone in the cafeteria throw a tray in the air. The failure of this theory is that it does not seem that the universe is turning.1949 Public Health. It was said that the farmers would collect the snails one by one, using chopsticks. The campaign was the beginning of the successful elimination of the disease from many parts of China. Chinese government of 1954, which informed the peasantry on how to avoid contracting schistosomiasis, a parasitic infection carried by freshwater snails. Chapter 9From 1950 to 19891950 Ornithology. The naked-faced mockery has the ability to "almost be seen," Meiklejohn noted, and can be identified by its "blurry appearance and extremely fast flight away from the observer." On April 2, it was revealed that his head was that of a black crow, his body that of a plover and its legs those of an unidentified water bird.1953 Neuroscience. Sokoloff was surprised to find that the student's brain spent as much oxygen while at rest with his eyes closed as when he was doing difficult tests of mental arithmetic. Although the brain accounts for only one percent of body mass, it uses 20 percent of the calories we consume, whether we are concentrating on some difficult mental task or simply idly contemplating the landscape. Later research, in the 1980s and 1990s, indicated that there were some areas of the brain that are very active when we are at rest, but that are quieted down when faced with an immediate mental challenge. Some neuroscientists have come to the conclusion that the activity that disconnects is, in essence, reverie, part of which may involve filtering details to retain or not in memory. Neumann himself stated modestly: "I do not really know how useful it will be. It will far exceed what any prayer wheel can do ».1953 Pharmacology. They estimated that the men involved were unlikely to make their experiences public. In the case of these last two drugs, a technique involved injecting a dose of barbiturate and then, when the subject was about to fall asleep, administer a dose of amphetamine. Immediately before the subject fell into total incoherence, it was sometimes possible to obtain some interesting information from him. The German shepherd tried to get rid of the puppy, which in turn bit his "boss". When the puppy tried to lick milk, it oozed from the base of his neck. The horrible creature survived six days. Over the following years, Demikhov repeated the experiment another 19 times. Stapp did not suffer damage, apart from the broken capillaries of his eyes, but the next day the vision had returned more or less to normal. He escaped further damage thanks to the safety harness he wore, and for the rest of his life he campaigned for the mandatory installation of safety belts in automobiles.1955 Post-mortem studies. Those who are about to die... The US military developed a talking bomb. Pauli himself was fascinated by the effect, noting that when he was at Princeton in February 1950, the cyclotron caught fire. When a less appreciated physicist interrupted him once with a pedantic objection, Pauli rebuked him saying: «Everything you know, I know». To which Pauli replied: "I think I like you more than your articles." They both became good friends. While he was dying of a cancer that had not been diagnosed until then, Pauli was worried because the number of his room in the hospital was 137. This number has a certain importance in quantum physics, being 1 137 the fine structure constant of the hydrogen spectrum. 1960 Neuroscience. He kept his eyes open with duct tape and placed directly in front of his face a bank of flashing lights. At the same time, they were subjected to violent electric shocks and loud music. However, when they were sufficiently tired, even those extreme stimuli failed to keep them awake. 1960 Astronomy. Its equation attempts to calculate how many extraterrestrial civilizations could be scattered throughout our own galaxy, the Milky Way. The implication is that technologically advanced civilizations tend to destroy themselves quickly.1961 Chemistry. To which Seaborg could reply, with total veracity, that he had discovered it. The denomination of element 106 in his honor was controversial for a time, as some believed that it was not correct to give new elements the name of people still alive. Seaborg died two years later.1961 Psychology. To this end he prepared a scenario in which each subject believed that he participated in a study of memory and learning. As the experiment progressed, the "discharges" were apparently getting stronger. In many cases, when the "apprentice" shouted and hit the walls, the subjects went to the "experimenter" to tell them that they could not continue, but they were calmly told to continue with the experiment. In 1962 a project to use hydrogen bombs to create a huge artificial harbor on the northern coast of Alaska was finally abandoned, because of opposition from the local Inuit and because it was clear that such a port would be of no use. However, it became clear that if gas were to be extracted in this way, it would be too radioactive to be used safely.1961 Transport technology. The solution, he proposed, included a fleet of 360 vertical take-off and landing aircraft, each of which would carry 110 passengers and fly at 960 kilometers per hour. Things started well, because Tusko began to charge and to loudly for a few minutes. In it he proposed the first law thus: When a distinguished but elderly scientist states that something is possible, he is almost certainly right. That civilization was defined as one that had not only found ways to use all the energy resources of its own planet, but also those of its own sun, or even of its galaxy. Subsequently, the radio source was identified as a quasar. Quasars are very energetic and very distant celestial objects, probably associated with the absolutely enormous black holes in the center of galaxies.1963 Pharmacology. None of the people who were blind from birth experienced any type of visual hallucination. In all cases, the incidence of hallucinations affecting the other senses was much higher than in non-blind subjects. A congenital blind subject reported that the Braille he read seemed to jump off the page.1964 Cosmology. The problem was a constant interference, the same in all directions, and with a temperature of 2.7 ℉. At first they thought it could be due to the proximity of the city of New York, and then they attributed it to the pigeons that perched on the antenna, whose "white dielectric material" was embedded in the instrument. But even after having eliminated the droppings of the birds and captured the pigeons, the interference continued. His goal was to send a Zambian expedition to Mars. But I have warned the missionary that he should not force the people of Mars to embrace Christianity if they do not want to. Another difficulty has been financing. It's a forty-gallon oil barrel where they sit, and then I roll it down the hill. This gives them the feeling that they are going through space at great speed. I also have them swing at the end of a long string. I think they were worried about dust and noise. It seems that the project failed due to lack of motivation of the team. They found that males mated enthusiastically with a realistic model of a female. Then, to find out what aspect of the female's form was responsible for unleashing their amorous responses, the two scientists gradually removed fragments of the model, until it was simply reduced to a head mounted on a stick. Even so, the males tried to copulate enthusiastically. Schein and Hale came to the conclusion that when a male of turkey rides a female, all she can see of her under her larger body is the head, and that the sight of it provides enough encouragement to make things work.1967 Astronomy. The pulses, which swept the Earth like light from a lighthouse, turned out to be actually the beams of electromagnetic radiation coming from a neutron star that turned very quickly and was very magnetized. Subsequently, neutron stars of this type were called pulsars. He had a remarkable memory: he could recite the first thousand digits of pi and had memorized the entire Aeneid when he attended school. He was also a very powerful mental calculator, and it was said of him, as before Ramanujan, that he considered whole numbers to be his personal friends. On one occasion he was challenged to express 4 47 as a decimal. After a four-second pause, he began to spew out digits at a rate of one every three quarters of a second: 0.08510638297872340425531914. Then he paused to talk about the problem for a minute, and continued: 191489. He paused again, only for five seconds, and then continued: 361702127659574468. And then he declared that at this point the sequence of digits was beginning to repeat. Aitken was also a passionate defender of the duodecimal system, which he believed would leave aside the decimal system. Gardner also pointed out that Dewey's decimal classification for number theory was 512.81, whose two parts can be written as 29 and 9². Since then, the classification has changed to 512.73.1968 Cosmology. He owes a famous observation: "Cosmologists usually make mistakes, but they never hesitate." 1969 Physics. Tipler recognized that building such a machine was well beyond our current capabilities.1972 Thermodynamics. The author based his findings on two passages of the Bible. The second passage is from Revelation 21.8, which describes the condemned in a "pool that burns with fire and brimstone." An investigation was ordered immediately, because the missing U-235 could have been used to make atomic weapons. Further tests of the uranium extracted in Oklo compared to uranium from other mines showed that the former consistently had a lower concentration of U-235. The patient in question was a professional musician and played, in rehearsals, practices and concerts, for several hours each day. In 2009, Dr. Elaine Murphy admitted to writing the letter, sending it with her husband's name, and that it was a hoax. Once these things are introduced into the scientific literature, they stay there forever. But all this increases the joy of life ».1976 Chemistry. Phadnis, whose first language was not English, thought that Hough had asked him to "taste" it... and thus discovered a substance that is six hundred times sweeter than sucrose.1977 Astronomy. Ehman wrote "Wow!" On the printed page next to the sign, and that became the name of the sign. However, he has never heard again. Ehman himself says he is reluctant to draw "big conclusions from data that are only medium large." 1977 Nuclear energy. He also insisted on emphasizing the safety of nuclear energy compared to everyday activities: What do you think produces more radiation, lean against an atomic reactor or against his wife? Teller did not flinch, and published a double-page advertisement in the newspapers stating: "I was the only one whose health was affected by the reactor near Harrisburg. Reactors are not dangerous ».1977 Mathematics. This number, which is now known as Graham's number, is too large to be expressed by conventional mathematical notation. In fact, it is the largest number that has ever been used in a mathematical test, and the observable universe is too small to contain a digital representation of it.1978 Mathematics. Towards the end of his life, Gödel became increasingly paranoid, and did not eat anything that his wife Adele had not tasted before, for fear they had poisoned their food. At the end of 1977, Adele became ill and had to be hospitalized. Gödel stopped eating entirely, and when he died he weighed only 29.5 kilograms. The certificate of the cause of death indicated "malnutrition and starvation caused by disturbances in personality".1978 Scientific publications. There are about 10 neurons in the brain, he wrote, each of which has about a thousand dendrites, tiny "wires" that connect each neuron with the network of other neurons. About 30 percent of their subjects reported the presence of another being in the room, sometimes identified as a dead loved one, or even with God. He found, in fact, particularly complex magnetic fields in the Room of the Tapestries, and discovered that they were associated with the iron mesh of the bed frame under the mattresses. Perhaps this was what had caused all those terrifying "paranormal" experiences. 1981 Pharmacology. Every time they yawned, said patients said, they had an orgasm. A woman "timidly admitted that she hoped to continue taking the drug with a long-term treatment", while a man was forced to carry a condom permanently, in case the bus found a bump that made him yawn. A middle-aged woman who was hospitalized asked to have her medication taken away, because in the hospital environment there was no satisfactory way to resolve her "irresistible sexual yearnings". A fourth patient, a married man, reported a rather different experience of the medicine: every time he yawned "he experienced such an intense feeling of exhaustion and weakness that he had to lie down for ten to fifteen minutes". Dirac's abilities were limited to the high plane of his work; from a social point of view, it was located tangentially to the rest of the world. Dirac thought for a moment and then replied: "How cold?" Heisenberg replied: "Well, when there are pretty girls, it's a pleasure to dance." After a few minutes of intense meditation, Dirac asked: "But how do you know in advance that girls are pretty?" Dirac blamed his lack of social skills and unbridled personality on his abusive father. The doctor who infected himself For years, doctors had believed that gastric and duodenal ulcers were caused by factors such as stress and poor diet. Their findings were rejected by many medical scientists, who argued that H. pylori could not be responsible for peptic ulcers, as no bacteria could survive in the acidic environment of the stomach. After ten days his wife insisted that he take antibiotics, and the symptoms disappeared. A few years passed before his findings were generally accepted, but peptic ulcers are now routinely treated with antibiotics. He called them esnotitas.1986 Genetics. No one else was able to repeat his experiment, which could have shattered the laws of thermodynamics, and which many considered the modern equivalent of the claims made by medieval alchemists to transform vile metals into gold.1989 Pathology. To avoid being burned at the stake, Galileo was forced to retract, and spent the rest of his life under house arrest.1991 Physics. He did not understand why his team had received the prize. Some of the so-called "friendly buoys" made their way to the Arctic Ocean through the Bering Strait, and from there they drifted south to the Atlantic. The ducks, which are now white for having faded the elements, can reach prices of up to six hundred euros, such is their collector's value. A large fragment of particularly immature beef was placed on a plate of steel in the bottom of a plastic drum full of water, in which a small amount of explosive was detonated, approximately equal to a quarter of a dynamite cartridge. The steel plate reflected the resulting shock waves, which broke the tough fibers of the flesh. Until now, the technique has not found a place in domestic kitchens.1992 Physics. Thus, we could not travel back in time and kill our own grandmother before she conceived our mother.1992 Chemical Physics. They found that the flames of gas "turned spherical like a bubble and went from yellow to blue, and finally they became invisible." The flames of small fragments of paper that had been lit "went out and extinguished." The explanation for this is that in the absence of convection produced by gravity, oxygen can not reach the fire unless it is driven by a fan.1992 Statistics. Sometimes, these results are related to the unimaginably large numbers involved. In one example, take the case of a glass of water, which empties into the sea and allows its contents to be dispersed throughout the world's oceans. When the glass is refilled with seawater, it will almost certainly contain some of the original water molecules. In response to Turing's challenge, Garvey designed a machine that could replace the priest in the confessional. It describes it like this: This installation in the form of a kiosk is a computerized confessional designed and manufactured to look like an ATM. Human factors and religious ergonomics dictate the addition of a prie-dieu. The spiritual accounting of a sinner requires selecting from a menu with the seven deadly sins and the ten commandments. The first experiments with pumpkin pie and peanut butter were not successful, because the solid and liquid ingredients separated too easily. Simply adding water was obtained, according to Yeo, "something as close to the real thing as possible".1995 Nuclear energy. Otters taken by enemies Between 1981 and 1994, the very sensitive sonar detectors of the Swedish navy detected six thousand incursions of Soviet submarines, and then Russians, into Swedish waters. But a scientific commission appointed by the government reported in 1996 that only 1 percent of such incidents could be attributed definitively to submarines. The rest were almost certainly otters or minks splashing in the water, which gave readings indistinguishable from those produced by the propellers when it revolved.1997 Zoology. Armed with cameras, notebooks and bags full of predator poop, Berger occupied the far end and Cunningham the less enviable rear portion. Think of a dog, when it gets nervous and the hairs on its neck stand on end. This is basically what an elk does. And we were only fifteen meters away. And since we were on deep snow, it was something like, uh, jo. So we took off the disguise. And the elk was very confused. The extremely powerful, ultra-low frequency sound, which had originated off the southwestern coast of South America and was audible at distances of five thousand kilometers, increased rapidly in pitch for a minute, then stopped. The "Blup", as it was called, was detected several times that summer, but since then it has not been heard again. If it was issued by an animal, it would have to be a creature much larger than a whale, or considerably more efficient in the production of sounds. That year, the "Decreasing" sound was also detected, which decreased in frequency over a period of seven minutes. If you drink, do not drive. Samsung developed speech recognition technology for use in automobiles. Among its functions, the system can detect if the driver to whose voice it has become accustomed is sober or drunk. After fifty years, Hands were compared in terms of the presence of arthritis. This allowed them to identify masked thieves captured by security cameras from closed television circuits, and produced at least one sentence.2000 Psychology. The unmanned submarine transmitted images of an old trawler, perched horizontally on the bottom, 150 meters below the surface. These depressions in the sediments of the seabed are produced by methane gas emissions. It has been suggested that one such emission could have caused the sinking of the trawler, which was of a type that was built at the beginning of the 20th century. Methane is lighter than air, so it would be impossible for a ship to float on it. A large methane eruption in the form of a giant bubble under a ship could cause it to sink like a stone falling through an elevator shaft. She was implanting electrodes in her spine to provide relief from the pain when the woman "suddenly emitted something halfway between a scream and a groan." He asked the woman what was going on, and she said, "You will have to teach my husband to do that." Meloy realized that she had placed the electrodes in the wrong place and that she had just produced an orgasm for the woman. He published the results of his pilot study in 2006, after having implanted the device in eleven women, who used it for nine days whenever they wanted. All who used it reported that the device provided pleasurable stimulation, including increased vaginal lubrication. Thus, the New Caledonian jackdaws are the only species, apart from human beings, that manufacture utensils from material with which they are not found in nature. It was already known that these corvids produce a great variety of tools in the form of blades of grass and twigs that bend, polish and tear to obtain food, for example, digging with them in rotten stumps in search of queresas. When one of these hooks improves on an implement, it is then shared with the other animals in the group. Other species of corvids also show great ingenuity. A group of Japanese jackdaws have found a way to break the hard nuts: they drop them on a busy urban road, in a pedestrian crossing. The problem was that it was very difficult to obtain the burgundies of terrible stink and of brown, orange or neon red color that the fifty-ton leviathans deposited on the surface before submerging. These burujos fragment quickly and sink and are lost sight of in an hour. The zoologists of the state of Washington had trained for years sniffer dogs to find the faeces of brown bears, pumas, lynx and other animals. So, why not adapt training to whale droppings? When they located their prey, the dogs barked and wagged their tails, and in a short time the recovery rate of whale feces increased by a factor of four. Each successful recovery was accompanied by a few minutes of play with a tennis ball. Once recovered, the stinking excrement was treated with extreme care. Burkman and his colleagues found that in marijuana smokers, both the volume of seminal fluid and the total number of sperm were significantly lower than in non-smokers. These sperm will be consumed before reaching the ovule and will be unable to fertilize it. »2003 Robotics. The robot, which can operate as an ambulance or as an artillery turret and will operate autonomously for months, obtains the energy of a biomass engine, for which it collects its own fuel. In 2006 it was reported that he was considering a new method for placing special forces personnel on the roofs of buildings during terrorist crises. Each command would sit on a chair that would fire upwards along an almost vertical ramp by an explosion of compressed air. When the chair reached the end of the ramp it would stop in its tracks, which would throw the occupant into the sky. It was estimated that a person could be placed on top of a five-story building in less than two seconds. The gas produced by flatulence and the belching of sheep and cattle is, in fact, methane, and as such contributes significantly to global warming. The noise, "like a sharp grating vibration," was characterized by scientists as "Rapid repetitive heartbeat." The radiation may be distorted in the alignment observed by the presence of a "near" supercluster of galaxies. Physics. For decades, we have published in each issue articles that accepted the ideas of Charles Darwin and his cronies. Certainly, the theory of common origin through natural selection has been described as unifying concept of all biology and one of the greatest scientific ideas of all time, but this was no excuse to be fanatical about it. The fault is with the scientists. They dazzled us with their imaginary fossils, their radiocarbon dating and their tens of thousands of articles in peer-reviewed journals. As editors, we had no right to be persuaded by mountains of evidence. The editorial carried the date of April 1, 2005, Physics. The event was widely publicized with the hope of attracting some visitors from the future. The exact moment and the exact coordinates of the "landing platform" were announced, but as far as is known, no one from the future appeared. The idea had an important failure, since according to the current physics, it is not possible to travel backwards in time beyond the date when the time machine was functional for the first time.2005 Chemistry. The artist with an ear on his arm The Australian variety artist Stelarc was surgically built an artificial ear on his left forearm. A complex microsurgery was required to connect nerves and tiny blood vessels, and the procedure was qualified as a complete success from the technical point of view, without signs of tissue rejection. But introducing a third party's penis into a marriage can create difficulties. But nervous sensations require time to recover, and it is not clear whether the patient will ever be able to have sex with him again. "2006 Psychology. His hypothesis was that sound could mimic the alarm call of a human ancestor, or the cry of a predator. Doohan died in 2005, on July 20, the anniversary of the landing of Apollo 11. The rocket made a brief suborbital flight, penetrating for ten minutes in outer space, before returning to Earth hanging from a parachute, as planned. However, the rocket failed after two minutes. The surgeons do not want to operate because the blood clotting is not effective, and the police have to put more people on the street. I'm asking for more research ». The rabbit males who received the implants got erections and were able to prey on rabbits. 2009 Nuclear energy. With an average diameter of about five hundred and ten meters, the asteroid could cause significant devastation. However, there will be an opportunity to avoid that disaster between 2060 and 2080, when the asteroid approaches Earth relatively. If a rocket launched against it got a deviation of only one kilometer, the likelihood of a future collision could be eliminated. If we get rid of these and other collisions, the Earth will have a more secure destination within five billion years, when the Sun follows the path of other stars of its magnitude and expands into a red giant. In the process, the Earth will be completely absorbed and, consequently, vaporized. Brahmanas of the one hundred roads In the south of Iberia there is an autochthonous subspecies, the rhododendron, ojaranzo or revientamulas. Actually, it is a very later anonymous work, attributed to Aristotle. Which can be translated as gibberish, sputtering, gibberish. Al Juarismi also derive algorithm and figure. Art of bonesetters or healers. On the structure of the human body. On the movements of the spheres. Actually, Michael Servetus had described the pulmonary circulation or minor one century before. But another ten people were found guilty and died hanged. Between 220 and 250 cubic centimeters "Like extension, so force." Treasures of nature and art. Millie Liter, that is, milliliter. Cartuja, one of the historical schools of London. Spa town south of England. Physical directory of the ladies or Treaty of all the weaknesses, indispositions and diseases of the female sex..., of anonymous author. Anatomical theater of the University of Edinburgh. Minister of justice and president of the House of Lords. Besides the physiological meaning that is given here, to stimulate muscles or nerves by an electric current, galvanizing also has a psychological and a technical meaning. ye too to age must yield, Frail as your silken sisters of the field! In reference to his play Pygmalion. In fact, the high levels of sulfur, consequence of the anoxia of the deep waters, that make difficult or impossible the decomposition of the organic matter. Liebig company of meat extract. The narration cited below is also collected normally with his stories. Pickford was a famous moving company. The story has another funny aspect: Merryweather literally means cheerful weather. The male generative organs in health and disease, from childhood to old age, a complete medical treaty... adapted for the private use of all men. One of the great English colleges Soothing. She was an expert in fleas and parasites in general. Heroine Famous group of comic singers of the time. Oh, they may get over it but they'll never look the same, That kind of bill of fare would drive most men insane. It is said of youth parties that sometimes last whole nights, with electronic dance music and light shows Urtica dioica Aesculus hippocastanum. Military application of Uranium Detonation. Maud is also a proper woman's name Steamship, steamship. The English text does not always coincide with Spanish, and some references may be forced The Panama Canal has different slopes, which are saved by locks. There is Spanish translation: Profiles of the future. The last revised edition of Profiles of the Future is from 2000. Reflections on the exciting world of science, Criticism, Barcelona, ​​1994. Rudolph the Red-nosed Reindeer is a character from a children's story. Eubalaena glacialis, the whale of the Basques. How I need a drink, alcoholic in nature, after the heavy lectures involving quantum mechanics'. In Spanish, obviously, the phrase is not mnemonic.

2.-Reactions to the papal encyclical. 4.-An example of what is happening in our house. Pollution, garbage and discard culture. h).- Common destination of the goods. e).- The principle of the common good. b).- Dialogue on the environment in international politics. who believe that the Pope is "too liberal" or even of "communist" tendencies, because of his openness in social issues and his criticisms of "savage capitalism" and the "dictatorship of the economy". 5.-Rush Limbaugh has come to call the Pope "Marxist" for his ideas about capitalism. In a statement, he was "disillusioned" because Francisco attributed the greatest responsibility for environmental and social damage to the market economy. He accused the Paapa of having a "partial analysis" and of forgetting that the markets They have sought to offer clean air and water. He also suggested that the problem is not the system, but the "tendency to sin" of the people. There is a risk of becoming slaves to technology and material goods, as the Pope says, and we should find ways to avoid it. But simply consuming less ends up damaging the poor who would like to do business with us. Maybe for some it is like that, but not for those who lack what is necessary to live, "he said. And he said: "Save and invest, rather than consume, would it be the best way to help the poor? I would like to think that the Pope wants to make us more aware and responsible for our actions and make us live with a spirit of distance while we act precisely in those markets that it seems to condemn. " but also within the Vatican itself. According to data from a recent survey by the Pew study center, 86% of them have a positive view of the Pope and 71% believe that the planet is warming. Despite this, the Pew survey reflects a partisan divide among American Catholics on the issue of climate change. Thus, half of Republican Catholics believe that there is unequivocal evidence that the Earth's temperature is increasing, compared to 80% of Democratic Catholics. This clear call should guide the world so that a lasting and strong universal climate agreement will come out of Paris by the end of this year. The economic imperative together with the moral imperative leave no doubt that we must act now in the face of climate change. " We need this vision and this courage more than ever to reach the new universal climate agreement this year in Paris. " 8.-To that positive expression several presidents joined. The expressions of support were not only at the level of international personalities. 10.-Even the scientists were stimulated by the papal message. And he clarified that if this call to conversion is not captured, the deepest meaning of the encyclical will not be understood. From that perspective, I will return to some reasons that stem from the Jewish-Christian tradition, in order to seek greater coherence in our commitment to the environment. Then I will try to reach the roots of the current situation, so that we do not look only at the symptoms but also the deeper causes. Thus we can propose an ecology that, between its different dimensions, incorporates the peculiar place of the human being in this world and its relations with the reality that surrounds it. In the light of this reflection, I would like to advance in some broad lines of dialogue and action that involve both each one of us and international politics. This happens especially with some axes that cross the entire encyclical. The impact of current imbalances is also manifested in the premature death of many poor people, in the conflicts generated by lack of resources and in so many other problems that do not have enough space in the world's agendas. 49. I would like to point out that there is usually no clear awareness of the problems that particularly affect the excluded. They are the largest part of the planet, billions of people. In fact, at the time of the concrete action, they are frequently in the last place. They live and reflect from the comfort of a development and quality of life that are not available to the majority of the world's population. This lack of physical contact and encounter, sometimes favored by the disintegration of our cities, helps to cauterize the conscience and ignore part of the reality in biased analyzes. This sometimes coexists with a "green" speech. But today we can not fail to recognize that a true ecological approach always becomes a social approach, which must integrate justice in discussions about the environment, to listen to both the clamor of the earth and the clamor of the poor. 50. Instead to solve the problems of the poor and to think about a different world, some of them can only propose a reduction in the birth rate. There is no lack of international pressure on the developing countries, conditioning economic aid on certain "reproductive health" policies. But, "although it is true that the unequal distribution of the population and the available resources create obstacles to the development and sustainable use of the environment, it must be recognized that population growth is fully compatible with integral and solidary development". Blaming the increase of the population and not the extreme and selective consumerism of some is a way of not facing problems. It is intended to legitimize the current distributive model, where a minority believes they have the right to consume in a proportion that would be impossible to generalize, because the planet could not even contain the residues of such consumption. In addition, we know that approximately one third of the food produced is wasted, and "the food that is discarded is as if it were stolen from the poor man's table." 51. Inequality does not affect only individuals, but entire countries, and forces us to think about an ethics of international relations. Because there is a real "ecological debt", particularly between the North and the South, related to trade imbalances with consequences in the ecological field, as well as the disproportionate use of natural resources historically carried out by some countries. Exports of some raw materials to meet markets in the industrialized North have caused local damage, such as the use of mercury in gold mining or with sulfur dioxide in copper mining. The warming caused by the enormous consumption of some rich countries has repercussions in the poorest places of the earth, especially in Africa, where the increase of the temperature together with the drought wreaks havoc on the yield of the crops. 52. The external debt of poor countries has become an instrument of control, but not the same with ecological debt. In various ways, the developing countries, where the most important biosphere reserves are located, continue to feed the development of the richest countries at the expense of their present and their future. The land of the poor of the South is rich and poorly polluted, but access to ownership of goods and resources to satisfy their vital needs is forbidden by a system of structurally perverse commercial and property relations. It is necessary that the developed countries contribute to solve this debt by significantly limiting the consumption of non-renewable energy and contributing resources to the countries most in need to support policies and programs of sustainable development. The poorest regions and countries are less likely to adopt new models in order to reduce environmental impact, because they do not have the training to develop the necessary processes and can not cover the costs. We need to strengthen the awareness that we are one human family. There are no borders or political or social barriers that allow us to isolate ourselves, and that is why there is no room for the globalization of indifference. Interdependence forces us to think in a single world, in a common project. But the same intelligence that was used for an enormous technological development does not manage to find efficient forms of international management in order to solve the serious environmental and social difficulties. While there is not a wide development of renewable energies, which should be already underway, it is legitimate to opt for the least bad or resort to transitory solutions. However, in the international community, sufficient agreements are not reached on the responsibility of those who must bear the costs of the energy transition. In recent decades, environmental issues have generated a great public debate that has made civil society grow spaces of great commitment and generous delivery. Politics and the company react slowly, far from being up to the global challenges. 166.-The global ecological movement has already gone a long way, enriched by the efforts of many civil society organizations. It would not be possible here to mention them all or go through the history of their contributions. But, thanks to such dedication, environmental issues have been increasingly present in the public agenda and have become a constant invitation to think long-term. However, the World Summits on the environment of recent years did not meet expectations because, for lack of political decision, they did not reach truly significant and effective global environmental agreements. There it was proclaimed that "human beings are the center of the concerns related to sustainable development". Taking up the contents of the Stockholm Declaration, he devoted international cooperation to take care of the ecosystem of the whole earth, the obligation on the part of the polluter to take charge economically of it, the duty to evaluate the environmental impact of any work or project. He proposed the goal of stabilizing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere to reverse global warming. It also elaborated an agenda with an action program and an agreement on biological diversity, declared principles in forestry. Although that summit was truly superior and prophetic for its time, the agreements have had a low level of implementation because adequate mechanisms of control, periodic review and punishment of non-compliance were not established. The enunciated principles continue to demand efficient and agile ways of practical execution. 169. In the care of biological diversity and in relation to desertification, progress has been much less significant. With regard to climate change, progress is unfortunately very scarce. The reduction of greenhouse gases requires honesty, courage and responsibility, especially from the most powerful and polluting countries. International negotiations can not advance significantly because of the positions of countries that privilege their national interests over the global common good. Those who will suffer the consequences that we try to disguise will remember this lack of conscience and responsibility. While this Encyclical was being prepared, the debate has acquired a particular intensity. Believers can not stop asking God for positive progress in current discussions, so that future generations do not suffer the consequences of reckless delays. The imposition of these measures hurts the countries most in need of development. In this way, a new injustice is added, wrapped in the care of the environment. As always, the thread is cut by the weakest. Given that the effects of climate change will be felt for a long time, even if strict measures are now taken, some countries with scarce resources will need help adapting to effects that are already occurring and that affect their economies. 171. The strategy of buying and selling "carbon credits" can give rise to a new form of speculation, and not serve to reduce the global emission of polluting gases. This system seems to be a quick and easy solution, with the appearance of a certain commitment to the environment, but which in no way implies a radical change to match the circumstances. Rather, it can become a diversified resource that supports the overconsumption of some countries and sectors. Poor countries need to prioritize the eradication of poverty and the social development of their inhabitants, although they must analyze the scandalous level of consumption of some privileged sectors of its population and better control corruption. It is also true that they must develop less polluting forms of energy production, but for that they need the help of countries that have grown a lot at the expense of the current pollution of the planet. The costs would be low compared to the risks of climate change. In any case, it is above all an ethical decision, based on the solidarity of all peoples. 173.Authorized international agreements are fulfilled, given the fragility of local authorities to intervene effectively. 174. Let us also mention the system of governance of the oceans. Well, although there were several international and regional conventions, fragmentation and the absence of severe regulatory, control and sanction mechanisms end up undermining all efforts. The growing problem of marine debris and the protection of marine areas beyond national borders continues to pose a special challenge. In short, we need an agreement on governance regimes for the entire range of so-called "global commons." 175. The same logic that makes it difficult to make drastic decisions to reverse the global warming trend is one that does not allow the goal of eradicating poverty to be met. We need a more responsible global reaction, which implies at the same time tackling the reduction of pollution and the development of poor countries and regions. In this context, the maturation of stronger and more efficiently organized international institutions, with authorities appointed equitably by agreement between national governments and empowered to sanction, becomes indispensable. In this perspective, diplomacy acquires unprecedented importance, in order to promote international strategies that anticipate the most serious problems that end up affecting everyone. II Dialogue towards new national and local policies. Not only are there winners and losers among countries, but also within poor countries, where different responsibilities must be identified. For this reason, issues related to the environment and economic development can no longer be raised only from the differences between countries, but require attention to national and local policies. between countries, but require attention to national and local policies. between countries, but require attention to national and local policies. Society, how does it order and keep its evolution in a context of constant technological innovations? A factor that acts as an executive moderator is the law, which establishes the rules for behaviors admitted in the light of the common good. There is a growing jurisprudence aimed at reducing the polluting effects of business ventures. Responding to electoral interests, governments are not easily exposed to irritate the population with measures that may affect the level of consumption or put foreign investments at risk. The short-sightedness of the construction of power stops the integration of the environmental agenda with a broad look at the public agenda of governments. 179.Political greatness is shown when, in difficult moments, we work for great principles and thinking about the common good in the long term. The political power has a hard time assuming this duty in a nation project. In some places, cooperatives are being developed for the exploitation of renewable energies that allow local self-sufficiency and even the sale of surpluses. This simple example indicates that, while the existing world order is impotent to assume responsibilities, the local instance can make a difference. These values ​​are deeply rooted in Aboriginal populations because of corruption, it is required a political decision pressured by the population. Society, through non-governmental organizations and intermediate associations, must oblige governments to develop more rigorous regulations, procedures and controls. If citizens do not control the political power - national, regional and municipal - it is also not possible to control environmental damage. On the other hand, the legislations of the municipalities can be more effective if there are agreements between neighboring populations to sustain the same environmental policies. 180. You can not think of uniform recipes, because there are specific problems and limits in each country or region. It is also true that political realism may demand transitional measures and technologies, provided they are accompanied by the design and acceptance of binding gradual commitments. But at national and local levels there is always much to be done, such as promoting ways of saving energy. This implies favoring forms of industrial production with maximum energy efficiency and less raw material, removing from the market those products that are inefficient from the energy point of view or that are more polluting. It is possible to encourage the agricultural improvement of poor regions through investments in rural infrastructures, in the organization of the local or national market, in irrigation systems, in the development of sustainable agricultural techniques. It can facilitate forms of cooperation or community organization that defend the interests of small producers and preserve local ecosystems of depredation. 181.Continuity is indispensable, because the policies related to climate change and protection of the environment can not be modified each time a government changes. The results require a lot of time, and involve immediate costs with effects that can not be shown within the current period of government. Therefore, without the pressure of the population and institutions, there will always be resistance to intervention, even more so when there are urgent needs to be resolved. We must give a preponderant place to a sound policy, capable of reforming institutions, coordinating them and providing them with best practices, which allow us to overcome vicious pressures and inertias. 183.A study of the environmental impact should not be subsequent to the elaboration of a productive project or of any policy, plan or program to be developed. It has to be inserted from the beginning and elaborated in an interdisciplinary, transparent and independent way of any economic or political pressure. It must be connected with the analysis of the working conditions and the possible effects on the physical and mental health of the people, on the local economy, on safety. The economic results can thus be deduced in a more realistic way, taking into account the possible scenarios and eventually anticipating the need for a greater investment to resolve undesirable effects that can be corrected. It is always necessary to reach consensus among the different social actors, who can provide different perspectives, solutions and alternatives. But at the discussion table should have a privileged place local people, who wonder what they want for them and their children, and can consider the goals that transcend the immediate economic interest. It is necessary to stop thinking about "interventions" on the environment to give rise to policies thought and discussed by all the interested parties. Participation requires that everyone be adequately informed of the various aspects and of the different risks and possibilities, and it is not reduced to the initial decision on a project, but also implies follow-up actions or constant monitoring. We need sincerity and truth in scientific and political discussions, without reducing ourselves to considering what is allowed or not by legislation. The consumer culture, which gives priority In the short term and private interest, you can encourage too fast procedures or consent to the concealment of information. 185. In any discussion about an enterprise, a series of questions should be asked in order to discern whether it will contribute to true integral development: For what? In this exam there are issues that should have priority. For example, we know that water is a scarce and indispensable resource and it is a fundamental right that conditions the exercise of other human rights. This precautionary principle allows the protection of the weakest, who have few means to defend themselves and to provide irrefutable evidence. If the objective information leads to foresee serious and irreversible damage, even if there is no indisputable verification, any project should be stopped or modified. This way, the weight of the test is reversed, since in these cases it is necessary to provide an objective and conclusive demonstration that the proposed activity will not generate serious damage to the environment or to those who inhabit it. 187. This does not imply opposing any technological innovation that allows improving the quality of life of a population. The result of the discussion could be the decision not to move forward on a project, but it could also be alternatives. 188. There are discussions on issues related to the environment where it is difficult to reach consensus. Once again I express that the Church does not intend to define scientific questions or replace politics, but I invite an honest and transparent debate, so that particular needs or ideologies do not affect the common good. Politics and economy in dialogue for human fulfillment 189. Politics should not be submitted to the economy and it should not be subject to the dictates and the efficiency-based paradigm of technocracy. But there was no reaction that led to rethinking the obsolete criteria that continue to rule the world. Production is not always rational, and is usually tied to economic variables that fix a value to products that does not match their real value. This often leads to overproduction of some goods, with an unnecessary environmental impact, which at the same time harms many regional economies. The financial bubble is also usually a productive bubble. 190.In this context, it must always be remembered that "environmental protection can not be ensured only on the basis of the financial calculation of costs and benefits. The environment is one of those goods that market mechanisms are not able to defend or promote properly ». Within the scheme of revenue there is no place to think about the rhythms of nature, in its times of degradation and regeneration, and in the complexity of ecosystems, which can be seriously altered by human intervention. 191. When these issues arise, some react by accusing others of pretending to irrationally stop progress and human development. But we have to convince ourselves that slowing down a certain rate of production and consumption can lead to another mode of progress and development. The efforts for a sustainable use of natural resources are not a useless expense, but an investment that may offer other economic benefits in the medium term. If we do not have narrow-mindedness, we can discover that the diversification of a more innovative production and with less environmental impact, can be very profitable. It is about opening the way to different opportunities, which do not imply stopping human creativity and its dream of progress, but rather orienting that energy with new channels. Productive diversification gives vast possibilities to human intelligence to create and innovate, while protecting the environment and creating more sources of work. On the other hand, it is more unworthy, superficial and less creative to insist on creating forms of plundering of nature only to offer new possibilities for consumption and immediate return. We know that it is unsustainable the behavior of those who consume and destroy more and more, while others still can not live up to their human dignity. That is why the time has come to accept a certain decrease in some parts of the world, providing resources so that it can grow healthily elsewhere. It is not enough to conciliate, in a medium term, the care of nature with financial income, or the preservation of the environment with progress. In this subject the average terms are only a small delay in the collapse. It's simply about redefining progress. A technological and economic development that does not leave a better world and an integrally superior quality of life can not be considered progress. On the other hand, many times the real quality of people's lives diminishes-due to the deterioration of the environment, the low quality of the food products themselves or the depletion of some resources-in the context of the growth of the economy. That is to say, the companies obtain profits calculating and paying a tiny part of the costs. Instrumental rationality, which only provides a static analysis of reality according to current needs, is present both when the resources are assigned by the market and by a planning State. 196. What happens with politics? Recall the principle of subsidiarity, which gives freedom for the development of present capacities at all levels, but at the same time demands more responsibility for the common good to those who have more power. It is true that today some economic sectors exercise more power than the States themselves. But you can not justify an economy without politics, which would be unable to promote another logic that governs the various aspects of the current crisis. 197. We need a policy that thinks with a broad vision, and that carries out an integral rethinking, incorporating in an interdisciplinary dialogue the various aspects of the crisis. Many times the same policy is responsible for its own discredit, for corruption and for the lack of good public policies. If politics is not capable of breaking a perverse logic, and is also subsumed in impoverished discourses, we will continue without facing the great problems of humanity. A strategy of real change requires rethinking the totality of processes, since it is not enough to include superficial ecological considerations until the underlying logic in current culture is questioned. A healthy policy should be able to take on this challenge. 198. Politics and economics tend to blame each other for poverty and environmental degradation. But what is expected is that they recognize their own mistakes and find forms of interaction oriented to the common good. While some are desperate only for the economic benefit and others are obsessed only to preserve or increase power, what we have are wars or spurious agreements where the least interest to the two parties is to preserve the environment and care for the weakest. Here it is also true that «unity is superior to conflict». The religions in the dialogue with the sciences. 199. It can not be maintained that the empirical sciences completely explain life, the framework of all creatures and the whole of reality. That would unduly exceed its limited methodological confines. If one reflects with that closed frame, aesthetic sensibility, poetry, and even the capacity of reason to perceive the meaning and purpose of things disappear. I want to remind you that "classical religious texts can offer meaning for all ages, they have a motivating force that always opens new horizons. Is it reasonable and cult to relegate them to darkness, only because they have arisen in the context of a religious belief? Actually, it is naive to think that ethical principles can be presented in a purely abstract way, disconnected from all religious language not removes any value in the public debate. The ethical principles that reason is capable of perceiving can always reappear under different clothes and expressed in different languages, even religious ones. Many times the cultural limits of different times have conditioned that awareness of one's ethical and spiritual heritage, but it is precisely the return to their sources that allows religions to better respond to current needs. A dialogue between the sciences themselves is also imperative, because each one tends to be enclosed within the limits of its own language, and specialization tends to become isolation and the absolutization of one's own knowledge. This prevents adequately addressing environmental problems. It also becomes necessary an open and friendly dialogue between the different environmental movements, where ideological struggles are not lacking. The seriousness of the ecological crisis requires us all to think about the common good and to advance in a path of dialogue that requires patience, ascesis and generosity, always remembering that "reality is superior to the idea". Unleash us with peace, so that we may live as brothers and sisters without harming anyone. God of the poor, help us to rescue the abandoned and forgotten of this land that are so valuable in your eyes. so that we may be protectors of the world and not predators, so that we may sow beauty and not pollution and destruction. Touch the hearts of those who seek only benefits at the expense of the poor and the earth. Teach us to discover the value of each thing, to contemplate in admiration, to recognize that we are deeply united with all creatures on our way to your infinite light. Thank you because you are with us every day. Encourage us, please, in our struggle for justice, love and peace. Christian prayer with creation We praise you, Father, with all your creatures, who came out of your powerful hand. They are yours, and they are full of your presence and your tenderness. You formed in the maternal womb of Mary, you became part of this earth, and you looked at this world with human eyes. Today you are alive in each creature with your glory of the resurrected. Holy Spirit, that with your light you direct this world towards the love of the Father and accompany the groaning of creation, you also live in our hearts to propel us to good. Lord One and Triune, precious community of infinite love, teach us to contemplate you in the beauty of the universe, where everything speaks of you. Awaken our praise and our gratitude for every being you have created. Give us the grace to feel intimately united with all that exists. God of love, show us our place in this world as instruments of your affection for all the beings of this earth, because none of them is forgotten before you. 1.-Pollution in Beijing and other cities in China. 2.- China is the world's largest energy consumer. 3.-Chilling statistics. 4.- Pollution of water and land. 5.- Species in danger of extinction. 6.-Human poverty the greatest pollution. 7.-A progress marred by income inequality. 8.-China pollution and its repercussions in other countries. 9.-Small measures for a big problem. 10.-The contamination of nature and moral corruption. Pollution in China reached such extreme levels that even statues are placed on chinstraps to protect themselves. There are even parts of the north of the country that suffer their sixth day of severe pollution, so the government extended the danger zone by smog to some 400 million citizens. Beijing and Tianjin are two of the most affected cities. With his gesture, the Chinese president - accompanied by Mayor Wang Anshun - provided support to a city in which heavy pollution drives away tourism. The Chinese capital, where the orange alert is valid since last Friday, suffered yesterday the seventh consecutive day of a very high pollution: the air is full of smoke and visibility is only a few hundred of meters. The hospitals were saturated with patients with respiratory, cardiac or circulation problems. Doctors warn of the consequences of smog for health, which can weaken the immune system and facilitate respiratory, cardiac or circulatory problems. The smog affected mainly patients with asthma and diseases of the heart or bronchi. According to renowned Chinese scientists, between 350,000 and 500,000 Chinese people die each year as a result of high environmental pollution. In many of the industries, modern filtering facilities are lacking. The per capita energy consumption in China and with respect to economic growth exceeds the global average by 40%. Without a doubt, the statistics produce chills. The rapid industrialization, dependent on coal energy and characterized by a low level of technology, adds to a dangerous lack of business ethics to stir an explosive cocktail that is charged a high human price. As if that were not enough, last year the Communist Party also recognized the existence of the controversial peoples of cancer. There are some 400 localities, located close to particularly polluting industries, in which the majority of its citizens die of this disease. Nationally, cancer kills one in four people, and the number of deaths due to the variant that affects the lung has shot up 465% in the last three decades. No case has better reflected this problem than that of an eight-year-old girl, resident in the eastern province of Jiangsu, who became the youngest patient in the country last year for this condition and caused a great media commotion. Thus, it is not surprising that cities such as Chengdu have decided to set up clinics specializing in problems caused by air pollution, and that in Beijing they are developing a system to release liquid nitrogen into the atmosphere and combat smog in this way. In addition, harmful substances not only attack by air, but also by sea and land. According to the government's own estimates, 64% of the aquifers are severely polluted, and something similar happens with water off the coast of the country. On the other hand, two years ago the Chinese government commissioned a detailed soil analysis. He received it last April, and decided to classify its contents as a state secret, a label that does not bode well. For the moment, in December it was made public that some 3.3 million hectares of land are too contaminated to be used for agricultural purposes. That means no less than 2% of all the arable land in the country, and many scientists estimate that it is a much lower percentage than the real one. Thus, they end up causing serious damage to the health of the population, which has no alternative but expensive imported products, "explains Zhou. But the reality is stubborn and, if the current trend continues despite titanic efforts to increase the weight of renewables and nuclear in its energy menu, the current combustion of black stone in China will double in 15 years, and not It will reach its zenith until the 2030s. Its words take shape during the three long hours of travel on impossible roads to the reserve. On both sides are new luxury developments, shopping centers, and a monotonous green desert. Near the entrance to Tianzi are still visible burns caused by the fire that, in 2011, threatened the entire project. Li is unable to hold back the tears at the sight of the blackened earth, and remembers the great interests she faces. The ones that give you the most headaches are the tiger amur - there are only 20 animals left in the wild -, the snow leopard, and the dolphins of the Yangtze River. Urbanization and the deforestation linked to it are destroying them. That makes less photogenic animals at a disadvantage. It is the case of red panda, whose project maintained Canon and that we had to cancel when the company has stopped supporting him, "explains Fan. Starting in the 70s, especially after the implementation of the policy of reform and opening to the outside world, China established demographic policies to control population growth and raise the quality of the population. Since then, family planning has been established as a fundamental State policy. The Chinese government encourages late marriage and procreation and advocates for a couple to have only one child and reasonably plan the birth of their second child according to laws and regulations. This policy also applies to ethnic minorities. This system of control of the birth rate, launched in 1978 by the Chinese government to regularize the demographic rates of the country, favors all kinds of advantages to couples who are limited to having only one child. However, large families must pay a fee. Although the ethnic Han, the largest in China, is exempt from paying such a fee. These measures cause many problems for poor families in the countryside, who have their children, preferably with men, as labor and as "life insurance" for when they are at the end of their lives. Since 2002, this policy has been officially sweetened a bit to authorize these farm families the birth of a second child if the first is a girl or a disabled child. Selective abortion is prohibited by law, although it is practiced a lot, which leads to a significant imbalance between the number of girls and boys. The report insists that the recipe for tackling extreme poverty requires sustained economic growth at high rates and redistribution programs aimed at the most vulnerable population. Thus, Southeast Asia, with China in the lead, has dramatically reduced its poverty ratio from 80 to 14 percent. The questions about inequality and corruption worry the Communist Party, aware that China's millenary history is full of eternal dynasties that fell precipitously overnight. The previous government of Hu Jintao launched a plan still in progress in order to universalize a retirement system for 2015 and health coverage for the entire population by 2020. An average farmer should earn by the end of this decade about 12 thousand yuan or US $ 1,920 annual The problem is that the pockets of poverty that remain are much harder to fight because they are scattered and in remote places, "said Schmitt. The change was linked not only to the global crisis, but also to a new development strategy. We must maintain China's high investment rate in infrastructure, but we must put more emphasis on capital and human well-being. In China, a key sector is the millions of internal migrants. These migrants do not have access to health and education in the cities because their "Hukou" is in the countryside. China is the leading power of world trade since 2013, but its exports include contaminated air. The research, carried out by nine scientists from three different nations, affirms that every day the pollution related to the export of Chinese products to the US contributes between 12 and 24 percent to the concentration of sulphate in the western United States. It is a problem that goes way beyond them, and it could be said that they have become the factory of the world, "says the Chilean environmentalist in an interview with Reporte Indigo. Many times there is no reason to consume what comes from the other side of the planet. " Ballesteros says that he met other travelers who experienced changes in his body, such as the strange appearance of acne and dry skin, which he also attributed to dirty water. In order not to hinder production, Chinese policies They have focused on the contamination of individuals. All those officials who are allowed to buy allowing the installation of polluting companies. Loved lovers have been loaned to catch those who enrich themselves illegally as part of the country's fight against corruption. Take for example the case of Liu Tianan. The party official lost his job earlier this year after a former lover revealed that he had diverted $ 200 million from the banks. The anti-corruption campaign in China has targeted the so-called "tigers and flies": powerful leaders and low-level officials who defraud the nation. They are untouchable because there is no control system and counterweights in China. China's war against corruption is just like crushing flies. The leak of millions of files on the hidden fortunes of renowned members of the Chinese nomenclature uncovers a part of the gigantic network of abuses, illegalities and corruption that sustains the world's second largest economy. To truly fight corruption and clean up China's politics and economy, it is necessary - though not enough - to dismantle the single-party regime. What causes abuses is, precisely, the absence of freedom, transparency and controls. China blocks the media that disseminate the accounts of their elites in tax havens. Added to these responsibilities is a dangerous lack of business ethics to stir up an explosive cocktail that charges a high human price. It is also important to know that people's awareness of the problem of pollution is small, explained by the presence of other evils that affect them more directly such as extreme poverty, lack of all kinds of freedom, birth control tax etc. The points to be discussed in the subject will be the following: 1.-History of the main pollutions in Japan and legislation issued by Japanese governments. 2.-On the effects of the Fukusima nuclear power plant until 2014. 1.-The discharge of the Ashio copper mine. 1893.- First observations of air pollution from the Besshi minefield, Ehime prefecture. In 1871, they went into private hands following the industrialization plan of the Meiji Restoration. In 1880 production increased so much that the highest pollution rates that Japan had known to date were reached. Of 1,800 tons of CO2 in the year 1600 to 4,090 in 1885. The most notorious action occurred in 1907 when the miners carried out an important revolt. The copper mines of Ashio closed definitively in 1973. 2.-The Minamata Disease caused by mercury. 1953. - The Minamata disease appears in the Kumamoto prefecture. It is so called because it arose in the city of Minamata, in the south of Japan, in the 50s. It was caused by the spills of a chemical factory in the sea. That company was called Chisso Corporation and had started its activity in the 30s. Until the 50s the first cases of illness did not arise. In 2001, more than 3,000 people affected were counted according to government data. That number shot up to 200,000 asking the neighbors of the affected area in 1989. 3.-A series of actions aimed at avoiding contamination are approved. 4.-Acid rain contamination. 1980.- Studies on acid rain begin. Acid rain, causing serious ecological imbalances, is caused by the existence of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere, which are collected by the rains and returned to the ground. The report indicates that if the levels of environmental pollution recorded in Japan are not reduced, by the end of the 20s there will be alterations that will threaten the biological balance. 5.-Dioxin contaminants effect of incineration. 1983.-They meet dioxins in waste incineration emissions. Dioxins are the best known pollutants associated with incinerators. They cause a wide variety of health problems, including cancer, immune system damage, and reproductive and developmental problems. Dioxins are of particular interest because they are everywhere present in the environment at levels that have been shown to cause health problems, implying that the entire population is suffering its effects now. Throughout the world, incinerators are the main source of dioxins. 6.-Measures for the protection of the ozone layer of the atmosphere. Its role is to filter most of the ultraviolet radiation from the sun, while determining the thermal structure of a large portion of the stratosphere. The main effect derived from the destruction of the ozone layer is the increase in UV radiation. Consequences of ozone loss The incidence and severity of diseases such as blindness, ocular melanoma and increased cataracts in the eyes would increase if current behaviors regarding exposure to solar radiation do not change. 1995. Organizations of victims of the Minamata disease accept the government's offer to offer support to the victims. 7.-Leaks produced in nuclear power reactors. On December 8, 1995, the reactor suffered a serious accident. Intense vibrations caused a sheath inside a sodium coolant to rupture, possibly at a point of a defective weld, allowing several hundred kilograms of sodium to seep into the soil below the pipe. Upon contact with air, liquid sodium reacts with oxygen and moisture in the air, filling the room with caustic fumes and producing temperatures of several hundred degrees Celsius. The heat was so intense that it deformed several steel structures in the room. When the researchers found the source of the spill they found about three tons of solidified sodium. The leak occurred in the secondary cooling system of the plant, so the sodium was not radioactive. This cover-up included reports of the falsification and editing of a video taken immediately after the accident, as well as the issuance of an order of silence that aimed to stop employees from revealing that the tapes had been edited. The operator of the Tokai nuclear power plant, about 110 kilometers northeast of Tokyo, reported that about 20 tons of radioactive water leaked from the pressure vessel of the reactor, but did not reach the outside of the structure. The event took place at the Tokai Daini nuclear power plant, which has been operating since 1978 and has only one reactor, which is under review. 1999.- Law on the valuation of environmental impacts comes into force. The relevant information available about the accident in Japan indicates the following: 1. The three workers who performed the maneuver received severe radiation doses, greater than 8 Sievert. Another 36 members of the staff and 10 people not belonging to it, including 3 firefighters, also received significant doses above the authorized limits. Subsequently, the local authorities reported the release of gases to the outside, radioactive materials coming from it having been detected in the vicinity of the installation. As a result, at 13.00 local time on October 1, the Japanese authorities have considered the adoption of the following protection measures within a radius of 10 km. Towards 4.00 local time on October 1, the chain reaction was stopped as a result of the work carried out in the facility for this purpose, which focused on the extraction of water from the cooling jacket of the affected container. 2001.- The Special Law of recycling of electrical household appliances. The Law on the promotion of the recycling of food resources comes into force. 8.-On the recycling of scrapped cars. 2002.- The Law on the recycling of construction materials comes into force. The Scrapped Car Recycling Law comes into force. When the useful life of a car ends, it is usual for it to be scrapped in a waste plant. We've all seen in the movies those huge mechanical tyrannosaurs that snap the car out of a bite and then pass it to a press that reduces our old travel companion to a scrap block, right? Every year about 13 million vehicles are scrapped in the European Union, which generates between 8 and 9 million tons of waste that must be managed correctly. It is not a trivial problem, and soon the question of what to do with a scrapped car and the waste it generates will have to be addressed. In fact, there are already industrial solutions to reduce this problem to the minimum expression, and today we will talk about a few of them. Reduce means attacking the base of the problem by minimizing it. Reusing means giving a second life to something that is supposed to have already completed its cycle. Recycling is the last step, since it is taking something as raw material for the manufacture of something else. In the manufacture of a car thousands of components are used that can enter within the rule of the three Rs, and especially in another aspect: the respect for the environment. In that sense, the choice of components is crucial. Restrictions apply to the emissions of nitrogen oxide particles from automobiles. 9.-About the Kyoto Protocol. 2003.-The Nature Recovery Act comes into force. The Law on Measures against Soil Pollution comes into force. 2005.- The Kyoto Protocol enters into force. This protocol commits industrialized countries to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions. The Convention for its part only encourages countries to do so. In this sense, the Protocol has a central principle: that of "common but differentiated responsibility". The Protocol has moved governments to establish laws and policies to meet their commitments, companies to take the environment into account when making decisions about their investments, and has also led to the creation of the carbon market. Law on the promotion of measures to counteract global warming comes into force. The Asbestos Hazard Prevention Act comes into force. 2006.- Memorial on the 50th anniversary of the official recognition of the Minamata disease. 10.-On the summit of Toyaco, Hokkaido. 2008.- The leaders of the eight major industrialized countries agree on a long-term goal for 2050 to halve emissions of greenhouse gases at the Toyako summit in Hokkaido. At this summit, world leaders gather to discuss the world economy, environmental concerns, development in Africa and other relevant international issues. Within this context, media from all over the world had the opportunity to see in Japan the latest technologies focused on preserving nature and for the environment. This toner is manufactured by small and uniform particles that are soft inside and hard on the outside, allowing the toner to melt at lower temperatures. In addition, Konica Minolta's polymerized toner manufacturing process also saves energy. 11.- Several measures since 2009 2011. 2009.- The Law of special measures to support the victims of the Minamata disease is approved. 12.-Attitudes of Japan denounced by various nations. CNN witnessed the current situation of the plant, with large tanks of toxic water and a contaminated area for which it is essential to wear costumes special There are specific rules about what can be filmed, but Reactor 4 is definitely what Tepco wants to show. Inside the building there are 1,500 fuel rods, which are being relocated to a safer area. Although they say that the operation is "routine", the truth is that removing nuclear energy from a damaged area has never been attempted before. An earthquake in 2011 caused a tsunami that hit the plant, leaving it disabled. The threat of radiation forced the neighbors to evacuate and many still can not return to their homes. Authorities face many challenges before the facilities can be safe again in the long term. The information published in August shows that 44 of 216,809 children under the age of 18 in Fukushima prefecture were diagnosed with thyroid cancer or were suspected of suffering from the disease. The figure is much higher than the international average, but the opinions are divided whether this is due to the nuclear accident or if it is due to a more sensitive revision. Health experts say it takes years to develop thyroid cancer after exposure to radiation, suggesting that the cause of the cancer is before the tsunami. The most immediate problem for the operator of the Tepco plant is the hundreds of tons of water poured on the damaged nuclear reactors every day to keep the molten fuel cold. If the fuel does not stay cold, it could cause another disaster. Radioactive water must be stored safely. However, several storage tanks on the site, which were originally designed as temporary, have suffered leaks. Tepco said last summer that 300 tons of groundwater seeped into the Pacific Ocean every day, triggering fears about radioactive contamination of fish, which are an important source of food. Tepco is only days away from removing the 1,500 irradiated fuel rods from a pool in reactor 4 to a safer location. The building was damaged by a hydrogen explosion after the disaster. There has never been an attempt to remove fuel from a severely damaged pool. Critics fear that the building is unstable and that any mistake could cause another nuclear disaster. The radiation levels in reactors 1, 2 and 3 are so high that the area is inaccessible to humans. Nobody knows for sure where the molten core rests between the basements of buildings and how much it has penetrated their floors. There is no technology to remove this molten fuel. Workers at the Fukushima nuclear power plant have a limit of exposure to radiation. Once they reach this limit, they can no longer work on the site and it is necessary to find new workers. As time passes, more experienced workers will reach their exposure limits, which raises concerns about whether available workers will have lower levels of proficiency.Cf. Until now he had always supported the Tokyo thesis on the seriousness of the problem, stating on several occasions that the Fukushima radioactive leak is not dangerous to health beyond the evacuation perimeter and recommending the population to remain calm. The iodine-131 and cesium-137 particles that the reactors have been emitting into the atmosphere for days have contaminated food and water more quickly and aggressively than experts expected. Aware of the health disaster that would result in massive poisoning, the Japanese government ordered all shipments of spinach from the four prefectures surrounding the nuclear plant to be stopped, and also banned the collection of milk from farms in Fukushima province. c).- Alarm in various places in Japan about food contamination. All this has caused the Japanese to approach the markets with suspicion. To protect to its sector, an association of growers and the local administration of Tokyo launched yesterday a telephone line to answer the questions and concerns of citizens. During the day there were appeals of all kinds: "I know you are worried, but it should be enough if you wash the vegetables well before eating them", an operator tried to reassure an alarmed consumer. However, people in Japan are more alarmed by the contamination of tap water, which in Tokyo and almost the entire northern half contains iodine-131 particles. The Ministry of Health has already urged residents of the area near the nuclear power plant not to drink tap water, although at the moment the recommendation does not officially extend to the capital. d).- There is also fear about water pollution. Such is the paranoia in the region, that in Taiwan a Japanese restaurant offers the possibility of using a radioactivity meter to its more hypochondriacal diners. At the Fukushima plant, the workers lived a very tense day yesterday after two days of relative stability. Reactors 2 and 3 emitted smoke during the afternoon and a new toxic leak was feared. The reactor 3, which contains plutonium, was of particular concern, although the Government later announced that the two columns of smoke did not lead to an increase in radiation. The operators were able to lay electric cables to the six reactors and the cooling system of one of them started pumping water on its own. He did not do it, and experts agree that had it not been for this negligence, the severity of the crisis would have been much less. Black smoke left yesterday from reactor 3 of the Fukushima power station and the personnel was evacuated. Damaged by an explosion, reactor 3 contains a mixture of oxides of uranium and plutonium, more difficult to cool and more harmful. Four of the six reactors already have power, but technicians still have to test. The cooling system of reactor 5 worked yesterday normally. After years of economic stagnation and growing disparities in income, what was once an egalitarian nation is awakening in recent times to the fact that it has a considerable, and growing, number of poor people. But perhaps a factor that caused the same surprise was when the government acknowledged that it had been keeping poverty statistics secret since 1998, while denying its existence, despite occasional anecdotal evidence pointing to the opposite. Following a formula with international recognition, the ministry set the poverty limit at about $ 22,000 per year for a family of four, which represents half the income of an average house in Japan. Experts and social workers emphasize that it can be deceptively difficult to detect the poor of Japan because they really strive to maintain the appearance of middle class comfort. Everything indicates that very few Japanese in poverty are willing to acknowledge their harsh situation for fear of being stigmatized. They smile outside, he says, but "they cry inside" when relatives or friends talk about vacations, luxury that they can not afford. The woman says she had little money even before her husband, a construction machinery operator, died of lung cancer three years ago. He added that his family's difficulties began in the late 1990s, when the economic downturn worsened on the northern island of Hokkaido, as occurred in much of rural Japan. Even with two jobs, she says she can not afford to see a doctor or buy medicine to treat her deteriorating health. When her daughter needed $ 700 to buy school uniforms when she entered high school last year, she saved by reducing it to two meals a day. Experts in poverty claim that Sato's case is typical. They emphasize that more than 80% of those living in poverty in Japan they are poor and temporary workers, without security and few benefits. They usually have enough money to eat, but not to do normal activities, like going out to eat with friends or going to see a movie. Years of deregulation of the labor market and competition with China's low wages have generated a proliferation of low-wage jobs in Japan, economists say. The above has opened a huge crack through which millions of Japanese have fallen. Sato expressed similar fears for her daughter, Mayu. The young woman wants to attend a vocational school to become a voice actress for animation, but Sato said she could not afford the $ 10,000 that the annual tuition costs. In any case, he still maintains his spirit in appearance, although with resignation. He says that his biggest challenge was not having anyone to talk to. Although she commented that she was sure that many other families faced a similar situation in this small city, her refusal to recognize her poverty made it impossible to locate her. One of the most outstanding features of Japanese society is the dominant impassivity in the search for social independence, which contrasts with the anxiety that this causes in European and American society. This spontaneous and general acceptance of an established order is like an ancestral instinct by which each individual feels in community and occupies in it the place that corresponds to it. It is the sustaining force of all Japanese social architecture. In this regard, it should be noted that "democracy" in Japan, more than a form of government, is a way of relating individuals through continuous consultation, a maximum consensus and an extreme hierarchical harmony. These factors can also be present in the attitude that Japanese society has to pollution, an attitude of conformity and consensus before the hierarchical decisions of the social powers. The object of study of this subject are facts relative to the pollution that it generates and that suffers. 2.-The most polluted river in the world. 3.-Pollution of the seas by industrial plastic. 5.-Singapore cries like a child says the Indonesian minister. 6.-Mining pollution and deforestation. 8.- Degradation of a refuge for birds. 9.- Human poverty is the greatest degradation of nature. 10.-The greatest enemy of nature is the lack of ethics. The most important types of pollution are those that affect the basic natural resources: air, soil and water. The emissions to the atmosphere caused by the industry and the transports, are another important source of contamination that comes from the earth. Once emitted, many chemical components remain in the air for weeks or more. Pollution from mining extractions Pollution of rivers and the ocean in a country that lives in the middle of the waters. Acoustic pollution, which deeply disturbs the behavior of some animal species such as large marine mammals, is another issue that is becoming increasingly serious. The oil pollution caused by naval collisions or stranded ships, has been for quite some time an international problem of prominence, which has recently been added to the substances of risk and harmful. The Citarum River is the most polluted river in the world. It supports a population of 28 million people and offers 20% of Indonesia's gross domestic product. In many cases, these fishermen continue to subsist thanks to the river, but they have had to change the fishing for the search for recyclable waste. As you can see in the photographs, the small boats with which they previously launched their nets, now they are used to sail the sea of ​​garbage and collect everything reusable. More than 6.4 million tons of plastic arrive every year to the depths of the oceans. one of the most serious pollution problems of our oceans and the worst of all is that it is unstoppable. More than 60% of the garbage that arrives are plastics. Indonesia is on the most polluting list in the world. Plastic can cause a lot of damage to marine biodiversity such as turtle meshing. Or unfortunately they are part of the diet of the fish, causing them in most cases, starvation by blocking the digestive tract. Another problem is that the plastics thrown into the sea, travel many virulent and invasive species that end with the life of many marine species. Climate change, overfishing, invasive species and garbage pollution are killing the oceans, the loss of biodiversity is so alarming that the sea is losing all its wealth. It must be taken into account that the most appreciated properties of plastic on land are the most harmful in the sea, that is, they do not degrade and do not transform or process, remaining in the environment for many years completely unaltered. The erosion does the rest, since it is fragmented into tiny particles that will be suspended in the water, becoming part of the fish's diet or going to the seabed concentrating organic pollutants. First of coastal tourism. These include the sanitation waters of coastal cities and the rainwater networks that carry garbage, condoms and syringes. All of them are discharged indiscriminately into the sea without any type of conditioning. Sedales, nets, straps, pots... Waste of ships. More than 10,000 people suffer acute respiratory infections in the Indonesian province of Riau from smoke caused by forest fires that affect the island of Sumatra, in the west of the country, local press reported today. The Indonesian government has acknowledged that the extinction tasks may take longer than a month and has opened an investigation to eight companies for their possible responsibility in the fires. A haze floats between the skyscrapers and the bay of Singapore, where the first clouds of smoke began to arrive last week because of the fires provoked in the Indonesian island of Sumatra at this time for the agricultural use of the lands. For this reason, the Singaporean authorities have urged their Indonesian counterparts to do more to stop the illegal burning in Sumatra. However, many think that the burning is done by farmers to gain ground in the forest. He turns on the light under an awning and bends towards the entrance of a narrow well lined with wooden boards that he and other miners cut from trees that were planted in this place some time ago. For hours, the man, Sarial, will use a pick to take out and bag stones that are transported on the surface by other miners using a wooden wheel. The ore, extracted daily in the "protected forest" of Ulu Masen, contains gold. The metal shredders spin noisily and each one pierces almost 10 pounds of stones. The use of the element that the miners have put in each drum has been banned in developed countries: mercury. Two tablespoons of this metallic silver substance, purchased at Medan, are put into each drum. The amalgam will be completed in three hours and its waste will be emptied into terraced ponds where it will dry. Bukari, a 40-year-old neighbor, does not worry when asked if he is afraid mercury might harm him. When operations stopped a few years ago, 3,000 miners were installed, many of which were prepared by Java technicians. Thanks to the good quality of gold in the area, almost 200 men earn collectively around 3 billion rupees per month. An elephant has died last week after being caught in a wire. When it rains, the toxic residues of the mine descend the inclined slope until reaching the river as discharges. But the river crosses another community, "so they do not worry about this," said Pak Sulaiman, a man from the area. Crossing Indonesia and elsewhere in the third world, small-scale mining has peaked in the last decade, rising along with the price of gold. Experts say there are currently 250,000 miners, almost on every island in the archipelago. From some estimates, they produce around 60 tons of gold each year, compared to Indonesia's official exports of 100 tons per year. Using mercury in this unregulated mine is illegal, however some parts of Indonesia currently record the highest level on the land of mercury contamination. Up to 1000 milligrams per kilogram on earth according to Chris Anderson, a scientist who works to mitigate the problem. Grout bags from the crushers are taken there, emptied into containers, mixed with cyanide and left to filter for 48 hours. The residue is recovered with activated carbon but the soluble mercury is not well absorbed and is poured with other residues. A large red-brown pond formed by these debris is located only 10 feet from a channel that flows into a coral reef. Cyanide decreases oxygen so fish die for lack of it. They wash the concentrate in a bucket of mercury to catch as much gold as possible. Almost 20 grams of mercury are lost each time, less than in an underground mine, but destroying more land. Large wooded strips that protected orangutans, nowadays has become a "lunar landscape" said Agriwal. The huge pollution generated by the excessive growth of Jakarta puts in danger in front of the coast of the capital that hosts one of the most important waterfowl refuges in the country. The place, of wild and leafy nature, of ovoid form and with a surface of less than half a square kilometer, is a miniature representation of what happens in all Indonesia due to the uncontrolled economic growth of the country. He assured that the contamination also alters "the normal growth" of the trees of the island. The nearly one-hour boat ride from the Muara Angke mangrove to the "hairy island" runs slowly through an oily, chocolate-colored sea, punctuated by an infinity of debris of all kinds floating on the surface. The title of this section wants to show that environmental pollution and degradation of nature is something more than a purely material and technical problem, the root of all evils is always the same: the immorality of human behavior. You can not expect those who do not respect ethics in other fields to respect them in this one. One of the areas where you manifest this immorality is in the corruption of the states. Indonesia ranks 111 out of 180 countries in the corruption index of the independent Transparency International group. If this fact is not taken into account, the analysis of corruption will always be insufficient or defective. 1.-Pollution in Beijing and other cities in China. 2.- China is the world's largest energy consumer. 3.-Chilling statistics. 4.- Pollution of water and land. 5.- Species in danger of extinction. 6.-Human poverty the greatest pollution. 7.-A progress marred by income inequality. 8.-China pollution and its repercussions in other countries. 9.-Small measures for a big problem. 10.-The contamination of nature and moral corruption. Pollution in China reached such extreme levels that even statues are placed on chinstraps to protect themselves. There are even parts of the north of the country that suffer their sixth day of severe pollution, so the government extended the danger zone by smog to some 400 million citizens. Beijing and Tianjin are two of the most affected cities. With his gesture, the Chinese president - accompanied by Mayor Wang Anshun - provided support to a city in which heavy pollution drives away tourism. The Chinese capital, where the orange alert is valid since last Friday, suffered yesterday the seventh consecutive day of a very high pollution: the air is full of smoke and visibility is only a few hundred meters. The hospitals were saturated with patients with respiratory, cardiac or circulation problems. Doctors warn of the consequences of smog for health, which can weaken the immune system and facilitate respiratory, cardiac or circulatory problems. The smog affected mainly patients with asthma and diseases of the heart or bronchi. According to renowned Chinese scientists, between 350,000 and 500,000 Chinese people die each year as a result of high environmental pollution. In many of the industries, modern filtering facilities are lacking. The per capita energy consumption in China and with respect to economic growth exceeds the global average by 40%. Without a doubt, the statistics produce chills. The rapid industrialization, dependent on coal energy and characterized by a low level of technology, adds to a dangerous lack of business ethics to stir an explosive cocktail that is charged a high human price. As if that were not enough, last year the Communist Party also recognized the existence of the controversial peoples of cancer. There are some 400 localities, located close to particularly polluting industries, in which the majority of its citizens die of this disease. Nationally, cancer kills one in four people, and the number of deaths due to the variant that affects the lung has shot up 465% in the last three decades. No case has better reflected this problem than that of an eight-year-old girl, resident in the eastern province of Jiangsu, who became the youngest patient in the country last year for this condition and caused a great media commotion. Thus, it is not surprising that cities such as Chengdu have decided to set up clinics specializing in problems caused by air pollution, and that in Beijing they are developing a system to release liquid nitrogen into the atmosphere and combat smog in this way. In addition, harmful substances not only attack by air, but also by sea and land. According to the government's own estimates, 64% of the aquifers are severely polluted, and something similar happens with water off the coast of the country. On the other hand, two years ago the Chinese government commissioned a detailed soil analysis. He received it last April, and decided to classify its contents as a state secret, a label that does not bode well. For the moment, in December it was made public that some 3.3 million hectares of land are too contaminated to be used for agricultural purposes. That means no less than 2% of all the arable land in the country, and many scientists estimate that it is a much lower percentage than the real one. Thus, they end up causing serious damage to the health of the population, which has no alternative but expensive imported products, "explains Zhou. But the reality is stubborn and, if the current trend continues despite titanic efforts to increase the weight of renewables and nuclear in its energy menu, the current combustion of black stone in China will double in 15 years, and not It will reach its zenith until the 2030s. Its words take shape during the three long hours of travel on impossible roads to the reserve. On both sides are new luxury developments, shopping centers, and a monotonous green desert. Near the entrance to Tianzi are still visible burns caused by the fire that, in 2011, threatened the entire project. Li is unable to contain the tears at the sight of the blackened earth, and remember the great interests that it faces. The ones that give you the most headaches are the tiger amur - there are only 20 animals left in the wild -, the snow leopard, and the dolphins of the Yangtze River. Urbanization and the deforestation linked to it are destroying them. That makes less photogenic animals at a disadvantage. This is the case of the red panda, whose project was maintained by Canon and which we had to cancel when the company stopped supporting it, "explains Fan. Starting in the 70s, especially after the implementation of the policy of reform and opening to the outside world, China established demographic policies to control population growth and raise the quality of the population. Since then, family planning has been established as a fundamental State policy. The Chinese government encourages late marriage and procreation and advocates for a couple to have only one child and reasonably plan the birth of their second child according to laws and regulations. This policy also applies to ethnic minorities. This system of control of the birth rate, launched in 1978 by the Chinese government to regularize the demographic rates of the country, favors all kinds of advantages to couples who are limited to having only one child. However, large families must pay a fee. Although the ethnic Han, the largest in China, is exempt from paying such a fee. These measures cause many problems for poor families in the countryside, who have their children, preferably with men, as labor and as "life insurance" for when they are at the end of their lives. Since 2002, this policy has been officially sweetened a bit to authorize these farm families the birth of a second child if the first is a girl or a disabled child. Selective abortion is prohibited by law, although it is practiced a lot, which leads to a significant imbalance between the number of girls and boys. The report insists that the recipe for tackling extreme poverty requires sustained economic growth at high rates and redistribution programs aimed at the most vulnerable population. Thus, Southeast Asia, with China in the lead, has dramatically reduced its poverty ratio from 80 to 14 percent. The questions about inequality and corruption worry the Communist Party, aware that China's millenary history is full of eternal dynasties that fell precipitously overnight. The previous government of Hu Jintao launched a plan still in progress in order to universalize a retirement system for 2015 and health coverage for the entire population by 2020. An average farmer should earn by the end of this decade about 12 thousand yuan or US $ 1,920 annual The problem is that the pockets of poverty that remain are much harder to fight because they are scattered and in remote places, "said Schmitt. The change was linked not only to the global crisis, but also to a new development strategy. We must maintain China's high investment rate in infrastructure, but we must put more emphasis on capital and human well-being. In China, a key sector is the millions of internal migrants. These migrants do not have access to health and education in the cities because their "Hukou" is in the countryside. China is the leading power of world trade since 2013, but its exports include contaminated air. The research, carried out by nine scientists from three different nations, affirms that every day the pollution related to the export of Chinese products to the US contributes between 12 and 24 percent to the concentration of sulphate in the western United States. It's a problem that goes way beyond them, and that could be said to have become the factory of the world, " indicates the Chilean environmentalist in interview with Reporte Indigo. Many times there is no reason to consume what comes from the other side of the planet. " Ballesteros says that he met other travelers who experienced changes in his body, such as the strange appearance of acne and dry skin, which he also attributed to dirty water. In order not to hinder production, Chinese policies have focused on the contamination of individuals. All those officials who are allowed to buy allowing the installation of polluting companies. In China, a sex scandal is often more than that, because public money is often involved. Loved lovers have been loaned to catch those who enrich themselves illegally as part of the country's fight against corruption. Take for example the case of Liu Tianan. The party official lost his job earlier this year after a former lover revealed that he had diverted $ 200 million from the banks. The anti-corruption campaign in China has targeted the so-called "tigers and flies": powerful leaders and low-level officials who defraud the nation. They are untouchable because there is no control system and counterweights in China. China's war against corruption is just like crushing flies. The leak of millions of files on the hidden fortunes of renowned members of the Chinese nomenclature uncovers a part of the gigantic network of abuses, illegalities and corruption that sustains the world's second largest economy. To truly fight corruption and clean up China's politics and economy, it is necessary - though not enough - to dismantle the single-party regime. What causes abuses is, precisely, the absence of freedom, transparency and controls. China blocks the media that disseminate the accounts of their elites in tax havens. Added to these responsibilities is a dangerous lack of business ethics to stir up an explosive cocktail that charges a high human price. It is also important to know that people's awareness of the problem of pollution is small, explained by the presence of other evils that affect them more directly such as extreme poverty, lack of all kinds of freedom, birth control tax etc. We think that if these data are valued, both positive and negative, the same reader will be able to conclude the level of responsibility of the North American State. Having said that, we will proceed according to the following index: 1.- Laws for the protection of Nature in general. 3.- US companies that also pollute outside the country. 4.-The one hundred most polluting companies in the country. 8.-To whom the contaminated are responsible. Laws that affect hazardous waste issued between 1965-1986. The origin of the Agency responds to the purpose of creating an organizational entity capable of concentrating an integrated environmental institutional framework of action in the fight against environmental pollution. If approved, in addition to California, another 12 States may regulate the emission of gases. Thus, Obama took the first steps to reverse the environmental policy of his predecessor. Also, the US president announced changes in his energy policy and said that new energies will be developed. It is considered as the first country that proposed to erect and consolidate a responsibility and an environmental policy, from the strictly environmental point of view its position is paradoxical and contradictory. This caused an ecological and economic disaster for the region. He took care of stopping the leak and being part of the cleanup, distributed billions of dollars in compensation, and faces thousands of compensation claims. A study published in Science concludes that the disappearance of the oil slick is slower than expected, being below the surface, which could pose a serious risk to marine fauna. Another study reported that 80% of crude oil has not been recovered and that the figures for oil spills could be even higher than the official ones. 2.- Since the industrial revolution there was a considerable increase in the emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide. From 1970 the subject became public conscience in the United States. 90% of ship scales in US ports are made by foreign ships. So far, large sea-going vessels that are attached to the more than 100 port cities in the United States burn "residual fuel" or "bunker", which is a major source of air pollution. 9.-Due to the vastness and depth of the oceans, until recently man believed that he could use them to dump garbage and chemical substances in unlimited quantities without this having important consequences. The sound waves can propagate for kilometers without losing intensity. 11.-The worst pollution on the planet is that which attacks man and his dignity. Our planet produces enough food for all human beings today. People suffering from hunger or malnutrition lack money to buy food, or adequate land to cultivate. If by some miracle world food production doubled next year, the situation of almost all those suffering from hunger and extreme poverty would not change, food flows in the direction of demand, not of nutritional needs. " In addition, they affirm that "we do not need new sciences or technologies to alleviate hunger and at the same time promote sustainability when we cultivate our sustenance". More than 46 million Americans live in poverty and the number of unemployed reaches almost 12 million. Of the 10 "most dangerous" multinationals, 7 are North American, let's see the reason for this rating. Several of the big oil companies would be on this list, but Chevron deserves a special place. Between 1972 and 1993, Chevron poured 18 billion gallons of toxic water into the tropical forests of Ecuador without any reparation, destroying the livelihoods of local farmers and making indigenous populations ill. Chevron was responsible for the deaths of several Nigerians who protested against the company for their presence and exploitation of the Nigerian delta. Chevron paid the local militia, known for its human rights abuses, to crush the protests, and even provided them with helicopters and ships. The military opened fire on the demonstrators, then burned their villages to the ground. They hope that from the multi-state organism they force countries like the United States to assume responsibilities. It is the largest cigarette manufacturer in the United States and the world. It is known to cause cancer in smokers, as well as birth defects in unborn children if the mother smokes during pregnancy. Cigarette butts are one of the main pollutants that smokers routinely shed; slow to degrade Many of these filters make their way into the ground or into the water, where their chemical products behave like true leeches. Its butt takes years to degrade providing the soil and water with a huge amount of toxins. The favorite drink of the world or "the milk of capitalism", accumulates demands and sanctions in several countries derived from serious pollution, bad labor practices and the use of unauthorized waters. In the production phase, the company uses almost three liters of water per liter of finished product. It contains transgenic products. It does not stop being a dangerous polluter. As if the massive use of Pfizer in animal experimentation was not heartbreaking enough, Pfizer decided to use Nigerian children as guinea pigs. Trovafloxacin was given to approximately 200 children. Dozens of them died in the experiment, while many others developed physical and mental deformities. Pfizer can also proudly claim to be among the top ten companies in the United States that cause atmospheric pollution. And let's not leave aside the millionaires "incentives" they give to doctors, and governments to prescribe their "medicines." Every year, thousands of children consume fast food from a company that is active in the deforestation of jungles, labor exploitation and the death of millions of animals: McDonald's. This advertising has been very successful in different parts of the world, contributing to high rates of childhood obesity. The food delivered by this company is totally devoid of nutrients. Chickens are fattened to the degree that their legs do not resist their weight. To establish its franchises, McDonald's acquires land at a low price in what were formerly tropical forests deforested for livestock exploitation. It offers minimum wages to its employees, taking advantage of ethnic minorities and hiring minors. They are creators and promoters of genetically modified foods, bovine growth hormones and agrotoxic poisoning. Monsanto is famous for assaulting its own farmers that it intends to "help", such as when it sued a farmer and imprisoned him for keeping the seeds of the harvest from one season to planting in the next. This was not BP's first crime against nature. In fact, between January 1997 and March 1998, BP was responsible for a whopping 104 oil spills. Thirteen drilling team workers died in 1965 during an explosion, 15 in a 2005 explosion. Also in 2005, a ferry carrying BP oil workers crashed, killing 16. Clearly, there is no way for BP to make the right thing. Here are some of those companies with the millions of pounds of toxic released into the atmosphere: 1.E. ConocoPhillips 8.04 million.4. After some recent studies, a list of the most polluted cities in the United States has been presented. This is done every year and as always the cities that appear on the list usually belong to the state of California. It responds to constitutional norms, administrative and procedural dispositions approved mainly from the second half of the 20th century. It is the Government that has subscribed fewer international legal instruments than any other, and several of those that it has signed, approved or ratified, violates them without any decorum. It is the Government that produces the most damage in all global ecosystems, including outer space and the territory of its own country. It uses wars and armed conflicts as elements of its national and international terror policy. A good number of scientists who work as officers of the different environmental departments, universities, institutes and research centers, generally express their criteria under all kinds of pressure. 1.- All citizens as consumers of products that cause some type of contamination. 2.- Polluting companies. 4.- Those who prevent the promotion of non-polluting energy sources. 5.- The government by not promoting necessary legislation and not urging compliance with existing legislation. 2.- Before all peoples, especially the poorest. 3.-Before the present generations. 4.- Before future generations. 5.-Before society for the violation of laws for this purpose emanated. These are the points that we will develop in the theme: 1.- Brazil, a country of contrasts. 2.- Deforestation as a cause of global pollution. 3.-Pollution in Brazil reaches the level of the most developed countries. 4.- Scarce system results of protected areas. 5.-The worst degradation of nature is that which affects man. 6.-The hypocrisy of the developed countries of the north. 7.-Some measures to be taken by the Brazilian society. 8.- The environmental responsibility of Brazil. Brazil is a country of contrasts. The conservation problems that Brazil faces are comparable to the importance of the country's natural resources. Brazil contains remote regions still inhabited by indigenous peoples along with two of the most populated cities in the world with all the consequent environmental problems. It has a strong and competitive modern economy, and at the same time serious problems of chronic poverty. Both have been considered by the international scientific community, ecosystems that hold important surprises for humanity thanks to their genetic characteristics and biological diversity. The Amazon rainforest is the largest in the world, and the most biologically rich. It occupies an area of ​​seven million square kilometers in nine countries, with 60% in Brazil. Currently, the Brazilian Government is spending huge amounts in the form of subsidies and tax incentives to encourage the raising of livestock, with disastrous results economically and environmentally. The volume of polluting gases emitted this year by Brazil was calculated from the data available by satellite images on deforestation. Because almost half of the forest biomass is composed of carbon, fires and forest clearing cause the release of the gases contained in the vegetation. Despite not having assumed goals in the Kyoto Protocol, the Brazilian government voluntarily committed to reduce its emissions of polluting gases by 37 percent from 2010 to 2030. The environmental expert regretted that "the environmental agenda is in the background "And asked that there be a" change in the way of life of the developed countries ", although he admitted that it is difficult to achieve it without" slowing down his progress ". Considering that the importance of the ecosystems involved in this system is well known, this problem is one of the most delicate in the country, which expects an immediate and effective solution. The misery of a considerable portion of the population and the consequent violence in all spheres of society have made poverty a matter of national emergency, which has caused the greatest consternation among the international community and has been part of the national daily debate. It is considered essential to anticipate any measure of sustainable development to the enormous pressures that natural resources will suffer through policies that they try to modify. that picture without modifying the socio-political structures that originate it. The per capita income was, however, low; it was at a level similar to that of the less disadvantaged underdeveloped countries. On the other hand, the distribution of income was very irregular, which showed a huge inequality. Even within smaller areas it was possible to observe strong contrasts in the level of life of the Brazilians: in Rio de Janeiro, within walking distance of the large luxury apartment buildings, there were areas of extreme poverty. In rural areas there was also a notable inequality. From the health point of view, malnutrition and endemic diseases have been a permanent problem. The improvement of the health situation is faced with the unfavorable environmental conditions of many areas, the isolation of the rural population and the dietary deficiencies suffered by a large part of Brazilians. The social security system was organized in 1923, but its expansion was slow and irregular until the 1960s; from then on, its coverage was extended. In this way, "everything that finds difficulties to be implanted or sold in the market is transferred to the periphery of the empire, to the margins. business center thereof. That is what the North American transnationals did with the main elements of nuclear power plants since the Harrisburg accident. The first number of immediate deaths was 2,259 people. The government of Madhya Pradesh has confirmed a total of 3,787 deaths related to the release of gas. Union Carbide has always denied its responsibility and no one has been prosecuted for the disaster. There is no alternative but to face the challenge by changing economic policies that do not respect the environment. Indeed, the survival of the planet depends on the creation of a world economy that takes into account the physical and social environment. Currently, less than a fifth of the world's energy comes from renewable sources. 4.- Protect the basins of the rivers and conserve the purity of the water for a better use of the hydrobiological resources. 6.- Develop new technologies that reduce the excessive use of agrochemicals and the accelerated increase of production costs. 7.- Promote disarmament, destroy chemical weapons and eliminate nuclear tests. 8.- Reuse and recycle waste products. The consumption of non-recyclable goods is partly responsible for the waste of fossil fuels, the pollution of air and water, and acid rain. To governments making a policy both social and ecological. To intermediate social institutions, to the media, to educational institutions, to churches etc. For the development of this objective we will follow the following index: 1.- Concept of nature. 2.- The foundation of the right of man to the use of Nature. 3.-The philosophical answer of Natural Law. 4.- The philosophical response of Positivism. 5.- The theological response of Christianity. 6.- The response from the phenomenon of evolution. 7.- Human risks in the use of nature. 8.-Human responsibility in the use of nature. 9.-To whom are those who degrade nature responsible? In this sense, each individual has an essence and a nature that corresponds to their specific way of being. Secondly, we can understand Nature as the whole, order and disposition of the existing material reality, understood as a system endowed with its own laws outside of human intervention. In this sense, Nature is formed by the set of all non-artificial beings that exist in the universe; and it is cosmos, insofar as it is a set ordered and regulated by laws. In the subject it may be necessary to use the term nature in both senses, when we speak of nature as a set of beings, we will write it in capital letters La Naturaleza. The historical reality shows us that the human person from its origins has been using Nature and all the beings that integrate it, for their own benefit. With this proviso we ask directly: does man have the right to the use of Nature for his own benefit? Positive law states that only what is written in a legal order is right. Human rights have their origin in human conventions developed throughout their history. For this type of foundation, human rights manifest those rights that are variable and relative to each historical context. These rights are held by man according to the development and evolution of society. The radical perspective offered by the Christian consideration of the world as a creature of a creator God tells us that Nature has not been loved by itself, but in function of man. Therefore, the world has no absolute value and can not be fully understood in itself, because the Creator Wisdom has not understood it by itself. This means that all the values ​​and goods of the world are values ​​and goods in relation to man. You exalted your majesty above the heavens. 3De the mouth of the children of chest you have taken a praise against your enemies, to repress the adversary and the rebel. At present most scientists admit the phenomenon of evolution and in many cases not only the biological evolution of living species but also that of all Natural reality. Applying this doctrine to the evolution of the living, we could say that biological evolution is the set of transformations or changes through time that have originated the diversity of life forms that exist on Earth from a common ancestor. Applying evolutionary theory to the origin of homo sapiens human evolution explains the process of biological evolution of the human species from its ancestors to the current state. If we except the positivist doctrine, we could accept as good the rest of the foundations among other things because all of them depart in some measure from the dignity of the human person proposing a foundation not exposed to the relativism of the positivist and historicist doctrine. At the same time, they cause greater loss of life and property than any other type of natural disaster. and through this in other catastrophic processes. According to the above, nature is, then, "for" man. We have to see the practical meaning of that "for". Man must benefit from natural resources, but without despising or mistreating the objective values ​​that are found in him. The classics expressed this balance in terms of symbiosis. Plato gave the example of the shepherd, whose art is not defined by the existence of mammals, but by the nature of the sheep. It does not matter then the animal itself, or its life, or its pain, or the decay or extinction of the species. In the first place that of the respect of the beings for the fact of being already said Second because the abuse of the nature harms the man who abuses of it. Third because it hurts other men. Fourth because it hurts future generations. Fifth because in many cases it violates the positive laws that man has given. Environmental responsibility falls on individuals, companies, countries and the human species as a whole. In environmental responsibility, the fact of "reparation for environmental damage" must also be evaluated. Part of this environmental responsibility falls on organizations, as the main sources of environmental pollution. That is why today companies must include strategies that minimize environmental impact within their programs, one of which is the policy of implementing clean technologies with zero emissions. The clean technology in a company is the technology that when applied does not produce secondary effects or transformations to the environmental balance or natural systems. 1.- Before the Creator of Nature for those who admit the data of the divine creation. 3.- Before the legal laws protecting nature. 4.- Before the other current men and peoples. 5.- Before the men and peoples of future generations. It is, therefore, the science that studies the relationships of living beings with each other and with their habitat. The living beings are in permanent contact with each other and with the physical environment in which they live. Ecology analyzes how each element of an ecosystem affects the other components and how it is affected. Ecology has reached enormous importance in recent years. Among them we can mention how the application of scientific and technological advances is carried out, so that this application does not harm nature. It is also worth mentioning the use that is made of the animal and plant species so that they remain and are not destroyed or mistreated. On the other hand, the earth is essentially a common heritage, whose fruits must be for the benefit of all. A field in which Ethics must necessarily be present in the field of the use of destructive weapons and even more in the field of their production since many of them attack frontally against nature. And the most serious ecological problem is that which directly attacks human life. 02.- Life as a couple and the love that supports it. 03.- Importance of the knowledge of the different Man-Woman for coexistence. 04.- Suggestions so that love never happens. 06.- Learning to communicate in conjugal life. 07.- The love from which conjugal fidelity flows. 08. Jealousy in marriages. The children in the life of the couple. 10.- Selfishness in the life of the couple. 16.- Education of children at puberty. The education of adolescents in the family. 18.- The education of homosexual adolescents in the family. 19.- The couple before the emancipation of the children. 20 bis.-How homosexuals can be in communion with the Church. 20.- The Relationship of Couple in Elderly. 21.- Marriage according to the Catholic Church. 22.-Some aspects referred to the divorce of the couple. 22.-Marriage according to the Jewish religion. 23.-Marriage according to the Islamic religion. Catalan separatist nationalism is immoral. c).- Nationalism discrimination factor. I).- The greatest evil of a possible human being is not being born and even more because of an induced abortion. I.- An economy at the service of man and of peoples. II.- Does the payment of taxes obligate in conscience? IV.-Influence of ethics on the success or failure of companies. United Kingdom 4th richest country Moravia 4th poorest. V.6.France 5th richest country, Haiti 5th poorest. Mexico 10 richest country, Mozambique 10 poorest. The value of knowing how to choose the orientation of your own existence. X.2.-Introduction to an essay on ethics in television. X.4.-The effects of violence on television. x.5.-Ethics in mass media advertising. X.7.-Some ethical considerations on the use of the Internet. Poverty and aging in South Korea. The poverty in Taiwan a reality whose details allow to see an overview. Error checking email. Please try again Sorry, your blog can not share posts by email.

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